DBD::mysql man page on AIX

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DBD::mysql(3)	      User Contributed Perl Documentation	 DBD::mysql(3)

       DBD::mysql - MySQL driver for the Perl5 Database Interface (DBI)

	   use DBI;

	   $dsn = "DBI:mysql:database=$database;host=$hostname;port=$port";

	   $dbh = DBI->connect($dsn, $user, $password);

	   $drh = DBI->install_driver("mysql");
	   @databases = DBI->data_sources("mysql");
	   @databases = DBI->data_sources("mysql",
	     {"host" => $host, "port" => $port, "user" => $user, password => $pass});

	   $sth = $dbh->prepare("SELECT * FROM foo WHERE bla");
	   $sth = $dbh->prepare("LISTFIELDS $table");
	   $sth = $dbh->prepare("LISTINDEX $table $index");
	   $numRows = $sth->rows;
	   $numFields = $sth->{'NUM_OF_FIELDS'};

	   $rc = $drh->func('createdb', $database, $host, $user, $password, 'admin');
	   $rc = $drh->func('dropdb', $database, $host, $user, $password, 'admin');
	   $rc = $drh->func('shutdown', $host, $user, $password, 'admin');
	   $rc = $drh->func('reload', $host, $user, $password, 'admin');

	   $rc = $dbh->func('createdb', $database, 'admin');
	   $rc = $dbh->func('dropdb', $database, 'admin');
	   $rc = $dbh->func('shutdown', 'admin');
	   $rc = $dbh->func('reload', 'admin');


	 use strict;
	 use DBI();

	 # Connect to the database.
	 my $dbh = DBI->connect("DBI:mysql:database=test;host=localhost",
				"joe", "joe's password",
				{'RaiseError' => 1});

	 # Drop table 'foo'. This may fail, if 'foo' doesn't exist.
	 # Thus we put an eval around it.
	 eval { $dbh->do("DROP TABLE foo") };
	 print "Dropping foo failed: $@\n" if $@;

	 # Create a new table 'foo'. This must not fail, thus we don't
	 # catch errors.
	 $dbh->do("CREATE TABLE foo (id INTEGER, name VARCHAR(20))");

	 # INSERT some data into 'foo'. We are using $dbh->quote() for
	 # quoting the name.
	 $dbh->do("INSERT INTO foo VALUES (1, " . $dbh->quote("Tim") . ")");

	 # Same thing, but using placeholders
	 $dbh->do("INSERT INTO foo VALUES (?, ?)", undef, 2, "Jochen");

	 # Now retrieve data from the table.
	 my $sth = $dbh->prepare("SELECT * FROM foo");
	 while (my $ref = $sth->fetchrow_hashref()) {
	   print "Found a row: id = $ref->{'id'}, name = $ref->{'name'}\n";

	 # Disconnect from the database.

       DBD::mysql is the Perl5 Database Interface driver for the MySQL data‐
       base. In other words: DBD::mysql is an interface between the Perl pro‐
       gramming language and the MySQL programming API that comes with the
       MySQL relational database management system. Most functions provided by
       this programming API are supported. Some rarely used functions are
       missing, mainly because noone ever requested them. :-)

       In what follows we first discuss the use of DBD::mysql, because this is
       what you will need the most. For installation, see the sections on
       INSTALLATION, and "WIN32 INSTALLATION" below. See EXAMPLE for a simple
       example above.

       From perl you activate the interface with the statement

	   use DBI;

       After that you can connect to multiple MySQL database servers and send
       multiple queries to any of them via a simple object oriented interface.
       Two types of objects are available: database handles and statement han‐
       dles. Perl returns a database handle to the connect method like so:

	 $dbh = DBI->connect("DBI:mysql:database=$db;host=$host",
			     $user, $password, {RaiseError => 1});

       Once you have connected to a database, you can can execute SQL state‐
       ments with:

	 my $query = sprintf("INSERT INTO foo VALUES (%d, %s)",
			     $number, $dbh->quote("name"));

       See DBI(3) for details on the quote and do methods. An alternative
       approach is

	 $dbh->do("INSERT INTO foo VALUES (?, ?)", undef,
		  $number, $name);

       in which case the quote method is executed automatically. See also the
       bind_param method in DBI(3). See "DATABASE HANDLES" below for more
       details on database handles.

       If you want to retrieve results, you need to create a so-called state‐
       ment handle with:

	 $sth = $dbh->prepare("SELECT * FROM $table");

       This statement handle can be used for multiple things. First of all you
       can retreive a row of data:

	 my $row = $sth->fetchrow_hashref();

       If your table has columns ID and NAME, then $row will be hash ref with
       keys ID and NAME. See "STATEMENT HANDLES" below for more details on
       statement handles.

