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DU(1P)			   POSIX Programmer's Manual			DU(1P)

       This  manual  page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux
       implementation of this interface may differ (consult the	 corresponding
       Linux  manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may
       not be implemented on Linux.

       du — estimate file space usage

       du [−a|−s] [−kx] [−H|−L] [file...]

       By default, the du utility shall write to standard output the  size  of
       the  file  space allocated to, and the size of the file space allocated
       to each subdirectory of, the file hierarchy rooted in each of the spec‐
       ified  files.  By  default,  when a symbolic link is encountered on the
       command line or in the file hierarchy, du shall count the size  of  the
       symbolic	 link (rather than the file referenced by the link), and shall
       not follow the link to another portion of the file hierarchy. The  size
       of  the	file  space  allocated	to  a  file of type directory shall be
       defined as the sum total of space allocated to all files	 in  the  file
       hierarchy  rooted  in  the  directory  plus  the space allocated to the
       directory itself.

       When du cannot stat() files or stat() or	 read  directories,  it	 shall
       report  an error condition and the final exit status is affected. Files
       with multiple links shall be counted and written for  only  one	entry.
       The  directory  entry that is selected in the report is unspecified. By
       default, file sizes shall be written in 512-byte units, rounded	up  to
       the next 512-byte unit.

       The  du	utility	 shall	conform	 to  the  Base	Definitions  volume of
       POSIX.1‐2008, Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

       The following options shall be supported:

       −a	 In addition to the default output, report the	size  of  each
		 file  not  of	type directory in the file hierarchy rooted in
		 the specified file.  Regardless of the	 presence  of  the  −a
		 option,  non-directories  given as file operands shall always
		 be listed.

       −H	 If a symbolic link is specified on the command line, du shall
		 count	the  size  of the file or file hierarchy referenced by
		 the link.

       −k	 Write the files sizes in units of 1024 bytes, rather than the
		 default 512-byte units.

       −L	 If  a	symbolic  link	is  specified  on  the command line or
		 encountered during the traversal  of  a  file	hierarchy,  du
		 shall count the size of the file or file hierarchy referenced
		 by the link.

       −s	 Instead of the default output, report only the total sum  for
		 each of the specified files.

       −x	 When  evaluating  file	 sizes, evaluate only those files that
		 have the same device as the file specified by the file	 oper‐

       Specifying  more	 than  one of the mutually-exclusive options −H and −L
       shall not be considered an  error.  The	last  option  specified	 shall
       determine the behavior of the utility.

       The following operand shall be supported:

       file	 The  pathname	of  a  file whose size is to be written. If no
		 file is specified, the current directory shall be used.

       Not used.


       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of du:

       LANG	 Provide a default value for  the  internationalization	 vari‐
		 ables	that are unset or null. (See the Base Definitions vol‐
		 ume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 8.2, Internationalization	 Vari‐
		 ables	for  the  precedence of internationalization variables
		 used to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL	 If set to a non-empty string value, override  the  values  of
		 all the other internationalization variables.

       LC_CTYPE	 Determine  the	 locale for the interpretation of sequences of
		 bytes of text data as characters (for example, single-byte as
		 opposed to multi-byte characters in arguments).

		 Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format
		 and contents  of  diagnostic  messages	 written  to  standard

       NLSPATH	 Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing


       The output from du shall consist of the amount of space allocated to  a
       file and the name of the file, in the following format:

	   "%d %s\n", <size>, <pathname>

       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.



       The following exit values shall be returned:

	0    Successful completion.

       >0    An error occurred.


       The following sections are informative.



       The use of 512-byte units is historical practice and maintains compati‐
       bility with ls and other utilities in this volume of POSIX.1‐2008. This
       does  not  mandate  that	 the  file  system itself be based on 512-byte
       blocks. The −k option was added as a compromise measure. It was	agreed
       by  the	standard  developers  that 512 bytes was the best default unit
       because of its complete historical consistency on System V (versus  the
       mixed  512/1024-byte  usage  on	BSD  systems), and that a −k option to
       switch to 1024-byte units was a good compromise. Users who  prefer  the
       1024-byte  quantity  can	 easily alias du to du −k without breaking the
       many historical scripts relying on the 512-byte units.

       The −b option was added to an early proposal to provide a resolution to
       the  situation  where  System  V	 and BSD systems give figures for file
       sizes in blocks, which is an implementation-defined concept. (In common
       usage,  the block size is 512 bytes for System V and 1024 bytes for BSD
       systems.)  However, −b was later deleted, since the default was eventu‐
       ally decided as 512-byte units.

       Historical file systems provided no way to obtain exact figures for the
       space allocation given to files. There are two known areas of inaccura‐
       cies in historical file systems: cases of indirect blocks being used by
       the file system or sparse files yielding incorrectly  high  values.  An
       indirect	 block	is space used by the file system in the storage of the
       file, but that need not be counted in the space allocated to the	 file.
       A  sparse file is one in which an lseek() call has been made to a posi‐
       tion beyond the end of the file and data has subsequently been  written
       at  that	 point.	 A  file  system need not allocate all the intervening
       zero-filled blocks to such a file. It is up to  the  implementation  to
       define exactly how accurate its methods are.

       The  −a	and −s options were mutually-exclusive in the original version
       of du.  The POSIX Shell and Utilities description  is  implied  by  the
       language	 in the SVID where −s is described as causing ``only the grand
       total'' to be reported. Some systems may produce output for −sa, but  a
       Strictly	 Conforming  POSIX  Shell and Utilities Application cannot use
       that combination.

       The −a and −s options were adopted from the SVID except that the System
       V behavior of not listing non-directories explicitly given as operands,
       unless the −a option is specified, was considered a bug; the  BSD-based
       behavior (report for all operands) is mandated. The default behavior of
       du in the SVID with regard to reporting the failure to read  files  (it
       produces no messages) was considered counter-intuitive, and thus it was
       specified that the POSIX Shell and Utilities default behavior shall  be
       to  produce  such messages. These messages can be turned off with shell
       redirection to achieve the System V behavior.

       The −x option is historical practice on recent BSD systems. It has been
       adopted	by this volume of POSIX.1‐2008 because there was no other his‐
       torical method of limiting the du search to a  single  file  hierarchy.
       This  limitation	 of  the  search  is  necessary to make it possible to
       obtain file space usage information about a file system on which	 other
       file  systems  are  mounted, without having to resort to a lengthy find
       and awk script.



       The Base Definitions volume of  POSIX.1‐2008,  Chapter  8,  Environment
       Variables, Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines

       The System Interfaces volume of POSIX.1‐2008, fstatat()

       Portions	 of  this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form
       from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information Technology
       --  Portable  Operating	System	Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base
       Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the Institute of Electri‐
       cal  and	 Electronics  Engineers,  Inc  and  The	 Open Group.  (This is
       POSIX.1-2008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum	 1  applied.)  In  the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and
       The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group  Standard
       is  the	referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online
       at http://www.unix.org/online.html .

       Any typographical or formatting errors that appear  in  this  page  are
       most likely to have been introduced during the conversion of the source
       files to man page format. To report such errors,	 see  https://www.ker‐
       nel.org/doc/man-pages/reporting_bugs.html .

IEEE/The Open Group		     2013				DU(1P)

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