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Glib::xsapi(3pm)      User Contributed Perl Documentation     Glib::xsapi(3pm)

       Glib::xsapi - internal API reference for GPerl.

	#include <gperl.h>

       This is the binding developer's API reference for GPerl, automatically
       generated from the xs source files.  This header defines the public
       interface for use when creating new Perl language bindings for GLib-
       based C libraries.

       gperl.h includes for you all the headers needed for writing XSUBs
       (EXTERN.h, perl.h, and XSUB.h), as well as all of GLib (via

       Various useful utilities defined in Glib.xs.

	   call the boot code of a module by symbol rather than by name.

	   in a perl extension which uses several xs files but only one pm,
	   you need to bootstrap the other xs files in order to get their
	   functions exported to perl.	if the file has MODULE = Foo::Bar, the
	   boot symbol would be boot_Foo__Bar.

       void _gperl_call_XS (pTHX_ void (*subaddr) (pTHX_ CV *), CV * cv, SV **
	   never use this function directly.  see "GPERL_CALL_BOOT".

	   for the curious, this calls a perl sub by function pointer rather
	   than by name; call_sv requires that the xsub already be registered,
	   but we need this to call a function which will register xsubs.
	   this is an evil hack and should not be used outside of the
	   GPERL_CALL_BOOT macro.  it's implemented as a function to avoid
	   code size bloat, and exported so that extension modules can pull
	   the same trick.

       gpointer gperl_alloc_temp (int nbytes)
	   Allocate and return a pointer to an nbytes-long, zero-initialized,
	   temporary buffer that will be reaped at the next garbage collection
	   sweep.  This is handy for allocating things that need to be
	   alloc'ed before a croak (since croak doesn't return and give you
	   the chance to free them).  The trick is that the memory is
	   allocated in a mortal perl scalar.  See the perl online manual for
	   notes on using this technique.

	   Do not under any circumstances attempt to call g_free(), free(), or
	   any other deallocator on this pointer, or you will crash the

       gchar *gperl_filename_from_sv (SV *sv)
	   Return a localized version of the filename in the sv, using
	   g_filename_from_utf8 (and consequently this function might croak).
	   The memory is allocated using gperl_alloc_temp.

       SV *gperl_sv_from_filename (const gchar *filename)
	   Convert the filename into an utf8 string as used by gtk/glib and

       gboolean gperl_str_eq (const char * a, const char * b);
	   Compare a pair of ascii strings, considering '-' and '_' to be
	   equivalent.	Used for things like enum value nicknames and signal

       guint gperl_str_hash (gconstpointer key)
	   Like g_str_hash(), but considers '-' and '_' to be equivalent.

       GPerlArgv * gperl_argv_new ()
	   Creates a new Perl argv object whose members can then be passed to
	   functions that request argc and argv style arguments.

	   If the called function(s) modified argv, you can call
	   gperl_argv_update to update Perl's @ARGV in the same way.

	   Remember to call gperl_argv_free when you're done.

       void gperl_argv_update (GPerlArgv *pargv)
	   Updates @ARGV to resemble the stored argv array.

       void gperl_argv_free (GPerlArgv *pargv)
	   Frees any resources associated with pargv.

       char * gperl_format_variable_for_output (SV * sv)
	   Formats the variable stored in sv for output in error messages.
	   Like SvPV_nolen(), but ellipsizes real strings (i.e., not
	   stringified references) at 20 chars to trim things down for error

       gboolean gperl_sv_is_defined (SV *sv)
	   Checks the SV sv for definedness just like Perl's defined() would
	   do.	Most importantly, it correctly handles "magical" SVs, unlike
	   bare SvOK.  It's also NULL-safe.

       void gperl_hv_take_sv (HV *hv, const char *key, size_t key_length, SV
	   Tries to store sv in hv.  Decreases sv's reference count if
	   something goes wrong.

   GError Exception Objects
       GError is a facility for propagating run-time error / exception
       information around in C, which is a language without native support for
       exceptions.  GError uses a simple error code, usually defined as an
       enum.  Since the enums will overlap, GError includes the GQuark
       corresponding to a particular error "domain" to tell you which error
       codes will be used.  There's also a string containing a specific error
       message.	 The strings are arbitrary, and may be translated, but the
       domains and codes are definite.

       Perl has native support for exceptions, using "eval" as "try", "croak"
       or "die" as "throw", and "if ($@)" as "catch".  $@ may, in fact, be any
       scalar, including blessed objects.

       So, GPerl maps GLib's GError to Perl exceptions.