       But now for a more formal approach:

       Class Methods

	       use DBI;

	       $dsn = "DBI:mysql:$database";
	       $dsn = "DBI:mysql:database=$database;host=$hostname";
	       $dsn = "DBI:mysql:database=$database;host=$hostname;port=$port";

	       $dbh = DBI->connect($dsn, $user, $password);

	   A "database" must always be specified.

	       The hostname, if not specified or specified as '' or 'local‐
	       host', will default to a MySQL server running on the local
	       machine using the default for the UNIX socket. To connect to a
	       MySQL server on the local machine via TCP, you must specify the
	       loopback IP address ( as the host.

	       Should the MySQL server be running on a non-standard port num‐
	       ber, you may explicitly state the port number to connect to in
	       the "hostname" argument, by concatenating the hostname and port
	       number together separated by a colon ( ":" ) character or by
	       using the  "port" argument.

	       To connect to a MySQL server on localhost using TCP/IP, you
	       must specify the hostname as (with the optional

	       Enables (TRUE value) or disables (FALSE value) the flag
	       CLIENT_FOUND_ROWS while connecting to the MySQL server. This
	       has a somewhat funny effect: Without mysql_client_found_rows,
	       if you perform a query like

		 UPDATE $table SET id = 1 WHERE id = 1

	       then the MySQL engine will always return 0, because no rows
	       have changed.  With mysql_client_found_rows however, it will
	       return the number of rows that have an id 1, as some people are
	       expecting. (At least for compatibility to other engines.)

	       As of MySQL 3.22.3, a new feature is supported: If your DSN
	       contains the option "mysql_compression=1", then the communica‐
	       tion between client and server will be compressed.

	       If your DSN contains the option "mysql_connect_timeout=##", the
	       connect request to the server will timeout if it has not been
	       successful after the given number of seconds.

		If your DSN contains the option "mysql_init_command_timeout=##", then
		this SQL statement is executed when connecting to the MySQL server.
		It is automatically re-executed if reconnection occurs.

	       These options can be used to read a config file like
	       /etc/my.cnf or ~/.my.cnf. By default MySQL's C client library
	       doesn't use any config files unlike the client programs (mysql,
	       mysqladmin, ...) that do, but outside of the C client library.
	       Thus you need to explicitly request reading a config file, as

		   $dsn = "DBI:mysql:test;mysql_read_default_file=/home/joe/my.cnf";
		   $dbh = DBI->connect($dsn, $user, $password)

	       The option mysql_read_default_group can be used to specify the
	       default group in the config file: Usually this is the client
	       group, but see the following example:



	       (Note the order of the entries! The example won't work, if you
	       reverse the [client] and [perl] sections!)

	       If you read this config file, then you'll be typically con‐
	       nected to localhost. However, by using

		   $dsn = "DBI:mysql:test;mysql_read_default_group=perl;"
		       . "mysql_read_default_file=/home/joe/my.cnf";
		   $dbh = DBI->connect($dsn, $user, $password);

	       you'll be connected to perlhost. Note that if you specify a
	       default group and do not specify a file, then the default con‐
	       fig files will all be read.  See the documentation of the C
	       function mysql_options() for details.

	       As of MySQL 3.21.15, it is possible to choose the Unix socket
	       that is used for connecting to the server. This is done, for
	       example, with


	       Usually there's no need for this option, unless you are using
	       another location for the socket than that built into the

	       A true value turns on the CLIENT_SSL flag when connecting to
	       the MySQL database:


	       This means that your communication with the server will be

	       If you turn mysql_ssl on, you might also wish to use the fol‐
	       lowing flags:

	       These are used to specify the respective parameters of a call
	       to mysql_ssl_set, if mysql_ssl is turned on.

	       As of MySQL 3.23.49, the LOCAL capability for LOAD DATA may be
	       disabled in the MySQL client library by default. If your DSN
	       contains the option "mysql_local_infile=1", LOAD DATA LOCAL
	       will be enabled.	 (However, this option is *ineffective* if the
	       server has also been configured to disallow LOCAL.)

	       As of MySQL 4.1, support for multiple statements seperated by a
	       semicolon (;) may be enabled by using this option. Enabling
	       this option may cause problems if server-side prepared state‐
	       ments are also enabled.

	   Prepared statement support (server side prepare)
	       As of 3.0002_1, server side prepare statements were on by
	       default (if your server was >= 4.1.3). As of 3.0009, they were
	       off by default again due to issues with the prepared statement
	       API (all other mysql connectors are set this way until C API
	       issues are resolved). The requirement to use prepared state‐
	       ments still remains that you have a server >= 4.1.3

	       To use server side prepared statements, all you need to do is
	       set the variable mysql_server_prepare in the connect:

	       $dbh = DBI->connect(
				   { RaiseError => 1, AutoCommit => 1 }

	       * Note: delimiter for this param is ';'

	       There are many benefits to using server side prepare state‐
	       ments, mostly if you are performing many inserts because of
	       that fact that a single statement is prepared to accept multi‐
	       ple insert values.

