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11 December 2002



The International Crisis Group (ICG) is an independent, non-profit, multinational
organisation, with over 80 staff members on five continents, working through
field-based analysis and high-level advocacy to prevent and resolve deadl
ICG's approach is grounded in field research. Teams of political analysts are
located within or close by countries at risk of outbreak, escalation or recurrence
of violent conflict. Based on information and assessments from the field, ICG
produces regular analytical reports containing practical recommendations targeted
at key international decision-takers.
ICG's reports and briefing papers are distributed widely by email and printed copy
to officials in foreign ministries and international organisations and made
generally available at the same time via the organisation's Internet site,
www.crisisweb.org. ICG works closely with governments and those who influence
them, including the media, to highlight its crisis analyses and to generate
support for its policy prescriptions.
The ICG Board - which includes prominent figures from the fields of politics,
diplomacy, business and the media - is directly involved in helping to bring ICG
reports and recommendations to the attention of senior policy-makers around the
world. ICG is chaired by former Finnish President Martti Ahtisaari; and its
President and Chief Executive since January 2000 has been former Australian
Foreign Minister Gareth Evans.
ICG's international headquarters are in Brussels, with advocacy offices in
Washington DC, New York and Paris and a media liaison office in London. The
organisation currently operates eleven field offices (in Amman, Belgrade, Bogot,
Islamabad, Jakarta, Nairobi, Osh, Pristina, Sarajevo, Sierra Leone and Skopje)
with analysts working in over 30 crisis-affected countries and territories across
four continents. 
In Africa, those countries include Burundi, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of
Congo, Sierra Leone-Liberia-Guinea, Somalia, Sudan and Zimbabwe; in Asia,
Indonesia, Myanmar, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Afghanistan and
Kashmir; in Europe, Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia; in
the Middle East, the whole region from North Africa to Iran; and in Latin America,
ICG raises funds from governments, charitable foundations, companies and
individual donors. The following governments currently provide funding: Australia,
Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, The
Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the Republic of China (Taiwan), Turkey,
the United Kingdom and the United States.
Foundation and private sector donors include The Atlantic Philanthropies, Carnegie
Corporation of New York, Ford Foundation, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, William
& Flora Hewlett Foundation, The Henry Luce Foundation, Inc., John D. & Catherine
T. MacArthur Foundation, The John Merck Fund, Charles Stewart Mott Foundation,
Open Society Institute, Ploughshares Fund, The Ruben & Elisabeth Rausing Trust,
the Sasakawa Peace Foundation and the United States Institute of Peace.
December 2002
Further information about ICG can be obtained from our website: www.crisisweb.org


The Algerian Crisis: Not Over Yet, Africa Report N24, 20 October 2000 (also
available in French)
The Civil Concord: A Peace Initiative Wasted, Africa Report N31, 9 July 2001
(also available in French)
Algeria's Economy: A Vicious Circle of Oil and Violence, Africa Report N36, 26
October 2001 (also available in French)
The Mandela Effect: Evaluation and Perspectives of the Peace Process in Burundi,