       Since, as we described above, error messages are not guaranteed to be
       unique everywhere, we need to support the use of the error domains and
       codes.  The obvious choice here is to use exception objects; however,
       to support blessed exception objects, we must perform a little bit of
       black magic in the bindings.   There is no built-in association between
       an error domain quark and the GType of the corresponding error code
       enumeration, so the bindings supply both of these when specifying the
       name of the package into which to bless exceptions of this domain.  All
       GError-based exceptions derive from Glib::Error, of course, and this
       base class provides all of the functionality, including

       All you'll really ever need to do is register error domains with
       "gperl_register_error_domain", and throw errors with

       void gperl_register_error_domain (GQuark domain, GType error_enum,
       const char * package)
	   Tell the bindings to bless GErrors with error->domain == domain
	   into package, and use error_enum to find the nicknames for the
	   error codes.	 This will call "gperl_set_isa" on package to add
	   "Glib::Error" to package's @ISA.

	   domain may not be 0, and package may not be NULL; what would be the
	   point?  error_enum may be 0, in which case you'll get no fancy
	   stringified error values.

       SV * gperl_sv_from_gerror (GError * error)
	   You should rarely, if ever, need to call this function.  This is
	   what turns a GError into a Perl object.

       gperl_gerror_from_sv (SV * sv, GError ** error)
	   You should rarely need this function.  This parses a perl data
	   structure into a GError.  If sv is undef (or the empty string),
	   sets *error to NULL, otherwise, allocates a new GError with
	   "g_error_new_literal()" and writes through error; the caller is
	   responsible for calling "g_error_free()".  (gperl_croak_gerror()
	   does this, for example.)

       void gperl_croak_gerror (const char * ignored, GError * err)
	   Croak with an exception based on err.  err may not be NULL.
	   ignored exists for backward compatibility, and is, well, ignored.
	   This function calls croak(), which does not return.

	   Since croak() does not return, this function handles the magic
	   behind not leaking the memory associated with the #GError.  To use
	   this you'd do something like

	      GError * error = NULL;
	      if (!funtion_that_can_fail (something, &error))
		 gperl_croak_gerror (NULL, error);

	   It's just that simple!

       GLib has a message logging mechanism which it uses for the
       g_return_if_fail() assertion macros, etc.; it's really versatile and
       allows you to set various levels to be fatal and whatnot.  Libraries
       use these for various types of message reporting.

       These functions let you reroute those messages from Perl.  By default,
       the warning, critical, and message levels go through perl's warn(), and
       fatal ones go through croak().  [i'm not sure that these get to croak()
       before GLib abort()s on them...]

       gint gperl_handle_logs_for (const gchar * log_domain)
	   Route all g_logs for log_domain through gperl's log handling.
	   You'll have to register domains in each binding submodule, because
	   there's no way we can know about them down here.

	   And, technically, this traps all the predefined log levels, not any
	   of the ones you (or your library) may define for yourself.

   GType / GEnum / GFlags
       void gperl_register_fundamental (GType gtype, const char * package)
	   register a mapping between gtype and package.  this is for
	   "fundamental" types which have no other requirements for metadata
	   storage, such as GEnums, GFlags, or real GLib fundamental types
	   like G_TYPE_INT, G_TYPE_FLOAT, etc.

       void gperl_register_fundamental_alias (GType gtype, const char *
	   Makes package an alias for type.  This means that the package name
	   specified by package will be mapped to type by
	   gperl_fundamental_type_from_package, but
	   gperl_fundamental_package_from_type won't map type to package.
	   This is useful if you want to change the canonical package name of
	   a type while preserving backwards compatibility with code which
	   uses package to specify type.

	   In order for this to make sense, another package name should be
	   registered for type with gperl_register_fundamental or

	   Specifies the vtable that is to be used to convert fundamental
	   types to and from Perl variables.

	     typedef struct _GPerlValueWrapperClass GPerlValueWrapperClass;
	     struct _GPerlValueWrapperClass {
		     GPerlValueWrapFunc	  wrap;
		     GPerlValueUnwrapFunc unwrap;

	   The members are function pointers, each of which serves a specific

	       Turns value into an SV.	The caller assumes ownership of the
	       SV.  value is not to be modified.

		 typedef SV*  (*GPerlValueWrapFunc)   (const GValue * value);

	       Turns sv into its fundamental representation and stores the
	       result in the pre-configured value.  value must not be
	       overwritten; instead one of the various "g_value_set_*()"
	       functions must be used or the "value->data" pointer must be
	       modifed directly.