	       To make sure that the 'make test' step tests whether server
	       prepare works, you just need to export the env variable

	       export MYSQL_SERVER_PREPARE=1

	       The option <mysql_embedded_options> can be used to pass 'com‐
	       mand-line' options to embedded server.


	       use DBI; $testdsn="DBI:mysqlEmb:database=test;mysql_embed‐
	       ded_options=--help,--verbose"; $dbh = DBI->con‐

	       This would cause the command line help to the embedded MySQL
	       server library to be printed.

	       The option <mysql_embedded_groups> can be used to specify the
	       groups in the config file(my.cnf) which will be used to get
	       options for embedded server.  If not specified [server] and
	       [embedded] groups will be used.



       Private MetaData Methods

	       my $drh = DBI->install_driver("mysql");
	       @dbs = $drh->func("$hostname:$port", '_ListDBs');
	       @dbs = $drh->func($hostname, $port, '_ListDBs');
	       @dbs = $dbh->func('_ListDBs');

	   Returns a list of all databases managed by the MySQL server running
	   on $hostname, port $port. This is a legacy method.  Instead, you
	   should use the portable method

	       @dbs = DBI->data_sources("mysql");

       Server Administration

	       $rc = $drh->func("createdb", $dbname, [host, user, password,], 'admin');
	       $rc = $drh->func("dropdb", $dbname, [host, user, password,], 'admin');
	       $rc = $drh->func("shutdown", [host, user, password,], 'admin');
	       $rc = $drh->func("reload", [host, user, password,], 'admin');


	       $rc = $dbh->func("createdb", $dbname, 'admin');
	       $rc = $dbh->func("dropdb", $dbname, 'admin');
	       $rc = $dbh->func("shutdown", 'admin');
	       $rc = $dbh->func("reload", 'admin');

	   For server administration you need a server connection. For obtain‐
	   ing this connection you have two options: Either use a driver han‐
	   dle (drh) and supply the appropriate arguments (host, defaults
	   localhost, user, defaults to '' and password, defaults to ''). A
	   driver handle can be obtained with

	       $drh = DBI->install_driver('mysql');

	   Otherwise reuse the existing connection of a database handle (dbh).

	   There's only one function available for administrative purposes,
	   comparable to the m(y)sqladmin programs. The command being execute
	   depends on the first argument:

	       Creates the database $dbname. Equivalent to "m(y)sqladmin cre‐
	       ate $dbname".

	       Drops the database $dbname. Equivalent to "m(y)sqladmin drop

	       It should be noted that database deletion is not prompted for
	       in any way.  Nor is it undo-able from DBI.

		   Once you issue the dropDB() method, the database will be gone!

	       These method should be used at your own risk.

	       Silently shuts down the database engine. (Without prompting!)
	       Equivalent to "m(y)sqladmin shutdown".

	       Reloads the servers configuration files and/or tables. This can
	       be particularly important if you modify access privileges or
	       create new users.

       The DBD::mysql driver supports the following attributes of database
       handles (read only):

	 $errno = $dbh->{'mysql_errno'};
	 $error = $dbh->{'mysql_error'};
	 $info = $dbh->{'mysql_hostinfo'};
	 $info = $dbh->{'mysql_info'};
	 $insertid = $dbh->{'mysql_insertid'};
	 $info = $dbh->{'mysql_protoinfo'};
	 $info = $dbh->{'mysql_serverinfo'};
	 $info = $dbh->{'mysql_stat'};
	 $threadId = $dbh->{'mysql_thread_id'};

       These correspond to mysql_errno(), mysql_error(),
       mysql_get_host_info(), mysql_info(), mysql_insert_id(),
       mysql_get_proto_info(), mysql_get_server_info(), mysql_stat() and
       mysql_thread_id(), respectively.

	$info_hashref = $dhb->{mysql_dbd_stats}

       DBD::mysql keeps track of some statistics in the mysql_dbd_stats
       attribute.  The following stats are being maintained:

	   The number of times that DBD::mysql successfully reconnected to the
	   mysql server.

	   The number of times that DBD::mysql tried to reconnect to mysql but

       The DBD::mysql driver also supports the following attribute(s) of data‐
       base handles (read/write):

	$bool_value = $dbh->{mysql_auto_reconnect};
	$dbh->{mysql_auto_reconnect} = $AutoReconnect ? 1 : 0;

	   This attribute determines whether DBD::mysql will automatically
	   reconnect to mysql if the connection be lost. This feature defaults
	   to off; however, if either the GATEWAY_INTERFACE or MOD_PERL
	   envionment variable is set, DBD::mysql will turn mysql_auto_recon‐
	   nect on.  Setting mysql_auto_reconnect to on is not advised if
	   'lock tables' is used because if DBD::mysql reconnect to mysql all
	   table locks will be lost.  This attribute is ignored when AutoCom‐
	   mit is turned off, and when AutoCommit is turned off, DBD::mysql
	   will not automatically reconnect to the server.

