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FS(8)									 FS(8)

       fs, exsort - file server maintenance

       help [ command ...  ]
       arp subcommand
       cfs filesystem
       check [options]
       clean file [ bno [ addr ] ]
       clri [file...]
       cpu [proc]
       create path uid gid perm [lad]
       cwcmd subcommand
       date [[+-] seconds]
       duallow [uid]
       dump [ filesystem ]
       flag flag [ channel ]
       fstat [ files ]
       hangup channel
       newuser name [options]
       profile [01]
       remove [files...]
       route subcommand
       sntp kick
       stats [[-] flags...]
       time command
       trace [number]
       users [file]
       who [user...]
       wormeject [ tunit ]
       wormingest [ tunit ]
       wormoffline drive
       wormonline drive

       disk/exsort [-w] [file]

       Except  for exsort, these commands are available only on the console of
       an fs(4) file server.

       Help prints a `usage string' for the named  commands,  by  default  all
       commands.   Also,  many	commands print menus of their options if given
       incorrect or incomplete parameters.

       Allow disables permission checking and allows wstat.  This may help  in
       initializing a file system.  Use this with caution.

       Arp has two subcommands: print prints the contents of the ARP cache and
       flush flushes it.

       Cfs changes the current file system, that is, the file  tree  to	 which
       commands	 (check,  clean,  clri, create, cwcmd, dump, newuser, profile,
       remove, and users) apply.  The initial filesystem is main.

       Check verifies the consistency of the current  file  system.   With  no
       options	it  checks  and reports the status.  It suspends service while
       running.	 Options are:

       rdall  Read every block in the file system  (can	 take  a  long	time).
	      Normally, check will stop short of the actual contents of a file
	      and just verify the block addresses.

       tag    Fix bad tags; each block has a tag  that	acts  as  a  backwards
	      pointer for consistency checking.

       ream   Fix bad tags and also clear the contents of blocks that have bad

       pfile  Print every file name.

       pdir   Print every directory name.

       free   Rebuild the list of free blocks with all	blocks	that  are  not
	      referenced.   This  option is only useful on non-cache/WORM file
	      systems.	If the filesystem was modified, the summary printed at
	      the  conclusion  of  the check may not reflect the true state of
	      the freelist and may also print a list of missing blocks.	 These
	      missing  blocks are actually on the free list and the true state
	      of the filesystem can be determined by  running  check  with  no

       bad    Each block address that is out of range or duplicate is cleared.
	      Note that only the second and  subsequent	 use  of  a  block  is
	      cleared.	 Often the problems in a file system are caused by one
	      bad file that has a lot of garbage block addresses.  In  such  a
	      case,  it	 is wiser to use check to find the bad file (by number
	      of diagnostic messages) and then use clri to clear the addresses
	      in that file.  After that, check can be used to reclaim the free

       touch  Cause every directory and indirect block not on the current WORM
	      disk  to be advanced to the current WORM on the next dump.  This
	      is a discredited idea to try to keep operating on	 the  knee  of
	      the cache working set.  Buy more cache disk.

       trim   reduces the file system's fsize to fit the device containing the
	      file system.  This is useful after copying a partially-full file
	      system  into  a  slightly	 smaller  device.   Running check free
	      afterward will construct a new free list that contains no blocks
	      outside the new, smaller file system.

       Clean prints the block numbers in file's directory entry (direct, indi‐
       rect and doubly indirect) and checks the tags of the blocks cited.   If
       bno  is supplied, the bno'th block number (using zero origin) is set to
       addr (defaults to zero).	 Note that  only  the  block  numbers  in  the
       directory  entry	 itself	 are  examined; clean does not recurse through
       indirect blocks.

       Clri clears the internal directory entry and abandons  storage  associ‐
       ated with files.	 It ignores the usual rules for sanity, such as check‐
       ing against removing a non-empty directory.  A  subsequent  check  free
       will place the abandoned storage in the free list.

       Cpu  prints  the CPU utilization and state of the processes in the file
       server.	If the name of a process type argument is given, then CPU uti‐
       lization for only those processes is printed.