		 typedef void (*GPerlValueUnwrapFunc) (GValue	    * value,
						       SV	    * sv);

       void gperl_register_fundamental_full (GType gtype, const char *
       package, GPerlValueWrapperClass * wrapper_class)
	   Like gperl_register_fundamental, registers a mapping between gtype
	   and package.	 In addition, this also installs the function pointers
	   in wrapper_class as the handlers for the type.  See

	   gperl_register_fundamental_full does not copy the contents of
	   wrapper_class -- it assumes that wrapper_class is statically
	   allocated and that it will be valid for the whole lifetime of the

       GType gperl_fundamental_type_from_package (const char * package)
	   look up the GType corresponding to a package registered by

       const char * gperl_fundamental_package_from_type (GType gtype)
	   look up the package corresponding to a gtype registered by

       GPerlValueWrapperClass * gperl_fundamental_wrapper_class_from_type
       (GType gtype)
	   look up the wrapper class corresponding to a gtype that has
	   previously been registered with gperl_register_fundamental_full().

       gboolean gperl_try_convert_enum (GType gtype, SV * sv, gint * val)
	   return FALSE if sv can't be mapped to a valid member of the
	   registered enum type gtype; otherwise, return TRUE write the new
	   value to the int pointed to by val.

	   you'll need this only in esoteric cases.

       gint gperl_convert_enum (GType type, SV * val)
	   croak if val is not part of type, otherwise return corresponding

       SV * gperl_convert_back_enum_pass_unknown (GType type, gint val)
	   return a scalar containing the nickname of the enum value val, or
	   the integer value of val if val is not a member of the enum type.

       SV * gperl_convert_back_enum (GType type, gint val)
	   return a scalar which is the nickname of the enum value val, or
	   croak if val is not a member of the enum.

       gboolean gperl_try_convert_flag (GType type, const char * val_p, gint *
	   like gperl_try_convert_enum(), but for GFlags.

       gint gperl_convert_flag_one (GType type, const char * val)
	   croak if val is not part of type, otherwise return corresponding

       gint gperl_convert_flags (GType type, SV * val)
	   collapse a list of strings to an integer with all the correct bits
	   set, croak if anything is invalid.

       SV * gperl_convert_back_flags (GType type, gint val)
	   convert a bitfield to a list of strings.

   Inheritance management
       void gperl_set_isa (const char * child_package, const char *
	   tell perl that child_package inherits parent_package, after
	   whatever else is already there.  equivalent to "push
	   @{$parent_package}::ISA, $child_package;"

       void gperl_prepend_isa (const char * child_package, const char *
	   tell perl that child_package inherits parent_package, but before
	   whatever else is already there.  equivalent to "unshift
	   @{$parent_package}::ISA, $child_package;"

       GType gperl_type_from_package (const char * package)
	   Look up the GType associated with package, regardless of how it was
	   registered.	Returns 0 if no mapping can be found.

       const char * gperl_package_from_type (GType gtype)
	   Look up the name of the package associated with gtype, regardless
	   of how it was registered.  Returns NULL if no mapping can be found.

   Boxed type support for SV
       In order to allow GValues to hold perl SVs we need a GBoxed wrapper.

	   Evaluates to the GType for SVs.  The bindings register a mapping
	   between GPERL_TYPE_SV and the package 'Glib::Scalar' with

       SV * gperl_sv_copy (SV * sv)
	   implemented as "newSVsv (sv)".

       void gperl_sv_free (SV * sv)
	   implemented as "SvREFCNT_dec (sv)".

   UTF-8 strings with gchar
       By convention, gchar* is assumed to point to UTF8 string data, and
       char* points to ascii string data.  Here we define a pair of wrappers
       for the boilerplate of upgrading Perl strings.  They are implemented as
       functions rather than macros, because comma expressions in macros are
       not supported by all compilers.

       These functions should be used instead of newSVpv and SvPV_nolen in all
       cases which deal with gchar* types.

       gchar * SvGChar (SV * sv)
	   extract a UTF8 string from sv.

       SV * newSVGChar (const gchar * str)
	   copy a UTF8 string into a new SV.  if str is NULL, returns

   64 bit integers
       On 32 bit machines and even on some 64 bit machines, perl's IV/UV data
       type can only hold 32 bit values.  The following functions therefore
       convert 64 bit integers to and from Perl strings if normal IV/UV
       conversion does not suffice.

       gint64 SvGInt64 (SV *sv)
	   Converts the string in sv to a signed 64 bit integer.  If
	   appropriate, uses "SvIV" instead.