       It is also possible to set the default value of the "mysql_auto_recon‐
       nect" attribute for the $dbh by passing it in the "\%attr" hash for

       Note that if you are using a module or framework that performs recon‐
       nections for you (for example DBIx::Connector in fixup mode), this
       value must be set to 0.

	   This attribute forces the driver to use mysql_use_result rather
	   than mysql_store_result. The former is faster and less memory con‐
	   suming, but tends to block other processes. (That's why
	   mysql_store_result is the default.)

       It is possible to set the default value of the "mysql_use_result"
       attribute for the $dbh using several ways:

	- through DSN

	  $dbh= DBI->connect("DBI:mysql:test;mysql_use_result=1", "root", "");

	- after creation of database handle

	  $dbh->{'mysql_use_result'}=0; #disable
	  $dbh->{'mysql_use_result'}=1; #enable

       It is possible to set/unset the "mysql_use_result" attribute after cre‐
       ation of the statement handle. See below.

	   This attribute determines whether DBD::mysql should assume strings
	   stored in the database are utf8.  This feature defaults to off.

       When set, a data retrieved from a textual column type (char, varchar,
       etc) will have the UTF-8 flag turned on if necessary.  This enables
       character semantics on that string.  You will also need to ensure that
       your database / table / column is configured to use UTF8.  See Chapter
       10 of the mysql manual for details.

       Additionally, turning on this flag tells MySQL that incoming data
       should be treated as UTF-8.  This will only take effect if used as part
       of the call to connect().  If you turn the flag on after connecting,
       you will need to issue the command "SET NAMES utf8" to get the same

       This option is experimental and may change in future versions.

	   This attribute causes the driver (emulated prepare statements) to
	   attempt to guess if a value being bound is a numeric value, and if
	   so, doesn't quote the value.	 This was created by Dragonchild and
	   is one way to deal with the performance issue of using quotes in a
	   statement that is inserting or updating a large numeric value. This
	   was previously called "unsafe_bind_type_guessing" because it is
	   experimental. I have successfully run the full test suite with this
	   option turned on, the name can now be simply

       CAVEAT: Even though you can insert an integer value into a character
       column, if this column is indexed, if you query that column with the
       integer value not being quoted, it will not use the index:

       MariaDB [test]> explain select * from test where value0 = '3' \G
       *************************** 1. row ***************************
		  id: 1
	 select_type: SIMPLE
	       table: test
		type: ref possible_keys: value0
		 key: value0
	     key_len: 13
		 ref: const
		rows: 1
	       Extra: Using index condition 1 row in set (0.00 sec)

       MariaDB [test]> explain select * from test where value0 = 3
	   -> \G *************************** 1. row
		  id: 1
	 select_type: SIMPLE
	       table: test
		type: ALL possible_keys: value0
		 key: NULL
	     key_len: NULL
		 ref: NULL
		rows: 6
	       Extra: Using where 1 row in set (0.00 sec)

       See bug: https://rt.cpan.org/Ticket/Display.html?id=43822

       "mysql_bind_type_guessing" can be turned on via

	- through DSN

	 my $dbh= DBI->connect('DBI:mysql:test', 'username', 'pass',
	 { mysql_bind_type_guessing => 1})

	 - OR after handle creation

	 $dbh->{mysql_bind_type_guessing} = 1;

	   This attribute causes the driver (emulated prepare statements) will
	   cause any placeholders in comments to be bound. This is not correct
	   prepared statement behavior, but some developers have come to
	   depend on this behavior, so I have made it available in 4.015

	   This attribute causes the driver to not issue 'set autocommit'
	   either through explicit or using mysql_autocommit(). This is par‐
	   ticularly useful in the case of using MySQL Proxy.

       See the bug report:


       As well as:


       "mysql_no_autocommit_cmd" can be turned on via

	- through DSN

	 my $dbh= DBI->connect('DBI:mysql:test', 'username', 'pass',
	 { mysql_no_autocommit_cmd => 1})

	 - OR after handle creation

	 $dbh->{mysql_no_autocommit_cmd} = 1;

       The statement handles of DBD::mysql support a number of attributes. You
       access these by using, for example,

	 my $numFields = $sth->{'NUM_OF_FIELDS'};

       Note, that most attributes are valid only after a successfull execute.
       An "undef" value will returned in that case. The most important excep‐
       tion is the "mysql_use_result" attribute: This forces the driver to use
       mysql_use_result rather than mysql_store_result. The former is faster
       and less memory consuming, but tends to block other processes. (That's
       why mysql_store_result is the default.)