Africa Report N21, 18 April 2000 (also available in French)
Unblocking Burundi's Peace Process: Political Parties, Political Prisoners, and
Freedom of the Press, Africa Briefing, 22 June 2000
Burundi: The Issues at Stake. Political Parties, Freedom of the Press and
Political Prisoners, Africa Report N23, 12 July 2000 (also available in French)
Burundi Peace Process: Tough Challenges Ahead, Africa Briefing, 27 August 2000
Burundi: Neither War, nor Peace, Africa Report N25, 1 December 2000 (also
available in French)
Burundi: Breaking the Deadlock, The Urgent Need for a New Negotiating Framework,
Africa Report N29, 14 May 2001 (also available in French)
Burundi: 100 Days to put the Peace Process back on Track, Africa Report N33, 14
August 2001 (also available in French)
Burundi: After Six Months of Transition: Continuing the War or Winning the Peace,
Africa Report N46, 24 May 2002 (also available in French)
The Burundi Rebellion and the Ceasefire Negotiations, Africa Briefing, 6 August
Scramble for the Congo: Anatomy of an Ugly War, Africa Report N26, 20 December
2000 (also available in French)
>From Kabila to Kabila: Prospects for Peace in the Congo, Africa Report N27, 16
March 2001
Disarmament in the Congo: Investing in Conflict Prevention, Africa Briefing, 12
June 2001
The Inter-Congolese Dialogue: Political Negotiation or Game of Bluff? Africa
Report N37, 16 November 2001 (also available in French)
Disarmament in the Congo: Jump-Starting DDRRR to Prevent Further War, Africa
Report N38, 14 December 2001
Storm Clouds Over Sun City: The Urgent Need To Recast The Congolese Peace Process,
Africa Report N38, 14 May 2002 (also available in French)
Uganda and Rwanda: Friends or Enemies? Africa Report N15, 4 May 2000
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: Justice Delayed, Africa Report N30, 7
June 2001 (also available in French)
"Consensual Democracy" in Post Genocide Rwanda: Evaluating the March 2001 District
Elections, Africa Report N34, 9 October 2001
Rwanda/Uganda: a Dangerous War of Nerves, Africa Briefing, 21 December 2001
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: The Countdown, Africa Report N50,
1 August 2002 (also available in French)
Rwanda At The End of the Transition: A Necessary Political Liberalisation, Africa
Report N53, 13 November 2002 (also available in French)
Somalia: Countering Terrorism in a Failed State, Africa Report N45, 23 May 2002
Salvaging Somalia's Chance For Peace, Africa Briefing, 9 December 2002
God, Oil & Country: Changing the Logic of War in Sudan, Africa Report N39, 28
January 2002
Capturing the Moment: Sudan's Peace Process in the Balance, Africa Report N42, 3
April 2002 
Dialogue or Destruction? Organising for Peace as the War in Sudan Escalates,
Africa Report N48, 27 June 2002
Sudan's Best Chance For Peace: How Not To Lose It, Africa Report N51, 17
September 2002
Ending Starvation as a Weapon of War in Sudan, Africa Report N54, 14 November
Sierra Leone: Time for a New Military and Political Strategy, Africa Report N28,
11 April 2001
Sierra Leone: Managing Uncertainty, Africa Report N35, 24 October 2001
Sierra Leone: Ripe For Elections? Africa Briefing, 19 December 2001
Liberia: The Key to Ending Regional Instability, Africa Report N43, 24 April 2002
Sierra Leone After Elections: Politics as Usual? Africa Report N49, 12 July 2002
Liberia: Unravelling, Africa Briefing, 19 August 2002
Zimbabwe: At the Crossroads, Africa Report N22, 10 July 2000
Zimbabwe: Three Months after the Elections, Africa Briefing, 25 September 2000
Zimbabwe in Crisis: Finding a way Forward, Africa Report N32, 13 July 2001
Zimbabwe: Time for International Action, Africa Briefing, 12 October 2001