       SV * newSVGInt64 (gint64 value)
	   Creates a PV from the signed 64 bit integer in value.  If
	   appropriate, uses "newSViv" instead.

       guint64 SvGUInt64 (SV *sv)
	   Converts the string in sv to an unsigned 64 bit integer.  If
	   appropriate, uses "SvUV" instead.

       SV * newSVGUInt64 (guint64 value)
	   Creates a PV from the unsigned 64 bit integer in value.  If
	   appropriate, uses "newSVuv" instead.

	   Specifies the vtable of functions to be used for bringing boxed
	   types in and out of perl.  The structure is defined like this:

	    typedef struct _GPerlBoxedWrapperClass GPerlBoxedWrapperClass;
	    struct _GPerlBoxedWrapperClass {
		     GPerlBoxedWrapFunc	   wrap;
		     GPerlBoxedUnwrapFunc  unwrap;
		     GPerlBoxedDestroyFunc destroy;

	   The members are function pointers, each of which serves a specific

	       turn a boxed pointer into an SV.	 gtype is the type of the
	       boxed pointer, and package is the package to which that gtype
	       is registered (the lookup has already been done for you at this
	       point).	if own is true, the wrapper is responsible for freeing
	       the object; if it is false, some other code owns the object and
	       you must NOT free it.

		typedef SV*	 (*GPerlBoxedWrapFunc)	  (GType	gtype,
							   const char * package,
							   gpointer	boxed,
							   gboolean	own);

	       turn an SV into a boxed pointer.	 like GPerlBoxedWrapFunc,
	       gtype and package are the registered type pair, already looked
	       up for you (in the process of finding the proper wrapper
	       class).	sv is the sv to unwrap.

		typedef gpointer (*GPerlBoxedUnwrapFunc)  (GType	gtype,
							   const char * package,
							   SV	      * sv);

	       this will be called by Glib::Boxed::DESTROY, when the wrapper
	       is destroyed.  it is a hook that allows you to destroy an
	       object owned by the wrapper; note, however, that you will have
	       had to keep track yourself of whether the object was to be

		typedef void	 (*GPerlBoxedDestroyFunc) (SV	      * sv);

       void gperl_register_boxed (GType gtype, const char * package,
       GPerlBoxedWrapperClass * wrapper_class)
	   Register a mapping between the GBoxed derivative gtype and package.
	   The specified, wrapper_class will be used to wrap and unwrap
	   objects of this type; you may pass NULL to use the default wrapper
	   (the same one returned by gperl_default_boxed_wrapper_class()).

	   In normal usage, the standard opaque wrapper supplied by the
	   library is sufficient and correct.  In some cases, however, you
	   want a boxed type to map directly to a native perl type; for
	   example, some struct may be more appropriately represented as a
	   hash in perl.  Since the most necessary place for this conversion
	   to happen is in gperl_value_from_sv() and gperl_sv_from_value(),
	   the only reliable and robust way to implement this is a hook into
	   gperl_get_boxed_check() and gperl_new_boxed(); that is exactly the
	   purpose of wrapper_class.  See "GPerlBoxedWrapperClass".

	   gperl_register_boxed does not copy the contents of wrapper_class --
	   it assumes that wrapper_class is statically allocated and that it
	   will be valid for the whole lifetime of the program.

       void gperl_register_boxed_alias (GType gtype, const char * package)
	   Makes package an alias for type.  This means that the package name
	   specified by package will be mapped to type by
	   gperl_boxed_type_from_package, but gperl_boxed_package_from_type
	   won't map type to package.  This is useful if you want to change
	   the canonical package name of a type while preserving backwards
	   compatibility with code which uses package to specify type.

	   In order for this to make sense, another package name should be
	   registered for type with gperl_register_boxed.

       void gperl_register_boxed_synonym (GType registered_gtype, GType
	   Registers synonym_gtype as a synonym for registered_gtype.  All
	   boxed objects of type synonym_gtype will then be treated as if they
	   were of type registered_gtype, and gperl_boxed_package_from_type
	   will return the package associated with registered_gtype.

	   registered_gtype must have been registered with
	   gperl_register_boxed already.

       GType gperl_boxed_type_from_package (const char * package)
	   Look up the GType associated with package package.  Returns 0 if
	   type is not registered.

       const char * gperl_boxed_package_from_type (GType type)
	   Look up the package associated with GBoxed derivative type.
	   Returns NULL if type is not registered.

