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File::Glob(3)	       Perl Programmers Reference Guide		 File::Glob(3)

NAME
       File::Glob - Perl extension for BSD glob routine

SYNOPSIS
	 use File::Glob ':glob';

	 @list = bsd_glob('*.[ch]');
	 $homedir = bsd_glob('~gnat', GLOB_TILDE | GLOB_ERR);

	 if (GLOB_ERROR) {
	   # an error occurred reading $homedir
	 }

	 ## override the core glob (CORE::glob() does this automatically
	 ## by default anyway, since v5.6.0)
	 use File::Glob ':globally';
	 my @sources = <*.{c,h,y}>;

	 ## override the core glob, forcing case sensitivity
	 use File::Glob qw(:globally :case);
	 my @sources = <*.{c,h,y}>;

	 ## override the core glob forcing case insensitivity
	 use File::Glob qw(:globally :nocase);
	 my @sources = <*.{c,h,y}>;

	 ## glob on all files in home directory
	 use File::Glob ':globally';
	 my @sources = <~gnat/*>;

DESCRIPTION
       The glob angle-bracket operator "<>" is a pathname generator that
       implements the rules for file name pattern matching used by Unix-like
       shells such as the Bourne shell or C shell.

       File::Glob::bsd_glob() implements the FreeBSD glob(3) routine, which is
       a superset of the POSIX glob() (described in IEEE Std 1003.2
       "POSIX.2").  bsd_glob() takes a mandatory "pattern" argument, and an
       optional "flags" argument, and returns a list of filenames matching the
       pattern, with interpretation of the pattern modified by the "flags"
       variable.

       Since v5.6.0, Perl's CORE::glob() is implemented in terms of
       bsd_glob().  Note that they don't share the same
       prototype--CORE::glob() only accepts a single argument.	Due to
       historical reasons, CORE::glob() will also split its argument on
       whitespace, treating it as multiple patterns, whereas bsd_glob()
       considers them as one pattern.

       META CHARACTERS

	 \	 Quote the next metacharacter
	 []	 Character class
	 {}	 Multiple pattern
	 *	 Match any string of characters
	 ?	 Match any single character
	 ~	 User name home directory

       The metanotation "a{b,c,d}e" is a shorthand for "abe ace ade".  Left to
       right order is preserved, with results of matches being sorted
       separately at a low level to preserve this order. As a special case
       "{", "}", and "{}" are passed undisturbed.

       POSIX FLAGS

       The POSIX defined flags for bsd_glob() are:

       "GLOB_ERR"
	   Force bsd_glob() to return an error when it encounters a directory
	   it cannot open or read.  Ordinarily bsd_glob() continues to find
	   matches.

       "GLOB_LIMIT"
	   Make bsd_glob() return an error (GLOB_NOSPACE) when the pattern
	   expands to a size bigger than the system constant "ARG_MAX"
	   (usually found in limits.h).	 If your system does not define this
	   constant, bsd_glob() uses "sysconf(_SC_ARG_MAX)" or
	   "_POSIX_ARG_MAX" where available (in that order).  You can inspect
	   these values using the standard "POSIX" extension.

       "GLOB_MARK"
	   Each pathname that is a directory that matches the pattern has a
	   slash appended.

       "GLOB_NOCASE"
	   By default, file names are assumed to be case sensitive; this flag
	   makes bsd_glob() treat case differences as not significant.

       "GLOB_NOCHECK"
	   If the pattern does not match any pathname, then bsd_glob() returns
	   a list consisting of only the pattern.  If "GLOB_QUOTE" is set, its
	   effect is present in the pattern returned.

       "GLOB_NOSORT"
	   By default, the pathnames are sorted in ascending ASCII order; this
	   flag prevents that sorting (speeding up bsd_glob()).

       The FreeBSD extensions to the POSIX standard are the following flags:

       "GLOB_BRACE"
	   Pre-process the string to expand "{pat,pat,...}" strings like
	   csh(1).  The pattern '{}' is left unexpanded for historical reasons
	   (and csh(1) does the same thing to ease typing of find(1)
	   patterns).

       "GLOB_NOMAGIC"
	   Same as "GLOB_NOCHECK" but it only returns the pattern if it does
	   not contain any of the special characters "*", "?" or "[".
	   "NOMAGIC" is provided to simplify implementing the historic csh(1)
	   globbing behaviour and should probably not be used anywhere else.

       "GLOB_QUOTE"
	   Use the backslash ('\') character for quoting: every occurrence of
	   a backslash followed by a character in the pattern is replaced by
	   that character, avoiding any special interpretation of the
	   character.  (But see below for exceptions on DOSISH systems).

       "GLOB_TILDE"
	   Expand patterns that start with '~' to user name home directories.

       "GLOB_CSH"
	   For convenience, "GLOB_CSH" is a synonym for "GLOB_BRACE |
	   GLOB_NOMAGIC | GLOB_QUOTE | GLOB_TILDE | GLOB_ALPHASORT".

       The POSIX provided "GLOB_APPEND", "GLOB_DOOFFS", and the FreeBSD
       extensions "GLOB_ALTDIRFUNC", and "GLOB_MAGCHAR" flags have not been
       implemented in the Perl version because they involve more complex
       interaction with the underlying C structures.