Zimbabwe's Election: The Stakes for Southern Africa, Africa Briefing, 11 January
All Bark and No Bite: The International Response to Zimbabwe's Crisis, Africa
Report N40, 25 January 2002
Zimbabwe at the Crossroads: Transition or Conflict? Africa Report N41, 22 March
Zimbabwe: What Next? Africa Report N 47, 14 June 2002
Zimbabwe: The Politics of National Liberation and International Division, Africa
Report N52, 17 October 2002

Cambodia: The Elusive Peace Dividend, Asia Report N8, 11 August 2000
Central Asia: Crisis Conditions in Three States, Asia Report N7, 7 August 2000
(also available in Russian)
Recent Violence in Central Asia: Causes and Consequences, Central Asia Briefing,
18 October 2000
Islamist Mobilisation and Regional Security, Asia Report N14, 1 March 2001 (also
available in Russian)
Incubators of Conflict: Central Asia's Localised Poverty and Social Unrest, Asia
Report N16, 8 June 2001 (also available in Russian)
Central Asia: Fault Lines in the New Security Map, Asia Report N20, 4 July 2001
(also available in Russian)
Uzbekistan at Ten - Repression and Instability, Asia Report N21, 21 August 2001
(also available in Russian)
Kyrgyzstan at Ten: Trouble in the "Island of Democracy", Asia Report N22, 28
August 2001 (also available in Russian)
Central Asian Perspectives on the 11 September and the Afghan Crisis, Central Asia
Briefing, 28 September 2001 (also available in French and Russian)
Central Asia: Drugs and Conflict, Asia Report N25, 26 November 2001 (also
available in Russian)
Afghanistan and Central Asia: Priorities for Reconstruction and Development, Asia
Report N26, 27 November 2001 (also available in Russian)
Tajikistan: An Uncertain Peace, Asia Report N30, 24 December 2001 (also available
in Russian)
The IMU and the Hizb-ut-Tahrir: Implications of the Afghanistan Campaign, Central
Asia Briefing, 30 January 2002 (also available in Russian)
Central Asia: Border Disputes and Conflict Potential, Asia Report N33, 4 April
2002 (also available in Russian)
Central Asia: Water and Conflict, Asia Report N34, 30 May 2002
Kyrgyzstan's Political Crisis: An Exit Strategy, Asia Report N37, 20 August 2002
(also available in Russian)
The OSCE in Central Asia: A New Strategy, Asia Report N38, 11 September 2002
Central Asia: The Politics of Police Reform, Asia Report N42, 10 December 2002
Indonesia's Crisis: Chronic but not Acute, Asia Report N6, 31 May 2000
Indonesia's Maluku Crisis: The Issues, Indonesia Briefing, 19 July 2000
Indonesia: Keeping the Military Under Control, Asia Report N9, 5 September 2000
(also available in Indonesian)
Aceh: Escalating Tension, Indonesia Briefing, 7 December 2000
Indonesia: Overcoming Murder and Chaos in Maluku, Asia Report N10, 19 December
Indonesia: Impunity Versus Accountability for Gross Human Rights Violations, Asia
Report N12, 2 February 2001
Indonesia: National Police Reform, Asia Report N13, 20 February 2001 (also
available in Indonesian)
Indonesia's Presidential Crisis, Indonesia Briefing, 21 February 2001
Bad Debt: The Politics of Financial Reform in Indonesia, Asia Report N15, 13
March 2001
Indonesia's Presidential Crisis: The Second Round, Indonesia Briefing, 21 May 2001
Aceh: Why Military Force Won't Bring Lasting Peace, Asia Report N17, 12 June 2001
(also available in Indonesian)
Aceh: Can Autonomy Stem the Conflict? Asia Report N18, 27 June 2001
Communal Violence in Indonesia: Lessons from Kalimantan, Asia Report N19, 27 June
2001 (also available in Indonesian)
Indonesian-U.S. Military Ties, Indonesia Briefing, 18 July 2001
The Megawati Presidency, Indonesia Briefing, 10 September 2001
Indonesia: Ending Repression in Irian Jaya, Asia Report N23, 20 September 2001
Indonesia: Violence and Radical Muslims, Indonesia Briefing, 10 October 2001