       GPerlBoxedWrapperClass * gperl_default_boxed_wrapper_class (void)
	   get a pointer to the default wrapper class; handy if you want to
	   use the normal wrapper, with minor modifications.  note that you
	   can just pass NULL to gperl_register_boxed(), so you really only
	   need this in fringe cases.

       SV * gperl_new_boxed (gpointer boxed, GType gtype, gboolean own)
	   Export a GBoxed derivative to perl, according to whatever
	   GPerlBoxedWrapperClass is registered for gtype.  In the default
	   implementation, this means wrapping an opaque perl object around
	   the pointer to a small wrapper structure which stores some
	   metadata, such as whether the boxed structure should be destroyed
	   when the wrapper is destroyed (controlled by own; if the wrapper
	   owns the object, the wrapper is in charge of destroying it's data).

	   This function might end up calling other Perl code, so if you use
	   it in XS code for a generic GType, make sure the stack pointer is
	   set up correctly before the call, and restore it after the call.

       SV * gperl_new_boxed_copy (gpointer boxed, GType gtype)
	   Create a new copy of boxed and return an owner wrapper for it.
	   boxed may not be NULL.  See "gperl_new_boxed".

       gpointer gperl_get_boxed_check (SV * sv, GType gtype)
	   Extract the boxed pointer from a wrapper; croaks if the wrapper sv
	   is not blessed into a derivative of the expected gtype.  Does not
	   allow undef.

       To deal with the intricate interaction of the different reference-
       counting semantics of Perl objects versus GObjects, the bindings create
       a combined PerlObject+GObject, with the GObject's pointer in magic
       attached to the Perl object, and the Perl object's pointer in the
       GObject's user data.  Thus it's not really a "wrapper", but we refer to
       it as one, because "combined Perl object + GObject" is a cumbersome and
       confusing mouthful.

       GObjects are represented as blessed hash references.  The GObject user
       data mechanism is not typesafe, and thus is used only for unsigned
       integer values; the Perl-level hash is available for any type of user
       data.  The combined nature of the wrapper means that data stored in the
       hash will stick around as long as the object is alive.

       Since the C pointer is stored in attached magic, the C pointer is not
       available to the Perl developer via the hash object, so there's no need
       to worry about breaking it from perl.

       Propers go to Marc Lehmann for dreaming most of this up.

       void gperl_register_object (GType gtype, const char * package)
	   tell the GPerl type subsystem what Perl package corresponds with a
	   given GObject by GType.  automagically sets up @package::ISA for

	   note that @ISA will not be created for gtype until gtype's parent
	   has been registered.	 if you are experiencing strange problems with
	   a class' @ISA not being set up, change the order in which you
	   register them.

       void gperl_register_object_alias (GType gtype, const char * package)
	   Makes package an alias for type.  This means that the package name
	   specified by package will be mapped to type by
	   gperl_object_type_from_package, but gperl_object_package_from_type
	   won't map type to package.  This is useful if you want to change
	   the canonical package name of a type while preserving backwards
	   compatibility with code which uses package to specify type.

	   In order for this to make sense, another package name should be
	   registered for type with gperl_register_object.

       void gperl_register_sink_func (GType gtype, GPerlObjectSinkFunc func)
	   Tell gperl_new_object() to use func to claim ownership of objects
	   derived from gtype.

	   gperl_new_object() always refs a GObject when wrapping it for the
	   first time.	To have the Perl wrapper claim ownership of a GObject
	   as part of gperl_new_object(), you unref the object after ref'ing
	   it. however, different GObject subclasses have different ways to
	   claim ownership; for example, GtkObject simply requires you to call
	   gtk_object_sink().  To make this concept generic, this function
	   allows you to register a function to be called when then wrapper
	   should claim ownership of the object.  The func registered for a
	   given type will be called on any object for which "g_type_isa
	   (G_TYPE_OBJECT (object), type)" succeeds.

