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SSLeay(3)	      User Contributed Perl Documentation	     SSLeay(3)

       Crypt::SSLeay - OpenSSL support for LWP


	 use LWP::UserAgent;
	 my $ua	 = LWP::UserAgent->new;
	 my $req = HTTP::Request->new('GET', '');
	 my $res = $ua->request($req);
	 print $res->content, "\n";

       This document describes "Crypt::SSLeay" version 0.57, released

       This perl module provides support for the https protocol under LWP, to
       allow an "LWP::UserAgent" object to perform GET, HEAD and POST
       requests. Please see LWP for more information on POST requests.

       The "Crypt::SSLeay" package provides "Net::SSL", which is loaded by
       "LWP::Protocol::https" for https requests and provides the necessary
       SSL glue.

       This distribution also makes following deprecated modules available:


       Work on Crypt::SSLeay has been continued only to provide https support
       for the LWP (libwww-perl) libraries.

       The following environment variables change the way "Crypt::SSLeay" and
       "Net::SSL" behave.

	 # proxy support
	 $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY} = 'http://proxy_hostname_or_ip:port';

	 # proxy_basic_auth
	 $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY_USERNAME} = 'username';
	 $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY_PASSWORD} = 'password';

	 # debugging (SSL diagnostics)

	 # default ssl version

	 # client certificate support
	 $ENV{HTTPS_CERT_FILE} = 'certs/notacacert.pem';
	 $ENV{HTTPS_KEY_FILE}  = 'certs/notacakeynopass.pem';

	 # CA cert peer verification
	 $ENV{HTTPS_CA_FILE}   = 'certs/ca-bundle.crt';
	 $ENV{HTTPS_CA_DIR}    = 'certs/';

	 # Client PKCS12 cert support
	 $ENV{HTTPS_PKCS12_FILE}     = 'certs/pkcs12.pkcs12';


       You must have OpenSSL or SSLeay installed before compiling this module.
       You can get the latest OpenSSL package from:

       On Debian systems, you will need to install the libssl-dev package, at
       least for the duration of the build (it may be removed afterwards).

       Other package-based systems may require something similar. The key is
       that Crypt::SSLeay makes calls to the OpenSSL library, and how to do so
       is specified in the C header files that come with the library.  Some
       systems break out the header files into a separate package from that of
       the libraries. Once the program has been built, you don't need the
       headers any more.

       When installing openssl make sure your config looks like:

	 ./config --openssldir=/usr/local/openssl
	 ./config --openssldir=/usr/local/ssl

       If you are planning on upgrading the default OpenSSL libraries on a
       system like RedHat, (not recommended), then try something like:

	 ./config --openssldir=/usr --shared

       The --shared option to config will set up building the .so shared
       libraries which is important for such systems. This is followed by:

	 make test
	 make install

       This way Crypt::SSLeay will pick up the includes and libraries automat‐
       ically. If your includes end up going into a separate directory like
       /usr/local/include, then you may need to symlink
       /usr/local/openssl/include to /usr/local/include


       The latest Crypt::SSLeay can be found at your nearest CPAN, as well as:

       Once you have downloaded it, Crypt::SSLeay installs easily using the
       "make" * commands as shown below.

	 perl Makefile.PL
	 make test
	 make install

	 * use nmake or dmake on Win32

       For unattended (batch) installations, to be absolutely certain that
       Makefile.PL does not prompt for questions on STDIN, set the following
       environment variable beforehand:


       (This is true for any CPAN module that uses "ExtUtils::MakeMaker").


       "Crypt::SSLeay" builds correctly with Strawberry Perl.

       For Activestate users, the ActiveState company does not have a permit
       from the Canadian Federal Government to distribute cryptographic soft‐
       ware. This prevents "Crypt::SSLeay" from being distributed as a PPM
       package from their repository. See <http://aspn.actives‐‐
       ages> for more information on this issue.

       You may download it from Randy Kobes's PPM repository by using the fol‐
       lowing command:

	 ppm install

       An alternative is to add the PPM repository to your local
       installation. See <> for
       more details.


       It is assumed that the OpenSSL installation is located at "/ssl$root".
       Define this logical to point to the appropriate place in the filesys‐

       LWP::UserAgent and Crypt::SSLeay have their own versions of proxy sup‐
       port. Please read these sections to see which one is appropriate.

       LWP::UserAgent proxy support

       LWP::UserAgent has its own methods of proxying which may work for you
       and is likely to be incompatible with Crypt::SSLeay proxy support.  To
       use LWP::UserAgent proxy support, try something like:

	 my $ua = new LWP::UserAgent;
	 $ua->proxy([qw( https http )], "$proxy_ip:$proxy_port");

       At the time of this writing, libwww v5.6 seems to proxy https requests
       fine with an Apache mod_proxy server.  It sends a line like:

	 GET HTTP/1.1

       to the proxy server, which is not the CONNECT request that some proxies
       would expect, so this may not work with other proxy servers than
       mod_proxy. The CONNECT method is used by Crypt::SSLeay's internal proxy

       Crypt::SSLeay proxy support

       For native Crypt::SSLeay proxy support of https requests, you need to
       set the environment variable "HTTPS_PROXY" to your proxy server and
       port, as in:

	 # proxy support
	 $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY} = 'http://proxy_hostname_or_ip:port';

       Use of the "HTTPS_PROXY" environment variable in this way is similar to
       "LWP::UserAgent-"env_proxy()> usage, but calling that method will
       likely override or break the Crypt::SSLeay support, so do not mix the

       Basic auth credentials to the proxy server can be provided this way:

	 # proxy_basic_auth
	 $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY_USERNAME} = 'username';
	 $ENV{HTTPS_PROXY_PASSWORD} = 'password';

       For an example of LWP scripting with "Crypt::SSLeay" native proxy sup‐
       port, please look at the eg/lwp-ssl-test script in the "Crypt::SSLeay"

       Client certificates are supported. PEM0encoded certificate and private
       key files may be used like this:

	 $ENV{HTTPS_CERT_FILE} = 'certs/notacacert.pem';
	 $ENV{HTTPS_KEY_FILE}  = 'certs/notacakeynopass.pem';

       You may test your files with the eg/net-ssl-test program, bundled with
       the distribution, by issuing a command like:

	 perl eg/net-ssl-test -cert=certs/notacacert.pem \
	   -key=certs/notacakeynopass.pem -d GET $HOST_NAME

       Additionally, if you would like to tell the client where the CA file
       is, you may set these.

	 $ENV{HTTPS_CA_FILE} = "some_file";
	 $ENV{HTTPS_CA_DIR}  = "some_dir";

       There is no sample CA cert file at this time for testing, but you may
       configure eg/net-ssl-test to use your CA cert with the -CAfile option.
       (TODO: then what is the ./certs directory in the distribution?)

       Creating a test certificate

       To create simple test certificates with OpenSSL, you may run the fol‐
       lowing command:

	 openssl req -config /usr/local/openssl/openssl.cnf \
	   -new -days 365 -newkey rsa:1024 -x509 \
	   -keyout notacakey.pem -out notacacert.pem

       To remove the pass phrase from the key file, run:

	 openssl rsa -in notacakey.pem -out notacakeynopass.pem

       PKCS12 support

       The directives for enabling use of PKCS12 certificates is:

	 $ENV{HTTPS_PKCS12_FILE}     = 'certs/pkcs12.pkcs12';

       Use of this type of certificate takes precedence over previous certifi‐
       cate settings described. (TODO: unclear? Meaning "the presence of this
       type of certificate??)

SSL versions
       Crypt::SSLeay tries very hard to connect to any SSL web server accomo‐
       dating servers that are buggy, old or simply not standards-compliant.
       To this effect, this module will try SSL connections in this order:

	 SSL v23 - should allow v2 and v3 servers to pick their best type
	 SSL v3	 - best connection type
	 SSL v2	 - old connection type

       Unfortunately, some servers seem not to handle a reconnect to SSL v3
       after a failed connect of SSL v23 is tried, so you may set before using
       LWP or Net::SSL:


       to force a version 3 SSL connection first. At this time only a version
       2 SSL connection will be tried after this, as the connection attempt
       order remains unchanged by this setting.

       Many thanks to Gisle Aas for writing this module and many others
       including libwww, for perl. The web will never be the same :)

       Ben Laurie deserves kudos for his excellent patches for better error
       handling, SSL information inspection, and random seeding.

       Thanks to Dongqiang Bai for host name resolution fix when using a

       Thanks to Stuart Horner of Core Communications, Inc. who found the need
       for building --shared OpenSSL libraries.

       Thanks to Pavel Hlavnicka for a patch for freeing memory when using a
       pkcs12 file, and for inspiring more robust read() behavior.

       James Woodyatt is a champ for finding a ridiculous memory leak that has
       been the bane of many a Crypt::SSLeay user.

       Thanks to Bryan Hart for his patch adding proxy support, and thanks to
       Tobias Manthey for submitting another approach.

       Thanks to Alex Rhomberg for Alpha linux ccc patch.

       Thanks to Tobias Manthey for his patches for client certificate sup‐

       Thanks to Daisuke Kuroda for adding PKCS12 certificate support.

       Thanks to Gamid Isayev for CA cert support and insights into error mes‐

       Thanks to Jeff Long for working through a tricky CA cert SSLClientVer‐
       ify issue.

       Thanks to Chip Turner for patch to build under perl 5.8.0.

       Thanks to Joshua Chamas for the time he spent maintaining the module.

       Thanks to Jeff Lavallee for help with alarms on read failures (CPAN bug

       Thanks to Guenter Knauf for significant improvements in configuring
       things in Win32 and Netware lands and Jan Dubois for various sugges‐
       tions for improvements.

	   If you have downloaded this distribution as of a dependency of
	   another distribution, it's probably due to this module (which is
	   included in this distribution).

	   A module that offers access to the OpenSSL API directly from Perl.
	   Pointers on where to find OpenSSL binary packages (Windows).

       For use of Crypt::SSLeay & Net::SSL with perl's LWP, please send email
       to "".

       For OpenSSL or general SSL support please email the openssl user mail‐
       ing list at "".	 This includes issues associ‐
       ated with building and installing OpenSSL on one's system.

       Please report all bugs at

       This module was originally written by Gisle Aas, and was subsequently
       maintained by Joshua Chamas. It is currently maintained by David Land‐

	Copyright (c) 2006-2007 David Landgren.
	Copyright (c) 1999-2003 Joshua Chamas.
	Copyright (c) 1998 Gisle Aas.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

perl v5.8.8			  2007-09-18			     SSLeay(3)

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