       To set the "mysql_use_result" attribute, use either of the following:

	 my $sth = $dbh->prepare("QUERY", { "mysql_use_result" => 1});


	 my $sth = $dbh->prepare("QUERY");
	 $sth->{"mysql_use_result"} = 1;

       Column dependent attributes, for example NAME, the column names, are
       returned as a reference to an array. The array indices are correspond‐
       ing to the indices of the arrays returned by fetchrow and similar meth‐
       ods. For example the following code will print a header of table names
       together with all rows:

	 my $sth = $dbh->prepare("SELECT * FROM $table");
	 if (!$sth) {
	     die "Error:" . $dbh->errstr . "\n";
	 if (!$sth->execute) {
	     die "Error:" . $sth->errstr . "\n";
	 my $names = $sth->{'NAME'};
	 my $numFields = $sth->{'NUM_OF_FIELDS'};
	 for (my $i = 0;  $i < $numFields;  $i++) {
	     printf("%s%s", $i ? "," : "", $$names[$i]);
	 print "\n";
	 while (my $ref = $sth->fetchrow_arrayref) {
	     for (my $i = 0;  $i < $numFields;	$i++) {
		 printf("%s%s", $i ? "," : "", $$ref[$i]);
	     print "\n";

       For portable applications you should restrict yourself to attributes
       with capitalized or mixed case names. Lower case attribute names are
       private to DBD::mysql. The attribute list includes:

	   this attribute determines whether a fetchrow will chop preceding
	   and trailing blanks off the column values. Chopping blanks does not
	   have impact on the max_length attribute.

	   MySQL has the ability to choose unique key values automatically. If
	   this happened, the new ID will be stored in this attribute. An
	   alternative way for accessing this attribute is via
	   $dbh->{'mysql_insertid'}.  (Note we are using the $dbh in this

	   Reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates, that the
	   respective column is a blob. This attribute is valid for MySQL

	   Reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates, that the
	   respective column is a key. This is valid for MySQL only.

	   Reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates, that the
	   respective column contains numeric values.

	   Reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates, that the
	   respective column is a primary key.

	   Reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates that the
	   respective column is an AUTO_INCREMENT column.  This is only valid
	   for MySQL.

	   A reference to an array of maximum column sizes. The max_length is
	   the maximum physically present in the result table, length gives
	   the theoretically possible maximum. max_length is valid for MySQL

	   List information of the MySQL client library that DBD::mysql was
	   built against:

	   print "$dbh->{mysql_clientinfo}\n";


	   print "$dbh->{mysql_clientversion}\n";


	   print "$dbh->{mysql_serverversion}\n";


	   A reference to an array of column names.

	   A reference to an array of boolean values; TRUE indicates that this
	   column may contain NULL's.

	   Number of fields returned by a SELECT or LISTFIELDS statement.  You
	   may use this for checking whether a statement returned a result: A
	   zero value indicates a non-SELECT statement like INSERT, DELETE or

	   A reference to an array of table names, useful in a JOIN result.

	   A reference to an array of column types. The engine's native column
	   types are mapped to portable types like DBI::SQL_INTEGER() or
	   DBI::SQL_VARCHAR(), as good as possible. Not all native types have
	   a meaningfull equivalent, for example DBD::mysql::FIELD_TYPE_INTER‐
	   VAL is mapped to DBI::SQL_VARCHAR().	 If you need the native column
	   types, use mysql_type. See below.

	   A reference to an array of MySQL's native column types, for example
	   DBD::mysql::FIELD_TYPE_SHORT() or DBD::mysql::FIELD_TYPE_STRING().
	   Use the TYPE attribute, if you want portable types like

	   Similar to mysql, but type names and not numbers are returned.
	   Whenever possible, the ANSI SQL name is preferred.

	   The number of warnings generated during execution of the SQL state‐

       Beginning with DBD::mysql 2.0416, transactions are supported.  The
       transaction support works as follows:

       ·   By default AutoCommit mode is on, following the DBI specifications.

       ·   If you execute

	       $dbh->{'AutoCommit'} = 0;


	       $dbh->{'AutoCommit'} = 1;

	   then the driver will set the MySQL server variable autocommit to 0
	   or 1, respectively. Switching from 0 to 1 will also issue a COMMIT,
	   following the DBI specifications.

       ·   The methods


	   will issue the commands COMMIT and ROLLBACK, respectively. A ROLL‐
	   BACK will also be issued if AutoCommit mode is off and the database
	   handles DESTROY method is called. Again, this is following the DBI

       Given the above, you should note the following:

       ·   You should never change the server variable autocommit manually,
	   unless you are ignoring DBI's transaction support.