       The following flag has been added in the Perl implementation for csh
       compatibility:

       "GLOB_ALPHASORT"
	   If "GLOB_NOSORT" is not in effect, sort filenames is alphabetical
	   order (case does not matter) rather than in ASCII order.

DIAGNOSTICS
       bsd_glob() returns a list of matching paths, possibly zero length.  If
       an error occurred, &File::Glob::GLOB_ERROR will be non-zero and $! will
       be set.	&File::Glob::GLOB_ERROR is guaranteed to be zero if no error
       occurred, or one of the following values otherwise:

       "GLOB_NOSPACE"
	   An attempt to allocate memory failed.

       "GLOB_ABEND"
	   The glob was stopped because an error was encountered.

       In the case where bsd_glob() has found some matching paths, but is
       interrupted by an error, it will return a list of filenames and set
       &File::Glob::ERROR.

       Note that bsd_glob() deviates from POSIX and FreeBSD glob(3) behaviour
       by not considering "ENOENT" and "ENOTDIR" as errors - bsd_glob() will
       continue processing despite those errors, unless the "GLOB_ERR" flag is
       set.

       Be aware that all filenames returned from File::Glob are tainted.

NOTES
       ·   If you want to use multiple patterns, e.g. "bsd_glob("a* b*")", you
	   should probably throw them in a set as in "bsd_glob("{a*,b*}")".
	   This is because the argument to bsd_glob() isn't subjected to
	   parsing by the C shell.  Remember that you can use a backslash to
	   escape things.

       ·   On DOSISH systems, backslash is a valid directory separator
	   character.  In this case, use of backslash as a quoting character
	   (via GLOB_QUOTE) interferes with the use of backslash as a
	   directory separator. The best (simplest, most portable) solution is
	   to use forward slashes for directory separators, and backslashes
	   for quoting. However, this does not match "normal practice" on
	   these systems. As a concession to user expectation, therefore,
	   backslashes (under GLOB_QUOTE) only quote the glob metacharacters
	   '[', ']', '{', '}', '-', '~', and backslash itself.	All other
	   backslashes are passed through unchanged.

       ·   Win32 users should use the real slash.  If you really want to use
	   backslashes, consider using Sarathy's File::DosGlob, which comes
	   with the standard Perl distribution.

       ·   Mac OS (Classic) users should note a few differences. Since Mac OS
	   is not Unix, when the glob code encounters a tilde glob (e.g.
	   ~user) and the "GLOB_TILDE" flag is used, it simply returns that
	   pattern without doing any expansion.

	   Glob on Mac OS is case-insensitive by default (if you don't use any
	   flags). If you specify any flags at all and still want glob to be
	   case-insensitive, you must include "GLOB_NOCASE" in the flags.

	   The path separator is ':' (aka colon), not '/' (aka slash). Mac OS
	   users should be careful about specifying relative pathnames. While
	   a full path always begins with a volume name, a relative pathname
	   should always begin with a ':'.  If specifying a volume name only,
	   a trailing ':' is required.

	   The specification of pathnames in glob patterns adheres to the
	   usual Mac OS conventions: The path separator is a colon ':', not a
	   slash '/'. A full path always begins with a volume name. A relative
	   pathname on Mac OS must always begin with a ':', except when
	   specifying a file or directory name in the current working
	   directory, where the leading colon is optional. If specifying a
	   volume name only, a trailing ':' is required. Due to these rules, a
	   glob like <*:> will find all mounted volumes, while a glob like <*>
	   or <:*> will find all files and directories in the current
	   directory.

	   Note that updirs in the glob pattern are resolved before the
	   matching begins, i.e. a pattern like "*HD:t?p::a*" will be matched
	   as "*HD:a*". Note also, that a single trailing ':' in the pattern
	   is ignored (unless it's a volume name pattern like "*HD:"), i.e. a
	   glob like <:*:> will find both directories and files (and not, as
	   one might expect, only directories).	 You can, however, use the
	   "GLOB_MARK" flag to distinguish (without a file test) directory
	   names from file names.

	   If the "GLOB_MARK" flag is set, all directory paths will have a ':'
	   appended.  Since a directory like 'lib:' is not a valid relative
	   path on Mac OS, both a leading and a trailing colon will be added,
	   when the directory name in question doesn't contain any colons
	   (e.g. 'lib' becomes ':lib:').

SEE ALSO
       "glob" in perlfunc, glob(3)

AUTHOR
       The Perl interface was written by Nathan Torkington <gnat@frii.com>,
       and is released under the artistic license.  Further modifications were
       made by Greg Bacon <gbacon@cs.uah.edu>, Gurusamy Sarathy
       <gsar@activestate.com>, and Thomas Wegner <wegner_thomas@yahoo.com>.
       The C glob code has the following copyright:

	   Copyright (c) 1989, 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
	   All rights reserved.

	   This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
	   Guido van Rossum.

	   Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
	   modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
	   are met:

	   1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
	      notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
	   2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
	      notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
	      documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
	   3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
	      may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
	      without specific prior written permission.

	   THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
	   ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
	   IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
	   ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
	   FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
	   DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
	   OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
	   HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
	   LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
	   OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
	   SUCH DAMAGE.

perl v5.10.0			  2007-12-18			 File::Glob(3)
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