Indonesia: Next Steps in Military Reform, Asia Report N24, 11 October 2001
Indonesia: Natural Resources and Law Enforcement, Asia Report N29, 20 December
2001 (also available in Indonesian)
Indonesia: The Search for Peace in Maluku, Asia Report N31, 8 February 2002
Aceh: Slim Chance for Peace, Indonesia Briefing, 27 March 2002
Indonesia: The Implications of the Timor Trials, Indonesia Briefing, 8 May 2002
Resuming U.S.-Indonesia Military Ties, Indonesia Briefing, 21 May 2002
Al-Qaeda in Southeast Asia: The case of the "Ngruki Network" in Indonesia,
Indonesia Briefing, 8 August 2002
Indonesia: Resources And Conflict In Papua, Asia Report N39, 13 September 2002
Tensions on Flores: Local Symptoms of National Problems, Indonesia Briefing, 10
October 2002
Impact of the Bali Bombings, Indonesia Briefing, 24 October 2002
Burma/Myanmar: How Strong is the Military Regime? Asia Report N11, 21 December
Myanmar: The Role of Civil Society, Asia Report N27, 6 December 2001
Myanmar: The Military Regime's View of the World, Asia Report N28, 7 December
Myanmar: The Politics of Humanitarian Aid, Asia Report N32, 2 April 2002
Myanmar: The HIV/AIDS Crisis, Myanmar Briefing, 2 April 2002
Myanmar: The Future of the Armed Forces, Asia Briefing, 27 September 2002
Afghanistan and Central Asia: Priorities for Reconstruction and Development, Asia
Report N26, 27 November 2001
Pakistan: The Dangers of Conventional Wisdom, Pakistan Briefing, 12 March 2002
Securing Afghanistan: The Need for More International Action, Afghanistan
Briefing, 15 March 2002
The Loya Jirga: One Small Step Forward? Afghanistan & Pakistan Briefing, 16 May
Kashmir: Confrontation and Miscalculation, Asia Report N35, 11 July 2002
Pakistan: Madrasas, Extremism and the Military, Asia Report N36, 29 July 2002
The Afghan Transitional Administration: Prospects and Perils, Afghanistan
Briefing, 30 July 2002
Pakistan: Transition to Democracy?, Asia Report N40, 3 October 2002
Kashmir: The View From Srinagar, Asia Report N41, 21 November 2002

Albania: State of the Nation, Balkans Report N87, 1 March 2000
Albania's Local Elections, A test of Stability and Democracy, Balkans Briefing, 25
August 2000
Albania: The State of the Nation 2001, Balkans Report N111, 25 May 2001
Albania's Parliamentary Elections 2001, Balkans Briefing, 23 August 2001
Denied Justice: Individuals Lost in a Legal Maze, Balkans Report N86, 23 February
European Vs. Bosnian Human Rights Standards, Handbook Overview, 14 April 2000
Reunifying Mostar: Opportunities for Progress, Balkans Report N90, 19 April 2000
Bosnia's Municipal Elections 2000: Winners and Losers, Balkans Report N91, 28
April 2000
Bosnia's Refugee Logjam Breaks: Is the International Community Ready? Balkans
Report N95, 31 May 2000
War Criminals in Bosnia's Republika Srpska, Balkans Report N103, 2 November 2000
Bosnia's November Elections: Dayton Stumbles, Balkans Report N104, 18 December
Turning Strife to Advantage: A Blueprint to Integrate the Croats in Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Balkans Report N106, 15 March 2001
No Early Exit: NATO's Continuing Challenge in Bosnia, Balkans Report N110, 22 May
Bosnia's Precarious Economy: Still Not Open For Business; Balkans Report N115, 7
August 2001 (also available in Bosnian)
The Wages of Sin: Confronting Bosnia's Republika Srpska, Balkans Report N118, 8
October 2001 (also available in Bosnian)
Bosnia: Reshaping the International Machinery, Balkans Report N121, 29 November
2001 (also available in Bosnian)
Courting Disaster: The Misrule of Law in Bosnia & Herzegovina, Balkans Report
N127, 26 March 2002 (also available in Bosnian)