       ·   Switching AutoCommit mode from on to off or vice versa may fail.
	   You should always check for errors, when changing AutoCommit mode.
	   The suggested way of doing so is using the DBI flag RaiseError.  If
	   you don't like RaiseError, you have to use code like the following:

	     $dbh->{'AutoCommit'} = 0;
	     if ($dbh->{'AutoCommit'}) {
	       # An error occurred!

       ·   If you detect an error while changing the AutoCommit mode, you
	   should no longer use the database handle. In other words, you
	   should disconnect and reconnect again, because the transaction mode
	   is unpredictable. Alternatively you may verify the transaction mode
	   by checking the value of the server variable autocommit.  However,
	   such behaviour isn't portable.

       ·   DBD::mysql has a "reconnect" feature that handles the so-called
	   MySQL "morning bug": If the server has disconnected, most probably
	   due to a timeout, then by default the driver will reconnect and
	   attempt to execute the same SQL statement again. However, this be‐
	   haviour is disabled when AutoCommit is off: Otherwise the transac‐
	   tion state would be completely unpredictable after a reconnect.

       ·   The "reconnect" feature of DBD::mysql can be toggled by using the
	   mysql_auto_reconnect attribute. This behaviour should be turned off
	   in code that uses LOCK TABLE because if the database server time
	   out and DBD::mysql reconnect, table locks will be lost without any
	   indication of such loss.

	   As of version 3.0002_5, DBD::mysql supports multiple result sets
	   (Thanks to Guy Harrison!). This is the first release of this func‐
	   tionality, so there may be issues. Please report bugs if you run
	   into them!

	   The basic usage of multiple result sets is

	       while (@row= $sth->fetchrow_array())
		 do stuff;
	     } while ($sth->more_results)

	   An example would be:

	     $dbh->do("drop procedure if exists someproc") or print $DBI::errstr;

	     $dbh->do("create procedure somproc() deterministic
	      declare a,b,c,d int;
	      set a=1;
	      set b=2;
	      set c=3;
	      set d=4;
	      select a, b, c, d;
	      select d, c, b, a;
	      select b, a, c, d;
	      select c, b, d, a;
	     end") or print $DBI::errstr;

	     $sth=$dbh->prepare('call someproc()') ⎪⎪
	     die $DBI::err.": ".$DBI::errstr;

	     $sth->execute ⎪⎪ die DBI::err.": ".$DBI::errstr; $rowset=0;
	     do {
	       print "\nRowset ".++$i."\n---------------------------------------\n\n";
	       foreach $colno (0..$sth->{NUM_OF_FIELDS}) {
		 print $sth->{NAME}->[$colno]."\t";
	       print "\n";
	       while (@row= $sth->fetchrow_array())  {
		 foreach $field (0..$#row) {
		   print $row[$field]."\t";
		 print "\n";
	     } until (!$sth->more_results)

	   For more examples, please see the eg/ directory. This is where
	   helpful DBD::mysql code snippits will be added in the future.

	   Issues with Multiple result sets

	   So far, the main issue is if your result sets are "jagged", mean‐
	   ing, the number of columns of your results vary. Varying numbers of
	   columns could result in your script crashing. This is something
	   that will be fixed soon.

       The multithreading capabilities of DBD::mysql depend completely on the
       underlying C libraries: The modules are working with handle data only,
       no global variables are accessed or (to the best of my knowledge)
       thread unsafe functions are called. Thus DBD::mysql is believed to be
       completely thread safe, if the C libraries are thread safe and you
       don't share handles among threads.

       The obvious question is: Are the C libraries thread safe?  In the case
       of MySQL the answer is "mostly" and, in theory, you should be able to
       get a "yes", if the C library is compiled for being thread safe (By
       default it isn't.) by passing the option -with-thread-safe-client to
       configure. See the section on How to make a threadsafe client in the

       You can make a single asynchronous query per MySQL connection; this
       allows you to submit a long-running query to the server and have an
       event loop inform you when it's ready.  An asynchronous query is
       started by either setting the 'async' attribute to a truthy value in
       the "do" in DBI method, or in the "prepare" in DBI method.  Statements
       created with 'async' set to true in prepare always run their queries
       asynchronously when "execute" in DBI is called.	The driver also offers
       three additional methods: "mysql_async_result", "mysql_async_ready",
       and "mysql_fd".	"mysql_async_result" returns what do or execute would
       have; that is, the number of rows affected.  "mysql_async_ready"
       returns true if "mysql_async_result" will not block, and zero other‐
       wise.  They both return "undef" if that handle is not currently running
       an asynchronous query.  "mysql_fd" returns the file descriptor number
       for the MySQL connection; you can use this in an event loop.

       Here's an example of how to use the asynchronous query interface:

	 use feature 'say';
	 $dbh->do('SELECT SLEEP(10)', { async => 1 });
	 until($dbh->mysql_async_ready) {
	   say 'not ready yet!';
	   sleep 1;
	 my $rows = $dbh->mysql_async_result;

       Windows users may skip this section and pass over to "WIN32 INSTALLA‐
       TION" below. Others, go on reading.

