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CPIO(1L)							      CPIO(1L)

NAME
       cpio - copy files to and from archives

SYNOPSIS
       Copy-out mode

       In  copy-out  mode, cpio copies files into an archive.  It reads a list
       of filenames, one per line, on the standard input, and writes  the  ar‐
       chive  onto the standard output.	 A typical way to generate the list of
       filenames is with the find command; you should  give  find  the	-depth
       option  to  minimize  problems with permissions on directories that are
       unreadable.  see “Options”.

       cpio {-o|--create} [-0acvABLV] [-C bytes] [-H format] [-M message]  [-O
       [[user@]host:]archive]		 [-F		[[user@]host:]archive]
       [--file=[[user@]host:]archive]	 [--format=format]    [--warning=FLAG]
       [--message=message][--null]  [--reset-access-time]  [--verbose] [--dot]
       [--append]  [--block-size=blocks]   [--dereference]   [--io-size=bytes]
       [--rsh-command=command]	 [--license]  [--usage] [--help] [--version] <
       name-list [> archive]

       Copy-in mode

       In copy-in mode, cpio copies files out of an archive or lists  the  ar‐
       chive  contents.	  It  reads  the archive from the standard input.  Any
       non-option command line arguments are  shell  globbing  patterns;  only
       files  in  the  archive whose names match one or more of those patterns
       are copied from the archive.  Unlike in the shell, an initial `.' in  a
       filename	 does match a wildcard at the start of a pattern, and a `/' in
       a filename can match wildcards.	If no patterns are  given,  all	 files
       are extracted.  see “Options”.

       cpio  {-i|--extract} [-bcdfmnrtsuvBSV] [-C bytes] [-E file] [-H format]
       [-M message]  [-R  [user][:.][group]]  [-I  [[user@]host:]archive]  [-F
       [[user@]host:]archive]  [--file=[[user@]host:]archive] [--make-directo‐
       ries]  [--nonmatching]  [--preserve-modification-time]  [--numeric-uid-
       gid]  [--rename]	 [-t|--list]  [--swap-bytes] [--swap] [--dot] [--warn‐
       ing=FLAG] [--unconditional] [--verbose] [--block-size=blocks]  [--swap-
       halfwords]  [--io-size=bytes]  [--pattern-file=file]  [--format=format]
       [--owner=[user][:.][group]]  [--no-preserve-owner]  [--message=message]
       [--force-local]	   [--no-absolute-filenames]	[--absolute-filenames]
       [--sparse]  [--only-verify-crc]	[--to-stdout]  [--quiet]   [--rsh-com‐
       mand=command]  [--license]  [--usage] [--help] [--version] [pattern...]
       [< archive]

       Copy-pass mode

       In copy-pass mode,  cpio	 copies	 files	from  one  directory  tree  to
       another,	 combining  the	 copy-out  and	copy-in steps without actually
       using an archive.  It reads the list of files to copy from the standard
       input;  the  directory  into which it will copy them is given as a non-
       option argument.	 see “Options”.

       cpio {-p|--pass-through} [-0adlmuvLV] [-R  [user][:.][group]]  [--null]
       [--reset-access-time]  [--make-directories]  [--link] [--quiet] [--pre‐
       serve-modification-time] [--unconditional] [--verbose] [--dot] [--warn‐
       ing=FLAG]  [--dereference]  [--owner=[user][:.][group]] [--no-preserve-
       owner] [--sparse]  [--license] [--usage] [--help] [--version]  destina‐
       tion-directory < name-list

DESCRIPTION
       GNU  cpio  is  a	 tool for creating and extracting archives, or copying
       files from one place to another.	 It handles a number of	 cpio  formats
       as well as reading and writing tar files.

       Following  archive formats are supported: binary, old ASCII, new ASCII,
       crc, HPUX binary, HPUX old ASCII, old tar, and POSIX.1  tar.   The  tar
       format  is provided for compatibility with the tar program. By default,
       cpio creates binary format archives, for compatibility with older  cpio
       programs.  When extracting from archives, cpio automatically recognizes
       which kind of archive it is reading and can read	 archives  created  on
       machines with a different byte-order.

