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GEMFILE(5)							    GEMFILE(5)

       Gemfile - A format for describing gem dependencies for Ruby programs

       A Gemfile describes the gem dependencies required to execute associated
       Ruby code.

       Place the Gemfile in the root of the directory containing  the  associ‐
       ated  code.  For instance, in a Rails application, place the Gemfile in
       the same directory as the Rakefile.

       A Gemfile is evaluated as Ruby code, in a context which makes available
       a number of methods used to describe the gem requirements.

SOURCES (#source)
       At  the	top of the Gemfile, add one line for each Rubygems source that
       might contain the gems listed in the Gemfile.

	   source ""
	   source ""

       Each of these _source_s MUST be a valid	Rubygems  repository.  Sources
       are  checked for gems following the heuristics described in SOURCE PRI‐

RUBY (#ruby)
       If your application requires a specific Ruby version or engine, specify
       your  requirements using the ruby method, with the following arguments.
       All parameters are OPTIONAL unless otherwise specified.

   VERSION (required)
       The version of Ruby that your application requires. If your application
       requires	 an  alternate	Ruby  engine,  such as JRuby or Rubinius, this
       should be the Ruby version that the engine is compatible with.

	   ruby "1.9.3"

   ENGINE (:engine)
       Each application may specify a Ruby engine. If an engine is  specified,
       an engine version must also be specified.

   ENGINE VERSION (:engine_version)
       Each  application  may specify a Ruby engine version. If an engine ver‐
       sion is specified, an engine must also be specified. If the  engine  is
       "ruby" the engine version specified must match the Ruby version.

	   ruby "1.8.7", :engine => "jruby", :engine_version => "1.6.7"

GEMS (#gem)
       Specify gem requirements using the gem method, with the following argu‐
       ments. All parameters are OPTIONAL unless otherwise specified.

   NAME (required)
       For each gem requirement, list a single gem line.

	   gem "nokogiri"

       Each gem MAY have one or more version specifiers.

	   gem "nokogiri", ">= 1.4.2"
	   gem "RedCloth", ">= 4.1.0", "< 4.2.0"

   REQUIRE AS (:require)
       Each gem MAY specify files that should be used when  autorequiring  via
       Bundler.require. You may pass an array with multiple files, or false to
       prevent any file from being autorequired.

	   gem "redis", :require => ["redis/connection/hiredis", "redis"]
	   gem "webmock", :require => false

       The argument defaults to the name of the gem. For  example,  these  are

	   gem "nokogiri"
	   gem "nokogiri", :require => "nokogiri"

   GROUPS (:group or :groups)
       Each  gem  MAY  specify	membership in one or more groups. Any gem that
       does not specify membership in any  group  is  placed  in  the  default

	   gem "rspec", :group => :test
	   gem "wirble", :groups => [:development, :test]

       The  Bundler  runtime  allows  its  two main methods, Bundler.setup and
       Bundler.require, to limit their impact to particular groups.

	   # setup adds gems to Ruby´s load path
	   Bundler.setup		    # defaults to all groups
	   require "bundler/setup"	    # same as Bundler.setup
	   Bundler.setup(:default)	    # only set up the _default_ group
	   Bundler.setup(:test)		    # only set up the _test_ group (but `not` _default_)
	   Bundler.setup(:default, :test)   # set up the _default_ and _test_ groups, but no others

	   # require requires all of the gems in the specified groups
	   Bundler.require		    # defaults to just the _default_ group
	   Bundler.require(:default)	    # identical
	   Bundler.require(:default, :test) # requires the _default_ and _test_ groups
	   Bundler.require(:test)	    # requires just the _test_ group

       The Bundler CLI allows you to specify a list of groups whose gems  bun‐
       dle  install  should  not install with the --without option. To specify
       multiple groups to ignore, specify a list of groups separated  by  spa‐

	   bundle install --without test
	   bundle install --without development test

       After running bundle install --without test, bundler will remember that
       you excluded the test group in the last installation. The next time you
       run  bundle  install, without any --without option, bundler will recall

       Also, calling Bundler.setup with	 no  parameters,  or  calling  require
       "bundler/setup"	will setup all groups except for the ones you excluded
       via --without (since they are obviously not available).

       Note that on bundle install, bundler downloads and evaluates all	 gems,
       in  order to create a single canonical list of all of the required gems
       and their dependencies. This means that you cannot list different  ver‐
       sions  of  the  same  gems  in  different groups. For more details, see
       Understanding Bundler

   PLATFORMS (:platforms)
       If a gem should only be used in a particular platform or set  of	 plat‐
       forms,  you  can	 specify  them. Platforms are essentially identical to
       groups, except that you do not need to use the  --without  install-time
       flag to exclude groups of gems for other platforms.

       There are a number of Gemfile platforms:

       ruby   C Ruby (MRI) or Rubinius, but NOT Windows

	      ruby AND version 1.8

	      ruby AND version 1.9

	      ruby AND version 2.0

       mri    Same as ruby, but not Rubinius

       mri_18 mri AND version 1.8

       mri_19 mri AND version 1.9

       mri_20 mri AND version 2.0

       rbx    Same as ruby, but only Rubinius (not MRI)

       jruby  JRuby

       mswin  Windows

       mingw  Windows ´mingw32´ platform (aka RubyInstaller)

	      mingw AND version 1.8

	      mingw AND version 1.9

	      mingw AND version 2.0

       As with groups, you can specify one or more platforms:

	   gem "weakling",   :platforms => :jruby
	   gem "ruby-debug", :platforms => :mri_18
	   gem "nokogiri",   :platforms => [:mri_18, :jruby]

       All   operations	  involving  groups  (bundle  install,	Bundler.setup,
       Bundler.require) behave exactly the same as if any groups not  matching
       the current platform were explicitly excluded.