	   If no sinkfunc is found for an object, g_object_unref() will be

	   Even though GObjects don't need sink funcs, we need to have them in
	   Glib as a hook for upstream objects.	 If we create a GtkObject (or
	   any other type of object which uses a different way to claim
	   ownership) via Glib::Object->new, any upstream wrappers, such as
	   gtk2perl_new_object(), will not be called.  Having a sink func
	   facility down here enables us always to do the right thing.

       void gperl_object_set_no_warn_unreg_subclass (GType gtype, gboolean
	   In versions 1.00 through 1.10x of Glib, the bindings required all
	   types to be registered ahead of time.  Upon encountering an unknown
	   type, the bindings would emit a warning to the effect of "unknown
	   type 'Foo'; representing as first known parent type 'Bar'".
	   However, for some types, such as GtkStyle or GdkGC, the actual
	   object returned is an instance of a child type of a private
	   implementation (e.g., a theme engine ("BlueCurveStyle") or gdk
	   backend ("GdkGCX11")); we neither can nor should have registered
	   names for these types.  Therefore, it is possible to tell the
	   bindings not to warn about these unregistered subclasses, and
	   simply represent them as the parent type.

	   With 1.12x, the bindings will automatically register unknown
	   classes into the namespace Glib::Object::_Unregistered to avoid
	   possible breakage resulting from unknown ancestors of known
	   children.  To preserve the old registered-as-unregistered behavior,
	   the value installed by this function is used to prevent the
	   _Unregistered mapping for such private backend classes.

	   Note: this assumes gtype has already been registered with

       const char * gperl_object_package_from_type (GType gtype)
	   Get the package corresponding to gtype.  If gtype is not a GObject
	   or GInterface, returns NULL.	 If gtype is not registered to a
	   package name, a new name of the form
	   "Glib::Object::_Unregistered::$c_type_name" will be created, used
	   to register the class, and then returned.

       HV * gperl_object_stash_from_type (GType gtype)
	   Get the stash corresponding to gtype; returns NULL if gtype is not
	   registered.	The stash is useful for "bless"ing.

       GType gperl_object_type_from_package (const char * package)
	   Inverse of gperl_object_package_from_type(),	 returns 0 if package
	   is not registered.

       SV * gperl_new_object (GObject * object, gboolean own)
	   Use this function to get the perl part of a GObject.	 If object has
	   never been seen by perl before, a new, empty perl object will be
	   created and added to a private key under object's qdata.  If object
	   already has a perl part, a new reference to it will be created. The
	   gobject + perl object together form a combined object that is
	   properly refcounted, i.e. both parts will stay alive as long as at
	   least one of them is alive, and only when both perl object and
	   gobject are no longer referenced will both be freed.

	   The perl object will be blessed into the package corresponding to
	   the GType returned by calling G_OBJECT_TYPE() on object; if that
	   class has not been registered via gperl_register_object(), this
	   function will emit a warning to that effect (with warn()), and
	   attempt to bless it into the first known class in the object's
	   ancestry.  Since Glib::Object is already registered, you'll get a
	   Glib::Object if you are lazy, and thus this function can fail only
	   if object isn't descended from GObject, in which case it croaks.
	   (In reality, if you pass a non-GObject to this function, you'll be
	   lucky if you don't get a segfault, as there's not really a way to
	   trap that.)	In practice these warnings can be unavoidable, so you
	   can use gperl_object_set_no_warn_unreg_subclass() to quell them on
	   a class-by-class basis.

	   However, when perl code is calling a GObject constructor (any
	   function which returns a new GObject), call gperl_new_object() with
	   own set to %TRUE; this will cause the first matching sink function
	   to be called on the GObject to claim ownership of that object, so
	   that it will be destroyed when the perl object goes out of scope.
	   The default sink func is g_object_unref(); other types should
	   supply the proper function; e.g., GtkObject should use
	   gtk_object_sink() here.

	   Returns the blessed perl object, or #&PL_sv_undef if object was

       GObject * gperl_get_object (SV * sv)
	   retrieve the GObject pointer from a Perl object.  Returns NULL if
	   sv is not linked to a GObject.

	   Note, this one is not safe -- in general you want to use

       GObject * gperl_get_object_check (SV * sv, GType gtype);
	   croaks if sv is undef or is not blessed into the package
	   corresponding to gtype.  use this for bringing parameters into
	   xsubs from perl.  Returns the same as gperl_get_object() (provided
	   it doesn't croak first).

       SV * gperl_object_check_type (SV * sv, GType gtype)
	   Essentially the same as gperl_get_object_check().

	   This croaks if the types aren't compatible.

       typedef GObject GObject_noinc
       typedef GObject GObject_ornull

       GValue is GLib's generic value container, and it is because of GValue
       that the run time type handling of GObject parameters and GClosure
       marshaling can function, and most usages of these functions will be
       from those two points.

       Client code will run into uses for gperl_sv_from_value() and
       gperl_value_from_sv() when trying to convert lists of parameters into
       GValue arrays and the like.

       gboolean gperl_value_from_sv (GValue * value, SV * sv)
	   set a value from a whatever is in sv.  value must be initialized so
	   the code knows what kind of value to coerce out of sv.