OPTIONS
       `-0, --null'
	      Read a list of filenames terminated by a null character, instead
	      of a newline, so that files whose names contain newlines can  be
	      archived.	  GNU find is one way to produce a list of null-termi‐
	      nated filenames.	This option may be used in copy-out and	 copy-
	      pass modes.

       `-a, --reset-access-time'
	      Reset  the  access times of files after reading them, so that it
	      does not look like they have just been read.

       `-A, --append'
	      Append to an existing archive.  Only  works  in  copy-out	 mode.
	      The  archive  must  be  a	 disk file specified with the -O or -F
	      (-file) option.

       `-b, --swap'
	      Swap both halfwords of words and bytes of halfwords in the data.
	      Equivalent  to  -sS.   This  option may be used in copy-in mode.
	      Use this option to convert 32-bit	 integers  between  big-endian
	      and little-endian machines.

       `-B'   Set  the I/O block size to 5120 bytes.  Initially the block size
	      is 512 bytes.

       `--block-size=BLOCK-SIZE'
	      Set the I/O block size to BLOCK-SIZE * 512 bytes.

       `-c'   Identical to “-H newc”, use the new (SVR4) portable format.   If
	      you  wish	 the old portable (ASCII) archive format, use “-H odc”
	      instead.

       `-C IO-SIZE, --io-size=IO-SIZE'
	      Set the I/O block size to IO-SIZE bytes.

       `-d, --make-directories'
	      Create leading directories where needed.

       `-E FILE, --pattern-file=FILE'
	      Read additional patterns specifying filenames to extract or list
	      from  FILE.   The	 lines of FILE are treated as if they had been
	      non-option arguments to cpio.  This option is  used  in  copy-in
	      mode,

       `-f, --nonmatching'
	      Only copy files that do not match any of the given patterns.

       `-F, --file=archive'
	      Archive filename to use instead of standard input or output.  To
	      use a tape drive on another machine as the archive, use a	 file‐
	      name that starts with `HOSTNAME:'.  The hostname can be preceded
	      by a username and an `@' to access the remote tape drive as that
	      user,  if	 you  have  permission to do so (typically an entry in
	      that user's `~/.rhosts' file).

       `--force-local'
	      With -F, -I, or -O, take the archive file name  to  be  a	 local
	      file  even  if it contains a colon, which would ordinarily indi‐
	      cate a remote host name.

       `-H FORMAT, --format=FORMAT'
	      Use archive format FORMAT.  The valid formats are listed	below;
	      the  same names are also recognized in all-caps.	The default in
	      copy-in mode is to automatically detect the archive format,  and
	      in copy-out mode is `bin'.

       `bin'  The obsolete binary format.

       `odc'  The old (POSIX.1) portable format.

       `newc' The new (SVR4) portable format, which supports file systems hav‐
	      ing more than 65536 i-nodes.

       `crc'  The new (SVR4) portable format with a checksum (Sum32) added.

       `tar'  The old tar format.

       `ustar'
	      The POSIX.1 tar format.  Also recognizes GNU tar archives, which
	      are similar but not identical.

       `hpbin'
	      The  obsolete  binary  format  used by HPUX's cpio (which stores
	      device files differently).

       `hpodc'
	      The portable format used by HPUX's  cpio	(which	stores	device
	      files differently).

       `-i, --extract'
	      Run in copy-in mode.  see “Copy-in mode”.

       `-I archive'
	      Archive  filename	 to  use  instead of standard input.  To use a
	      tape drive on another machine as the  archive,  use  a  filename
	      that starts with `HOSTNAME:'.  The hostname can be preceded by a
	      username and an `@' to access the	 remote	 tape  drive  as  that
	      user,  if	 you  have  permission to do so (typically an entry in
	      that user's `~/.rhosts' file).