       Environment Variables

       For ease of use, you can now set environment variables for DBD::mysql
       installation. You can set any or all of the options, and export them by
       putting them in your .bashrc or the like:

	   export DBD_MYSQL_CFLAGS=-I/usr/local/mysql/include/mysql
	   export DBD_MYSQL_LIBS="-L/usr/local/mysql/lib/mysql -lmysqlclient"
	   export DBD_MYSQL_CONFIG=mysql_config
	   export DBD_MYSQL_SSL=
	   export DBD_MYSQL_TESTDB=test
	   export DBD_MYSQL_TESTHOST=localhost
	   export DBD_MYSQL_TESTPASSWORD=s3kr1+
	   export DBD_MYSQL_TESTPORT=3306
	   export DBD_MYSQL_TESTUSER=me

       The most useful may be the host, database, port, socket, user, and

       Installation will first look to your mysql_config, and then your envi‐
       ronment variables, and then it will guess with intelligent defaults.

       Installing with CPAN

       First of all, you do not need an installed MySQL server for installing
       DBD::mysql. However, you need at least the client libraries and possi‐
       bly the header files, if you are compiling DBD::mysql from source. In
       the case of MySQL you can create a client-only version by using the
       configure option --without-server.  If you are using precompiled bina‐
       ries, then it may be possible to use just selected RPM's like MySQL-
       client and MySQL-devel or something similar, depending on the distribu‐

       First you need to install the DBI module. For using dbimon, a simple
       DBI shell it is recommended to install Data::ShowTable another Perl

       I recommend trying automatic installation via the CPAN module. Try

	 perl -MCPAN -e shell

       If you are using the CPAN module for the first time, it will prompt you
       a lot of questions. If you finally receive the CPAN prompt, enter

	 install Bundle::DBD::mysql

       Manual Installation

       If this fails (which may be the case for a number of reasons, for exam‐
       ple because you are behind a firewall or don't have network access),
       you need to do a manual installation. First of all you need to fetch
       the modules from CPAN search


       The following modules are required


       Then enter the following commands (note - versions are just examples):

	 gzip -cd DBI-(version).tar.gz ⎪ tar xf -
	 cd DBI-(version)
	 perl Makefile.PL
	 make test
	 make install

	 cd ..
	 gzip -cd Data-ShowTable-(version).tar.gz ⎪ tar xf -
	 cd Data-ShowTable-3.3
	 perl Makefile.PL
	 make install

	 cd ..
	 gzip -cd DBD-mysql-(version)-tar.gz ⎪ tar xf -
	 cd DBD-mysql-(version)
	 perl Makefile.PL
	 make test
	 make install

       During "perl Makefile.PL" you will be prompted some questions.  Other
       questions are the directories with header files and libraries.  For
       example, of your file mysql.h is in /usr/include/mysql/mysql.h, then
       enter the header directory /usr, likewise for /usr/lib/mysql/libmysql‐
       client.a or /usr/lib/libmysqlclient.so.

       If you are using ActivePerl, you may use ppm to install DBD-mysql.  For
       Perl 5.6, upgrade to Build 623 or later, then it is sufficient to run

	 ppm install DBI
	 ppm install DBD::mysql

       If you need an HTTP proxy, you might need to set the environment vari‐
       able http_proxy, for example like this:

	 set http_proxy=http://myproxy.com:8080/

       As of this writing, DBD::mysql is missing in the ActivePerl 5.8.0
       repository. However, Randy Kobes has kindly donated an own distribution
       and the following might succeed:

	 ppm install http://theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca/ppms/DBD-mysql.ppd

       Otherwise you definitely *need* a C compiler. And it *must* be the same
       compiler that was being used for compiling Perl itself. If you don't
       have a C compiler, the file README.win32 from the Perl source distribu‐
       tion tells you where to obtain freely distributable C compilers like
       egcs or gcc. The Perl sources are available via CPAN search


       I recommend using the win32clients package for installing DBD::mysql
       under Win32, available for download on www.tcx.se. The following steps
       have been required for me:

       -   The current Perl versions (5.6, as of this writing) do have a prob‐
	   lem with detecting the C libraries. I recommend to apply the fol‐
	   lowing patch:

	     *** c:\Perl\lib\ExtUtils\Liblist.pm.orig Sat Apr 15 20:03:40 2000
	     --- c:\Perl\lib\ExtUtils\Liblist.pm      Sat Apr 15 20:03:45 2000
	     *** 230,235 ****
	     --- 230,239 ----
		 # add "$Config{installarchlib}/CORE" to default search path
		 push @libpath, "$Config{installarchlib}/CORE";

	     +	   if ($VC  and	 exists($ENV{LIB})  and	 defined($ENV{LIB})) {
	     +	     push(@libpath, split(/;/, $ENV{LIB}));
	     +	   }
		 foreach (Text::ParseWords::quotewords('\s+', 0, $potential_libs)){

		   $thislib = $_;

       -   Extract sources into C:\. This will create a directory C:\mysql
	   with subdirectories include and lib.