	   Return value is always TRUE; if the code knows how to perform the
	   conversion, it croaks.  (The return value is for backward
	   compatibility.) In reality, this really ought to always succeed; a
	   failed conversion should be considered a bug or unimplemented code!

       SV * gperl_sv_from_value (const GValue * value)
	   Coerce whatever is in value into a perl scalar and return it.

	   Croaks if the code doesn't know how to perform the conversion.

	   Might end up calling other Perl code.  So if you use this function
	   in XS code for a generic GType, make sure the stack pointer is set
	   up correctly before the call, and restore it after the call.

   GClosure / GPerlClosure
       GPerlClosure is a wrapper around the gobject library's GClosure with
       special handling for marshalling perl subroutines as callbacks.	This
       is specially tuned for use with GSignal and stuff like io watch,
       timeout, and idle handlers.

       For generic callback functions, which need parameters but do not get
       registered with the type system, this is sometimes overkill.  See
       GPerlCallback, below.

       GClosure * gperl_closure_new (SV * callback, SV * data, gboolean swap)
	   Create and return a new GPerlClosure.  callback and data will be
	   copied for storage; callback must not be NULL.  If swap is TRUE,
	   data will be swapped with the instance during invocation (this is
	   used to implement g_signal_connect_swapped()).

	   If compiled under a thread-enabled perl, the closure will be
	   created and marshaled in such a way as to ensure that the same
	   interpreter which created the closure will be used to invoke it.

       GClosure * gperl_closure_new_with_marshaller (SV * callback, SV * data,
       gboolean swap, GClosureMarshal marshaller)
	   Like "gperl_closure_new", but uses a caller-supplied marshaller.
	   This is provided for use in those sticky circumstances when you
	   just can't do it any other way; in general, you want to use the
	   default marshaller, which you get if you provide NULL for

	   If you use you own marshaller, you need to take care of everything
	   yourself, including swapping the instance and data if
	   "GPERL_CLOSURE_SWAP_DATA (closure)" is true, calling
	   "gperl_run_exception_handlers" if ERRSV is true after invoking the
	   perl sub, and ensuring that you properly use the "marshal_data"
	   parameter as the perl interpreter when PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT is
	   defined.  See the implementation of the default marshaller,
	   "gperl_closure_marshal", in Glib/GClosure.xs for inspiration.

       generic callback functions usually get invoked directly, and are not
       passed parameter lists as GValues.  we could very easily wrap up such
       generic callbacks with something that converts the parameters to
       GValues and then channels everything through GClosure, but this has two
       problems:  1) the above implementation of GClosure is tuned to
       marshalling signal handlers, which always have an instance object, and
       2) it's more work than is strictly necessary.

       additionally, generic callbacks aren't always kind to the GClosure

       so, here's GPerlCallback, which is designed specifically to run generic
       callback functions.  it reads parameters off the C stack and converts
       them into parameters on the perl stack.	(it uses the GValue to/from SV
       mechanism to do so, but doesn't allocate any temps on the heap.)	 the
       callback object itself stores the parameter type list.

       unfortunately, since the data element is always last, but the number of
       arguments is not known until we have the callback object, we can't pass
       gperl_callback_invoke directly to functions requiring a callback;
       you'll have to write a proxy callback which calls

       GPerlCallback * gperl_callback_new (SV * func, SV * data, gint
       n_params, GType param_types[], GType return_type)
	   Create and return a new GPerlCallback; use gperl_callback_destroy
	   when you are finished with it.

	   func: perl subroutine to call.  this SV will be copied, so don't
	   worry about reference counts.  must not be #NULL.

	   data: scalar to pass to func in addition to all other arguments.
	   the SV will be copied, so don't worry about reference counts.  may
	   be #NULL.

	   n_params: the number of elements in param_types.

	   param_types: the #GType of each argument that should be passed from
	   the invocation to func.  may be #NULL if n_params is zero,
	   otherwise it must be n_params elements long or nasty things will
	   happen.  this array will be copied; see gperl_callback_invoke() for
	   how it is used.

	   return_type: the #GType of the return value, or 0 if the function
	   has void return.

       void gperl_callback_destroy (GPerlCallback * callback)
	   Dispose of callback.

       void gperl_callback_invoke (GPerlCallback * callback, GValue *
       return_value, ...)
	   Marshall the variadic parameters according to callback's
	   param_types, and then invoke callback's subroutine in scalar
	   context, or void context if the return type is G_TYPE_VOID.	If
	   return_value is not NULL, then value returned (if any) will be
	   copied into return_value.