       Create  creates	a  file	 on  the current file system.  Uid and gid are
       names or numbers from /adm/users.  Perm is the low 9 bits of  the  per‐
       mission	mode of the file, in octal.  An optional final l, a, or d cre‐
       ates a locked file, append-only file, or directory.

       Cwcmd controls the cached WORM file systems, specifically  the  current
       file system.  The subcommands are:

       mvstate state1 state2 [platter]
	      States  are none, dirty, dump, dump1, error, read, and write.  A
	      mvstate dump1 dump will cause I/O errors in the last dump to  be
	      retried.	 A  mvstate  dump1  write will cause I/O errors in the
	      last dump to be retried in reallocated slots in the  next	 dump.
	      A	 mvstate  read	none  will flush the cache associated with the
	      WORM.  A mvstate dump write aborts the background process	 dump‐
	      ing  to  WORM; as a consequence it leaves holes in the dump file
	      system.  Other uses are possible but arcane.  The optional plat‐
	      ter limits affected blocks to those on that platter.

       prchain [start] [back-flag]
	      Print  the chain of superblocks for the directory containing the
	      roots of the dumped file systems, starting at block number start
	      (default	0)  going  forward (backwards if back-flag is supplied
	      and is non-zero).

       searchtag [start] [tag] [blocks]
	      Reads the WORM device starting at block start and proceeding for
	      blocks blocks (default 1000) until it finds a block with numeric
	      tag tag.

       savecache [percent]
	      Copy the block numbers, in native endian longwords, of blocks in
	      the  read	 state	to the file /adm/cache for use by disk/exsort.
	      If an argument is given, then that percent (most recently	 used)
	      of each cache bucket is copied.

       loadcache [dskno]
	      Read  /adm/cache	and  for  every	 block there on WORM disk side
	      dskno (zero-origin), read the block from WORM to the cache.   If
	      dskno is not supplied, all blocks in /adm/cache are read.

       morecache dskno [count]
	      Read  count blocks from the beginning of WORM disk side dskno to
	      the cache.  If no count is given, read all of  side  dskno  into
	      the cache.

       startdump [01]
	      Suspend (0) or restart (1) the background dump process.

	      Verify that the superblock on the WORM is readable, ignoring the
	      cached copy.

       blockcmp [wbno] [cbno]
	      Compares the WORM block wbno  with  the  cache  block  cbno  and
	      prints the first 10 differences, if any.

       acct   Prints  how  many times each user has caused the system to allo‐
	      cate new space on the WORM; the units are megabytes.

	      Clears the accounting records for acct.

       Date prints the current date.  It  may  be  adjusted  using  +-seconds.
       With  no sign, it sets the date to the absolute number of seconds since
       00:00 Jan 1, 1970 GMT; with a sign it trims the current time.

       Disallow restores permission checking back to normal after a file  sys‐
       tem has been initialized.

       Duallow	sets  permissions such that the named user can read and search
       any directories.	 This is the permission necessary to do a  du(1)  com‐
       mand anywhere in the file system to discover disk usage.

       Dump starts a dump to WORM immediately for the named filesystem, or the
       current filesystem if none is named.  File service is  suspended	 while
       the cache is scanned; service resumes when the copy to WORM starts.

       Files prints for every connection the number of allocated fids.

       Fstat prints the current status of each named file, including uid, gid,
       wuid (uid of the last user to modify the file),	size,  qid,  and  disk

       Flag toggles flags, initially all off:

	      Print channels in who output.

       arp    Report ARP activity.

       attach Report as connections are made to the file server.

	      Report authentications.

	      Disable authentication.

       chat   (Very noisy.)  Print all 9P messages to and from the server.

       error  Report 9P errors.

       il     Report IL errors.

       route  Report received RIP packets.

       ro     Report I/O on the WORM device.

       sntp   Report SNTP activity.

       If  given  a  second  numeric channel argument, as reported by who, the
       flag is altered only on that connection.

       Halt does a sync and halts the machine, returning to the boot ROM.

       Hangup clunks all the fids on the named channel,	 which	has  the  same
       format as in the output of the who command.

       Newuser	requires  a name argument.  With no options it adds user name,
       with group leader name, to /adm/users and makes the directory /usr/name
       owned by user and group name.  The options are

       ?      Print the entry for name.