       `-k'   Ignored; for compatibility with other versions of cpio.

       `-l, --link'
	      Link files instead of copying them, when possible.

       `-L, --dereference'
	      Copy the file that a symbolic link points to,  rather  than  the
	      symbolic link itself.

       `-m, --preserve-modification-time'
	      Retain previous file modification times when creating files.

       `-M MESSAGE, --message=MESSAGE'
	      Print MESSAGE when the end of a volume of the backup media (such
	      as a tape or a floppy disk) is reached, to prompt	 the  user  to
	      insert a new volume.  If MESSAGE contains the string “%d”, it is
	      replaced by the current volume number (starting at 1).

       `-n, --numeric-uid-gid'
	      Show numeric UID and GID instead of translating them into	 names
	      when using the `--verbose option'.

       `--no-absolute-filenames'
	      Create  all  files  relative to the current directory in copy-in
	      mode, even if they have an absolute file name in the archive.

       `--absolute-filenames' (default)
	      Do not strip leading file name components that contain “..”  and
	      leading slashes from file names in copy-in mode

       `--no-preserve-owner'
	      Do  not  change  the ownership of the files; leave them owned by
	      the user extracting them.	 This  is  the	default	 for  non-root
	      users,  so  that users on System V don't inadvertently give away
	      files.  This option can be used in copy-in  mode	and  copy-pass
	      mode

       `-o, --create'
	      Run in copy-out mode.  see “Copy-out mode”.

       `-O archive'
	      Archive  filename	 to  use instead of standard output.  To use a
	      tape drive on another machine as the  archive,  use  a  filename
	      that starts with `HOSTNAME:'.  The hostname can be preceded by a
	      username and an `@' to access the	 remote	 tape  drive  as  that
	      user,  if	 you  have  permission to do so (typically an entry in
	      that user's `~/.rhosts' file).

       `--only-verify-crc'
	      Verify the Sum32 checksum's of each file in  the	archive,  when
	      reading a crc format archive. Don't actually extract the files.

       `-p, --pass-through'
	      Run in copy-pass mode.  see “Copy-pass mode”.

       `--quiet'
	      Do not print the number of blocks copied.

       `-r, --rename'
	      Interactively rename files.

       `-R [user][:.][group], --owner [user][:.][group]'
	      Set  the	ownership  of  all files created to the specified user
	      and/or group in copy-out and copy-pass modes.  Either the	 user,
	      the  group,  or  both, must be present.  If the group is omitted
	      but the “:” or “.” separator is  given,  use  the	 given	user's
	      login group.  Only the super-user can change files' ownership.

       `--rsh-command=COMMAND'
	      Notifies	cpio  that  is	should use COMMAND to communicate with
	      remote devices.

       `-s, --swap-bytes'
	      Swap  the	 bytes	of  each  halfword  (pair  of  bytes)  in  the
	      files.This option can be used in copy-in mode.

       `-S, --swap-halfwords'
	      Swap  the	 halfwords  of each word (4 bytes) in the files.  This
	      option may be used in copy-in mode.

       `--sparse'
	      Write files with large blocks of zeros as	 sparse	 files.	  This
	      option is used in copy-in and copy-pass modes.

       `-t, --list'
	      Print a table of contents of the input.

       `--to-stdout'
	      Extract  files  to  standard output.  This option may be used in
	      copy-in mode.

       `-u, --unconditional'
	      Replace all files, without asking whether	 to  replace  existing
	      newer files with older files.

       `-v, --verbose'
	      List  the	 files	processed, or with `-t', give an `ls -l' style
	      table of contents listing.  In a verbose table of contents of  a
	      ustar  archive,  user and group names in the archive that do not
	      exist on the local system are replaced by the names that	corre‐
	      spond locally to the numeric UID and GID stored in the archive.

       `-V, --dot'
	      Print a `.' for each file processed.

       `-W, --warning'
	      Control warning display. Currently FLAG is one of 'none', 'trun‐
	      cate', 'all'. Multiple options accumulate.

