8l man page on Plan9

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8L(1)									 8L(1)

       0l, 5l, 6l, 8l, 9l, kl, ql, vl - loaders

       8l [ option ...	] [ file ...  ]

       These  commands load the named files into executable files for the cor‐
       responding architectures; see 8c(1) for the correspondence  between  an
       architecture  and  the  character  (6, 8, etc.) that specifies it.  The
       files should be object files or libraries (archives  of	object	files)
       for  the	 appropriate architecture.  Also, a name like -lext represents
       the library libext.a in /$objtype/lib, where objtype  is	 one  of  386,
       etc.  as	 listed	 in  8c(1).   If  the  environment  variable ccroot is
       defined, the library is sought in  $ccroot/$objtype/lib	instead.   The
       libraries must have tables of contents (see ar(1)).

       In  practice,  -l  options are rarely necessary as the header files for
       the libraries cause their archives to be included automatically in  the
       load  (see  8c(1)).  For example, any program that includes header file
       libc.h causes the loader to search the C library	 /$objtype/lib/libc.a.
       Also,  the  loader creates an undefined symbol _main (or _mainp if pro‐
       filing is enabled) to force loading of the startup linkage from	the  C

       The  order  of search to resolve undefined symbols is to load all files
       and libraries mentioned explicitly on the command  line,	 and  then  to
       resolve	remaining  symbols by searching in topological order libraries
       mentioned in header files included by files already loaded.  When scan‐
       ning  such  libraries, the algorithm is to scan each library repeatedly
       until no new undefined symbols are picked up, then to start on the next
       library.	 Thus if library A needs B which needs A again, it may be nec‐
       essary to mention A explicitly so it will be read a second time.

       The loader options are:

       -l     (As a bare option.)  Suppress the default loading of the startup
	      linkage and libraries specified by header files.

       -o out Place  output  in	 file  out.   Default is O.out, where O is the
	      first letter of the loader name.

       -p     Insert profiling code into the  executable  output;  no  special
	      action is needed during compilation or assembly.

       -e     Insert  (embedded)  tracing  code into the executable output; no
	      special action is needed during compilation  or  assembly.   The
	      added code calls at function entries and at function exits.

       -s     Strip the symbol tables from the output file.

       -a     Print the object code in assembly language, with addresses.

       -v     Print  debugging	output	that  annotates	 the activities of the

       -M     (Kl only) Generate instructions rather than calls	 to  emulation
	      routines for multiply and divide.

	      The  entry point for the binary is symbol (default _main; _mainp
	      under -p).

       -x [ file ]
	      Produce an export table in the executable.   The	optional  file
	      restricts the exported symbols to those listed in the file.  See

       -u [ file ]
	      Produce an export table, import table and a dynamic load section
	      in  the  executable.   The  optional file restricts the imported
	      symbols to those listed in the file.  See dynld(2).

       -t     (5l and vl only) Move strings into the text segment.

       -f     (5l only) Generate  VFP  hardware	 floating-point	 instructions.
	      Without	this   option,	5l  generates  arm7500	floating-point
	      instructions which are emulated in the kernel.

       -Hn    Executable header is type n.  The meaning of the types is archi‐
	      tecture-dependent;  typically  type  1 is Plan 9 boot format and
	      type 2 is the regular Plan 9 format,  the	 default.   These  are
	      reversed	on the MIPS.  The Next boot format is 3.  Type 4 in vl
	      creates a MIPS executable for an	SGI  Unix  system.   There  is
	      often  a	type  that  produces ELF or ELF64 format; 5 for ELF is
	      common.  See obj.c in the source directory for a complete list.

       -k     (ELF only) Executable is a standalone boot image or kernel.

       -Tt    The text segment starts at (virtual) address t.

       -Pt    (ELF only) The text segment starts at  physical  address	t  (by
	      default the text segment's virtual start address).

       -Dd    The data segment starts at address d.

       -Rr    The  text	 segment  is  rounded  to  a  multiple	of  r (if r is

       -Ldir  For a library reference -lext, search dir before looking in  the
	      standard	library	 directory.   If  more	than  one -L option is
	      given, directories will be searched in order of appearance.

       The numbers in the above options	 can  begin  with  or  to  change  the
       default	base  from  decimal to hexadecimal or octal.  The defaults for
       the values depend on the compiler and the header type.

       The loaded image has several symbols inserted by the loader:  etext  is
       the address of the end of the text segment; bdata is the address of the
       beginning of the data segment; edata is the address of the end  of  the
       data segment; and end is the address of the end of the bss segment, and
       of the program.

	      for -llib arguments.

       /sys/src/cmd/8l, etc.

       8c(1), 8a(1), ar(1), nm(1), db(1), prof(1)

       Rob Pike, ``How to Use the Plan 9 C Compiler''

       The list of loaders given above is only partial, not all	 architectures
       are  supported on all systems, some have been retired and some are pro‐
       vided by third parties.

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