Implementing Equality: The "Constituent Peoples" Decision in Bosnia & Herzegovina,
Balkans Report N128, 16 April 2002 (also available in Bosnian)
Policing the Police in Bosnia: A Further Reform Agenda, Balkans Report N130, 10
May 2002 (also available in Bosnian)
Bosnia's Alliance for (Smallish) Change, Balkans Report N132, 2 August 2002 (also
available in Bosnian)
Facing Up to War Crimes, Balkans Briefing, 16 October 2001
Kosovo Albanians in Serbian Prisons: Kosovo's Unfinished Business, Balkans Report
N85, 26 January 2000
What Happened to the KLA? Balkans Report N88, 3 March 2000
Kosovo's Linchpin: Overcoming Division in Mitrovica, Balkans Report N96, 31 May
Reality Demands: Documenting Violations of International Humanitarian Law in
Kosovo 1999, Balkans Report, 27 June 2000
Elections in Kosovo: Moving Toward Democracy? Balkans Report N97, 7 July 2000
Kosovo Report Card, Balkans Report N100, 28 August 2000
Reaction in Kosovo to Kostunica's Victory, Balkans Briefing, 10 October 2000
Religion in Kosovo, Balkans Report N105, 31 January 2001
Kosovo: Landmark Election, Balkans Report N120, 21 November 2001 (also available
in Albanian and Serbo-Croat)
Kosovo: A Strategy for Economic Development, Balkans Report N123, 19 December
2001 (also available in Serbo-Croat)
A Kosovo Roadmap: I. Addressing Final Status, Balkans Report N124, 28 February
2002 (also available in Albanian and Serbo-Croat)
A Kosovo Roadmap: II. Internal Benchmarks, Balkans Report N125, 1 March 2002
(also available in Albanian and Serbo-Croat)
UNMIK's Kosovo Albatross: Tackling Division in Mitrovica, Balkans Report N131, 3
June 2002 (also available in Albanian and Serbo-Croat)
Finding the Balance: The Scales of Justice in Kosovo, Balkans Report N134, 12
September 2002 (also available in Albanian)
Macedonia's Ethnic Albanians: Bridging the Gulf, Balkans Report N98, 2 August
Macedonia Government Expects Setback in Local Elections, Balkans Briefing, 4
September 2000
The Macedonian Question: Reform or Rebellion, Balkans Report N109, 5 April 2001
Macedonia: The Last Chance for Peace, Balkans Report N113, 20 June 2001
Macedonia: Still Sliding, Balkans Briefing, 27 July 2001
Macedonia: War on Hold, Balkans Briefing, 15 August 2001
Macedonia: Filling the Security Vacuum, Balkans Briefing, 8 September 2001
Macedonia's Name: Why the Dispute Matters and How to Resolve It, Balkans Report
N122, 10 December 2001 (also available in Serbo-Croat)
Macedonia's Public Secret: How Corruption Drags The Country Down, Balkans Report
N133, 14 August 2002 (also available in Macedonian)
Moving Macedonia Toward Self-Sufficiency: A New Security Approach for NATO and the
EU, Balkans Report N135, 15 November 2002 (also available in Macedonian)
Montenegro: In the Shadow of the Volcano, Balkans Report N89, 21 March 2000
Montenegro's Socialist People's Party: A Loyal Opposition? Balkans Report N92, 28
April 2000
Montenegro's Local Elections: Testing the National Temperature, Background
Briefing, 26 May 2000
Montenegro: Which way Next? Balkans Briefing, 30 November 2000
Montenegro: Settling for Independence? Balkans Report N107, 28 March 2001
Montenegro: Time to Decide, a Pre-Election Briefing, Balkans Briefing, 18 April
Montenegro: Resolving the Independence Deadlock, Balkans Report N114, 1 August
Still Buying Time: Montenegro, Serbia and the European Union, Balkans Report
N129, 7 May 2002 (also available in Serbian)
Serbia's Embattled Opposition, Balkans Report N94, 30 May 2000
Serbia's Grain Trade: Milosevic's Hidden Cash Crop, Balkans Report N93, 5 June
Serbia: The Milosevic Regime on the Eve of the September Elections, Balkans Report
N99, 17 August 2000
Current Legal Status of the Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) and of Serbia and