       `--license'
	      Print license and exit.

       `?, --help'
	      Give a help page similar to this manpage.

       `--usage'
	      Give a short usage message.

       `--version'
	      Print the cpio program version number and exit.

EXAMPLES
       When creating an archive, cpio takes the list of files to be  processed
       from  the  standard  input,  and then sends the archive to the standard
       output, or to the device defined by the `-F' option.  Usually  find  or
       ls  is used to provide this list to the standard input.	In the follow‐
       ing example you can see the possibilities for archiving the contents of
       a single directory.

       % ls | cpio -ov > directory.cpio

       The  `-o'  option  creates  the archive, and the `-v' option prints the
       names of the files archived as they are added.  Notice that the options
       can  be	put together after a single `-' or can be placed separately on
       the command line.  The `>'  redirects  the  cpio	 output	 to  the  file
       `directory.cpio'.

       If you wanted to archive an entire directory tree, the find command can
       provide the file list to cpio:

       % find . -print -depth | cpio -ov > tree.cpio

       This will take all the files in the current directory, the  directories
       below  and place them in the archive tree.cpio.	Again the `-o' creates
       an archive, and the `-v' option shows you the name of the files as they
       are  archived.	see “Copy-out mode”.  Using the `.' in the find state‐
       ment will give you more flexibility when doing  restores,  as  it  will
       save  file names with a relative path vice a hard wired, absolute path.
       The `-depth' option forces `find' to print of the entries in  a	direc‐
       tory  before printing the directory itself.  This limits the effects of
       restrictive directory permissions by printing the directory entries  in
       a directory before the directory name itself.

       Extracting an archive requires a bit more thought because cpio will not
       create directories by default.  Another characteristic, is it will  not
       overwrite existing files unless you tell it to.

       % cpio -iv < directory.cpio

       This  will  retrieve  the files archived in the file directory.cpio and
       place them in the present directory.  The `-i' option extracts the  ar‐
       chive  and the `-v' shows the file names as they are extracted.	If you
       are dealing with an archived directory tree, you need to use  the  `-d'
       option to create directories as necessary, something like:

       % cpio -idv < tree.cpio

       This  will take the contents of the archive tree.cpio and extract it to
       the current directory.  If you try to extract the files on top of files
       of the same name that already exist (and have the same or later modifi‐
       cation time) cpio will not extract the file unless told to do so by the
       -u option.  see “Copy-in mode”.

       In  copy-pass  mode,  cpio  copies  files  from	one  directory tree to
       another, combining the copy-out	and  copy-in  steps  without  actually
       using an archive.  It reads the list of files to copy from the standard
       input; the directory into which it will copy them is given  as  a  non-
       option argument.	 see “Copy-pass mode”.

       % find . -depth -print0 | cpio --null -pvd new-dir

       The  example shows copying the files of the present directory, and sub-
       directories to a new directory called new-dir.  Some  new  options  are
       the  `-print0'  available  with	GNU  find,  combined with the `--null'
       option of cpio.	These two options act  together	 to  send  file	 names
       between	find  and cpio, even if special characters are embedded in the
       file names.  Another is `-p', which tells cpio to  pass	the  files  it
       finds to the directory `new-dir'.

BUGS
       The  GNU	 folks, in general, abhor man pages, and create info documents
       instead.	 The maintainer of cpio falls into  this  category.  Thus this
       man  page may not be complete, nor current, and was included in the Red
       Hat CVS tree because man is a great tool :).

REPORTING BUGS
       Please report bugs via https://bugzilla.redhat.com.

SEE ALSO
       The full documentation for cpio is maintained as a Texinfo manual.   If
       the  info  and  cpio  programs are properly installed at your site, the
       command

	      info cpio

       should give you access to the complete manual. The online copy  of  the
       documentation is available at the following address:

       http://www.gnu.org/software/cpio/manual

								      CPIO(1L)
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