	   A typical callback handler would look like this:

	     static gint
	     real_c_callback (Foo * f, Bar * b, int a, gpointer data)
		     GPerlCallback * callback = (GPerlCallback*)data;
		     GValue return_value = {0,};
		     gint retval;
		     g_value_init (&return_value, callback->return_type);
		     gperl_callback_invoke (callback, &return_value,
					    f, b, a);
		     retval = g_value_get_int (&return_value);
		     g_value_unset (&return_value);
		     return retval;

   Exception Handling
       Like Event, Tk, and most other callback-using, event-based perl
       modules, Glib traps exceptions that happen in callbacks.	 To enable
       your code to do something about these exceptions, Glib stores a list of
       exception handlers which will be called on the trapped exceptions.
       This is completely distinct from the $SIG{__DIE__} mechanism provided
       by Perl itself, for various reasons (not the least of which is that the
       Perl docs and source code say that $SIG{__DIE__} is intended for
       running as the program is about to exit, and other behaviors may be
       removed in the future (apparently a source of much debate on p5p)).

       int gperl_install_exception_handler (GClosure * closure)
	   Install a GClosure to be executed when gperl_closure_invoke() traps
	   an exception.  The closure should return boolean (TRUE if the
	   handler should remain installed) and expect to receive a perl
	   scalar.  This scalar will be a private copy of ERRSV ($@) which the
	   handler can mangle to its heart's content.

	   The return value is an integer id tag that may be passed to

       void gperl_remove_exception_handler (guint tag)
	   Remove the exception handler identified by tag, as returned by
	   gperl_install_exception_handler().  If tag cannot be found, this
	   does nothing.

	   WARNING:  this function locks a global data structure, so do NOT
	   call it recursively.	 also, calling this from within an exception
	   handler will result in a deadlock situation.	 if you want to remove
	   your handler just have it return FALSE.

       void gperl_run_exception_handlers (void)
	   Invoke whatever exception handlers are installed.  You will need
	   this if you have written a custom marshaler.	 Uses the value of the
	   global ERRSV.

       void gperl_signal_set_marshaller_for (GType instance_type, char *
       detailed_signal, GClosureMarshal marshaller)
	   You need this function only in rare cases, usually as workarounds
	   for bad signal parameter types or to implement writable arguments.
	   Use the given marshaller to marshal all handlers for
	   detailed_signal on instance_type.  "gperl_signal_connect" will look
	   for marshallers registered here, and apply them to the GPerlClosure
	   it creates for the given callback being connected.

	   A canonical form of detailed_signal will be used so that marshaller
	   is applied for all possible spellings of the signal name.

	   Use the helper macros in gperl_marshal.h to help write your
	   marshaller function.	 That header, which is installed with the Glib
	   module but not #included through gperl.h, includes commentary and
	   examples which you should follow closely to avoid nasty bugs.  Use
	   the Source, Luke.

	   WARNING: Bend over backwards and turn your head around 720 degrees
	   before attempting to write a GPerlClosure marshaller without using
	   the macros in gperl_marshal.h.  If you absolutely cannot use those
	   macros, be certain to understand what those macros do so you can
	   get the semantics correct, and keep your code synchronized with
	   them, or you may miss very important bugfixes.

       gulong gperl_signal_connect (SV * instance, char * detailed_signal, SV
       * callback, SV * data, GConnectFlags flags)
	   The actual workhorse behind GObject::signal_connect, the binding
	   for g_signal_connect, for use from within XS.  This creates a
	   "GPerlClosure" wrapper for the given callback and data, and
	   connects that closure to the signal named detailed_signal on the
	   given GObject instance.  This is only good for named signals.
	   flags is the same as for g_signal_connect().	 data may be NULL, but
	   callback must not be.

	   Returns the id of the installed callback.

       perlapi(1), perlguts(1), GLib Reference Manual, Glib(3pm),

       This file was automatically generated from the source code of the Glib
       module, which is maintained by the gtk2-perl team.

       Copyright (C) 2003 by the gtk2-perl team (see the file AUTHORS for the
       full list)

       This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the terms of the GNU Library General Public License as published
       by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or
       (at your option) any later version.

       This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
       WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       Library General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU Library General Public
       License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software
       Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA
       02110-1301 USA.

perl v5.18.1			  2014-01-08		      Glib::xsapi(3pm)

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