Montenegro, Balkans Report N101, 19 September 2000
Yugoslavia's Presidential Election: The Serbian People's Moment of Truth, Balkans
Report N102, 19 September 2000
Sanctions against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Balkans Briefing, 10 October
Serbia on the Eve of the December Elections, Balkans Briefing, 20 December 2000
A Fair Exchange: Aid to Yugoslavia for Regional Stability, Balkans Report N112,
15 June 2001
Peace in Presevo: Quick Fix or Long-Term Solution? Balkans Report N116, 10 August
Serbia's Transition: Reforms Under Siege, Balkans Report N117, 21 September 2001
(also available in Serbo-Croat)
Belgrade's Lagging Reform: Cause for International Concern, Balkans Report N126,
7 March 2002 (also available in Serbo-Croat)
Serbia: Military Intervention Threatens Democratic Reform, Balkans Briefing, 28
March 2002 (also available in Serbo-Croat)
Fighting To Control Yugoslavia's Military, Balkans Briefing, 12 July 2002 (also
available in Serbo-Croat)
Arming Saddam: The Yugoslav Connection, Balkans Report N136, 3 December 2002
After Milosevic: A Practical Agenda for Lasting Balkans Peace, Balkans Report
N108, 26 April 2001
Milosevic in The Hague: What it Means for Yugoslavia and the Region, Balkans
Briefing, 6 July 2001
Bin Laden and the Balkans: The Politics of Anti-Terrorism, Balkans Report N119, 9
November 2001

Colombia's Elusive Quest for Peace, Latin America Report N1, 26 March 2002 (also
available in Spanish)
The 10 March 2002 Parliamentary Elections in Colombia, Latin America Briefing, 17
April 2002 (also available in Spanish)
The Stakes in the Presidential Election in Colombia, Latin America Briefing, 22
May 2002 (also available in Spanish)
Colombia: The Prospects for Peace with the ELN, Latin America Report N2, 4
October 2002 (also available in Spanish)

A Time to Lead: The International Community and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict,
Middle East Report N1, 10 April 2002 
Middle East Endgame I: Getting to a Comprehensive Arab-Israeli Peace Settlement,
Middle East Report N2, 16 July 2002 (also available in Arabic)
Middle East Endgame II: How a Comprehensive Israeli-Palestinian Settlement Would
Look, Middle East Report N3; 16 July 2002 (also available in Arabic)
Middle East Endgame III: Israel, Syria and Lebanon - How Comprehensive Peace
Settlements Would Look, Middle East Report N4, 16 July 2002 (also available in
Iran: The Struggle for the Revolutions Soul, Middle East Report N5, 5 August
Iraq Backgrounder: What Lies Beneath, Middle East Report N6, 1 October 2002
The Meanings of Palestinian Reform, Middle East Briefing, 12 November 2002
Old Games, New Rules: Conflict on the Israel-Lebanon Border, Middle East Report
N7, 18 November 2002
Voices From The Iraqi Street, Middle East Briefing, 4 December 2002
Diminishing Returns: Algeria's 2002 Legislative Elections, Middle East Briefing,
24 June 2002 

HIV/AIDS as a Security Issue, Issues Report N1, 19 June 2001
Myanmar: The HIV/AIDS Crisis, Myanmar Briefing, 2 April 2002
The European Humanitarian Aid Office (ECHO): Crisis Response in the Grey Lane,
Issues Briefing, 26 June 2001
EU Crisis Response Capability: Institutions and Processes for Conflict Prevention
and Management, Issues Report N2, 26 June 2001
EU Crisis Response Capabilities: An Update, Issues Briefing, 29 April 2002



Martti Ahtisaari, Chairman
Former President of Finland
Maria Livanos Cattaui, Vice-Chairman
Secretary-General, International Chamber of Commerce
Stephen Solarz, Vice-Chairman
Former U.S. Congressman
Gareth Evans, President & CEO
Former Foreign Minister of Australia

S. Daniel Abraham
Chairman, Center for Middle East Peace and Economic Cooperation, U.S.