	   IMPORTANT: Make sure this subdirectory is not shared by other TCX
	   files! In particular do *not* store the MySQL server in the same
	   directory. If the server is already installed in C:\mysql, choose a
	   location like C:\tmp, extract the win32clients there.  Note that
	   you can remove this directory entirely once you have installed

       -   Extract the DBD::mysql sources into another directory, for example

       -   Open a DOS shell and change directory to C:\src\siteperl.

       -   The next step is only required if you repeat building the modules:
	   Make sure that you have a clean build tree by running

	     nmake realclean

	   If you don't have VC++, replace nmake with your flavour of make. If
	   error messages are reported in this step, you may safely ignore

       -   Run

	     perl Makefile.PL

	   which will prompt you for some settings. The really important ones

	     Which DBMS do you want to use?

	   enter a 1 here (MySQL only), and

	     Where is your mysql installed? Please tell me the directory that
	     contains the subdir include.

	   where you have to enter the win32clients directory, for example
	   C:\mysql or C:\tmp\mysql.

       -   Continued in the usual way:

	     nmake install

	   If you want to create a PPM package for the ActiveState Perl ver‐
	   sion, then modify the above steps as follows: Run

	     perl Makefile.PL NAME=DBD-mysql BINARY_LOCATION=DBD-mysql.tar.gz
	     nmake ppd

	   Once that is done, use tar and gzip (for example those from the
	   CygWin32 distribution) to create an archive:

	     mkdir x86
	     tar cf x86/DBD-mysql.tar blib
	     gzip x86/DBD-mysql.tar

	   Put the files x86/DBD-mysql.tar.gz and DBD-mysql.ppd onto some WWW
	   server and install them by typing

	     install http://your.server.name/your/directory/DBD-mysql.ppd

	   in the PPM program.

       Originally, there was a non-DBI driver, Mysql, which was much like PHP
       drivers such as mysql and mysqli. The Mysql module was originally writ‐
       ten by Andreas K�nig <koenig@kulturbox.de> who still, to this day, con‐
       tributes patches to DBD::mysql. An emulated version of Mysql was pro‐
       vided to DBD::mysql from Jochen Wiedmann, but eventually deprecated as
       it was another bundle of code to maintain.

       The first incarnation of DBD::mysql was developed by Alligator
       Descartes, who was also aided and abetted by Gary Shea, Andreas K�nig
       and Tim Bunce.

       The current incarnation of DBD::mysql was written by Jochen Wiedmann,
       then numerous changes and bug-fixes were added by Rudy Lippan. Next,
       prepared statement support was added by Patrick Galbraith and Alexy
       Stroganov (who also soley added embedded server support).

       For the past seven years DBD::mysql has been maintained by Patrick Gal‐
       braith (patg@patg.net) along with the entire community of Perl develop‐
       ers who keep sending patches and making Patrick's job easier.

       Anyone who desires to contribute to this project is encouraged to do
       so.  Currently, the sourcecode for this project can be found at Github:


       Either fork this repository and produce a branch with your changeset
       that the maintainer can merge to his tree, or create a diff with git.
       The maintainer is more than glad to take contributions from the commu‐
       nity as many features and fixes from DBD::mysql have come from the com‐

       This module is Large Portions Copyright (c) 2004-2010 Patrick Galbraith
       Large Portions Copyright (c) 2004-2006 Alexey Stroganov Large Portions
       Copyright (c) 2003-2005 Rudolf Lippan Large Portions Copyright (c)
       1997-2003 Jochen Wiedmann, with code portions Copyright (c)1994-1997
       their original authors This module is released under the same license
       as Perl itself. See the Perl README for details.

       This module is maintained and supported on a mailing list,


       To subscribe to this list, go to


       Mailing list archives are available at


       Additionally you might try the dbi-user mailing list for questions
       about DBI and its modules in general. Subscribe via


       Mailing list archives are at


       Also, the main DBI site is at


       And source:


       Additional information on the DBI project can be found on the World
       Wide Web at the following URL:


       where documentation, pointers to the mailing lists and mailing list ar‐
       chives and pointers to the most current versions of the modules can be

       Information on the DBI interface itself can be gained by typing:

	   perldoc DBI

       right now!

       Please report bugs, including all the information needed such as
       DBD::mysql version, MySQL version, OS type/version, etc to this link:


perl v5.8.8			  2012-04-28			 DBD::mysql(3)
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