       :      Add  a  group:  add  the name to /adm/users but don't create the
	      directory.  By convention, groups	 are  numbered	starting  from
	      10000, users from 0.

	      Rename existing user name to newname.

	      Change  the  leader  of  name  to leader.	 If leader is missing,
	      remove the existing leader.

	      Add member to the member list of name.

	      Remove existing member from the member list of name.

       After  a	 successful  newuser  command  the  file   server   overwrites
       /adm/users to reflect the internal state of the user table.

       Noattach	 disables attach(5) messages, in particular for system mainte‐
       nance.  Previously attached connections are unaffected.	Another	 noat‐
       tach will enable normal behavior.

       Passwd sets the machine's password and writes it in non-volatile RAM.

       Printconf prints the system configuration information.

       Profile	1 clears the profiling buffer and enables profiling; profile 0
       stops profiling and writes the data to /adm/kprofdata for use by	 kprof
       (see  prof(1)).	If a number is not specified, the profiling state tog‐

       Remove removes files.

       Route maintains an IP routing table.  The subcommands are:

       add dest gate [mask]
	      Add a static route from IP address dest using gateway gate  with
	      an optional subnet mask.

       delete dest
	      Delete an entry from the routing table.

       print  Display the contents of the routing table.

       ripon  Enables the table to be filled from RIP packets.

       ripoff Disables the table from being updated by RIP packets.

       Sntp  kick  queries the SNTP server (see fsconfig(8)) and sets the time
       with its response.

       The stat commands are connected with a service or device identified  by
       the  last  character  of	 the  name:  d, SCSI targets; e, Ethernet con‐
       trollers; i, IDE/ATA targets; m, Marvell SATA targets; w, cached	 WORM.
       The stata command prints overall statistics about the file system.  The
       stats command takes an optional argument identifying the characters  of
       stat commands to run.  The option is remembered and becomes the default
       for subsequent stats commands if it begins with a minus sign.

       Sync writes dirty blocks in memory to the magnetic disk cache.

       Time reports the time required to execute the command.

       Trace with no options prints  the  set  of  queue-locks	held  by  each
       process	in  the file server.  If things are quiescent, there should be
       no output.  With an argument number it prints a stack traceback of that

       Users  uses the contents of file (default /adm/users) to initialize the
       file server's internal representation of the users  structure.	Incor‐
       rectly  formatted  entries in file will be ignored.  If file is explic‐
       itly default, the system builds a minimal functional users table inter‐
       nally;  this  can  help	recover from disasters.	 If the file cannot be
       read, you must run

	      users default

       for the system to function.  The default table looks like this:


       Version reports when  the  file	server	was  last  compiled  and  last

       Who  reports,  one  per	line, the names of users connected to the file
       server and the status of their connections.  The first  number  printed
       on  each	 line  is  the channel number of the connection.  If users are
       given the output selects connections owned by those users.

       Wormeject moves the WORM disk in slot tunit of the first jukebox to the
       output shelf.

       Wormingest  moves the WORM disk from the input shelf of the first juke‐
       box to slot tunit.

       Wormoffline takes drive of the first jukebox out of service; wormonline
       puts it back in service.

       Wormreset put discs back where the jukebox thinks they belong, and does
       this for all jukeboxes.

       When the file server boots, it prints the message

	      for config mode hit a key within 5 seconds

       If a character is typed within 5 seconds of the message appearing,  the
       server will enter config mode.  See fsconfig(8) for the commands avail‐
       able in config mode.  The system also enters config mode	 if,  at  boot
       time,  the non-volatile RAM does not appear to contain a valid configu‐

       Exsort is a regular command to be run on a CPU server, not on the  file
       server console.	It reads the named file (default /adm/cache) and sorts
       the cache disk block numbers contained therein.	It assumes the numbers
       are  4-byte integers and guesses the endianness by looking at the data.
       It then prints statistics about the cache.  With option	-w  it	writes
       the sorted data back to file.

       Ken Thompson, ``The Plan 9 File Server''.


       The worm* commands should accept an argument identifying a jukebox.

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