   GIT (:git)
       If necessary, you can specify that a gem is located at a particular git
       repository.	 The	   repository	    can	      be	public
       (		or	       private
       ( If the	 repository  is	 private,  the
       user  that you use to run bundle install MUST have the appropriate keys
       available in their $HOME/.ssh.

       Git repositories are specified using the	 :git  parameter.  The	group,
       platforms,  and	require	 options  are available and behave exactly the
       same as they would for a normal gem.

	   gem "rails", :git => "git://"

       A git repository SHOULD have at least one file,	at  the	 root  of  the
       directory  containing  the  gem, with the extension .gemspec. This file
       MUST contain a valid gem specification, as expected by  the  gem	 build
       command.	 It MUST NOT have any dependencies, other than on the files in
       the git repository itself and any built-in  functionality  of  Ruby  or

       If  a  git repository does not have a .gemspec, bundler will attempt to
       create one, but it will not contain any dependencies, executables, or C
       extension  compilation  instructions. As a result, it may fail to prop‐
       erly integrate into your application.

       If a git repository does have a .gemspec for the gem  you  attached  it
       to,  a version specifier, if provided, means that the git repository is
       only valid if the .gemspec specifies a  version	matching  the  version
       specifier. If not, bundler will print a warning.

	   gem "rails", "2.3.8", :git => "git://"
	   # bundle install will fail, because the .gemspec in the rails
	   # repository´s master branch specifies version 3.0.0

       If  a  git repository does not have a .gemspec for the gem you attached
       it to, a version specifier MUST be provided. Bundler will use this ver‐
       sion in the simple .gemspec it creates.

       Git repositories support a number of additional options.

       branch, tag, and ref
	      You  MUST only specify at most one of these options. The default
	      is :branch => "master"

	      Specify :submodules => true to cause bundler to expand any  sub‐
	      modules included in the git repository

       If  a  git repository contains multiple .gemspecs, each .gemspec repre‐
       sents a gem located at the same place in the file system as  the	 .gem‐

	   |~rails		     [git root]
	   | |-rails.gemspec	     [rails gem located here]
	   | |-actionpack.gemspec    [actionpack gem located here]
	   | |-activesupport.gemspec [activesupport gem located here]

       To  install  a  gem located in a git repository, bundler changes to the
       directory containing the gemspec, runs gem build name.gemspec and  then
       installs the resulting gem. The gem build command, which comes standard
       with Rubygems, evaluates the .gemspec in the context of	the  directory
       in which it is located.

   GITHUB (:github)
       If  the	git repository you want to use is hosted on GitHub and is pub‐
       lic, you can use the :github shorthand to specify just the github user‐
       name  and repository name (without the trailing ".git"), separated by a
       slash. If both the username and repository name are the same,  you  can
       omit one.

	   gem "rails", :github => "rails/rails"
	   gem "rails", :github => "rails"

       Are both equivalent to

	   gem "rails", :git => "git://"

   PATH (:path)
       You  can	 specify that a gem is located in a particular location on the
       file system. Relative paths are resolved relative to the directory con‐
       taining the Gemfile.

       Similar	to the semantics of the :git option, the :path option requires
       that the directory in question either contains a .gemspec for the  gem,
       or that you specify an explicit version that bundler should use.

       Unlike  :git,  bundler does not compile C extensions for gems specified
       as paths.

	   gem "rails", :path => "vendor/rails"

       The :git, :path, :group, and :platforms options may  be	applied	 to  a
       group of gems by using block form.

	   git "git://" do
	     gem "activesupport"
	     gem "actionpack"

	   platforms :ruby do
	     gem "ruby-debug"
	     gem "sqlite3"

	   group :development do
	     gem "wirble"
	     gem "faker"

       In  the	case of the git block form, the :ref, :branch, :tag, and :sub‐
       modules options may be passed to the git method, and all	 gems  in  the
       block will inherit those options.

GEMSPEC (#gemspec)
       If you wish to use Bundler to help install dependencies for a gem while
       it is being developed, use the gemspec method to pull in the  dependen‐
       cies listed in the .gemspec file.

       The gemspec method adds any runtime dependencies as gem requirements in
       the default  group.  It	also  adds  development	 dependencies  as  gem
       requirements  in the development group. Finally, it adds a gem require‐
       ment on your project (:path => ´.´). In conjunction with Bundler.setup,
       this allows you to require project files in your test code as you would
       if the project were installed as a gem; you  need  not  manipulate  the
       load path manually or require project files via relative paths.

       The  gemspec  method  supports  optional	 :path,	 :name,	 and :develop‐
       ment_group options, which control where bundler looks for the .gemspec,
       what  named  .gemspec  it uses (if more than one is present), and which
       group development dependencies are included in.

       When attempting to locate a gem to satisfy a gem	 requirement,  bundler
       uses the following priority order:

       1.  The source explicitly attached to the gem (using :path or :git)

       2.  For	implicit gems (dependencies of explicit gems), any git or path
	   repository otherwise declared. This results in bundler prioritizing
	   the	ActiveSupport gem from the Rails git repository over ones from

       3.  The sources specified via source, searching	each  source  in  your
	   Gemfile from last added to first added.

				  March 2013			    GEMFILE(5)

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