Morton Abramowitz
Former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State and Ambassador to Turkey
Kenneth Adelman
Former U.S. Ambassador and Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
Richard Allen
Former U.S. National Security Adviser to the President
Saud Nasir Al-Sabah
Former Kuwaiti Ambassador to the UK and U.S.; former Minister of Information and
Louise Arbour
Supreme Court Justice, Canada; Former Chief Prosecutor, International Criminal
Tribunal for former Yugoslavia
Oscar Arias Sanchez
Former President of Costa Rica; Nobel Peace Prize, 1987
Ersin Arioglu
Chairman, Yapi Merkezi Group, Turkey 
Emma Bonino
Member of European Parliament; former European Commissioner
Zbigniew Brzezinski
Former U.S. National Security Adviser to the President
Cheryl Carolus
Former South African High Commissioner to the UK; former Secretary General of the
Victor Chu
Chairman, First Eastern Investment Group, Hong Kong
Wesley Clark
Former NATO Supreme Allied Commander, Europe
Uffe Ellemann-Jensen
Former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Denmark
Mark Eyskens
Former Prime Minister of Belgium
Marika Fahlen
Former Swedish Ambassador for Humanitarian Affairs; Director of Social
Mobilization and Strategic Information, UNAIDS
Yoichi Funabashi
Chief Diplomatic Correspondent & Columnist, The Asahi Shimbun, Japan
Bronislaw Geremek
Former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Poland
Former Prime Minister of India
HRH El Hassan bin Talal
Chairman, Arab Thought Forum; President, Club of Rome
Carla Hills
Former U.S. Secretary of Housing; former U.S. Trade Representative
Asma Jahangir
UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions; Advocate
Supreme Court, former Chair Human Rights Commission of Pakistan
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
Senior Adviser, Modern Africa Fund Managers; former Liberian Minister of Finance
and Director of UNDP Regional Bureau for Africa 
Mikhail Khodorkovsky
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, YUKOS Oil Company, Russia
Elliott F. Kulick
Chairman, Pegasus International, U.S.
Joanne Leedom-Ackerman
Novelist and journalist, U.S.
Todung Mulya Lubis
Human rights lawyer and author, Indonesia
Barbara McDougall
Former Secretary of State for External Affairs, Canada
Mo Mowlam
Former Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, UK
Ayo Obe
President, Civil Liberties Organisation, Nigeria
Christine Ockrent
Journalist and author, France
Friedbert Pflger
Chairman of the German Bundestag Committee on EU Affairs
Surin Pitsuwan
Former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Thailand
Itamar Rabinovich
President of Tel Aviv University; former Israeli Ambassador to the U.S. and Chief
Negotiator with Syria
Fidel V. Ramos
Former President of the Philippines
Mohamed Sahnoun
 Special Adviser to the United Nations Secretary-General on Africa
Salim A. Salim
Former Prime Minister of Tanzania; former Secretary General of the Organisation of
African Unity
Douglas Schoen
Founding Partner of Penn, Schoen & Berland Associates, U.S.
William Shawcross
Journalist and author, UK
George Soros
Chairman, Open Society Institute
Eduardo Stein
Former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Guatemala 
Pr Stenbck
Former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Finland
Thorvald Stoltenberg
Former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Norway
William O. Taylor
Chairman Emeritus, The Boston Globe, U.S.
Ed van Thijn
Former Netherlands Minister of Interior; former Mayor of Amsterdam
Simone Veil
Former President of the European Parliament; former Minister for Health, France
Shirley Williams
Former Secretary of State for Education and Science; Member House of Lords, UK
Jaushieh Joseph Wu
Deputy Secretary General to the President, Taiwan
Grigory Yavlinsky
Chairman of Yabloko Party and its Duma faction, Russia
Uta Zapf
Chairperson of the German Bundestag Subcommittee on Disarmament, Arms Control and

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