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SZ(1)									 SZ(1)

       sx, sb, sz - XMODEM, YMODEM, ZMODEM file send

       sz [-+8abdefkLlNnopqTtuvyY] file ...
       sb [-adfkqtuv] file ...
       sx [-akqtuv] file
       sz [-oqtv] -c COMMAND
       sz [-oqtv] -i COMMAND
       sz -TT

       Sz  uses the ZMODEM, YMODEM or XMODEM error correcting protocol to send
       one or more files over a dial-in serial port to a variety  of  programs
       running under PC-DOS, CP/M, Unix, VMS, and other operating systems.

       While  rz is smart enough to be called from cu(1), very few versions of
       cu(1) are smart enough to allow sz to work properly.  Unix  flavors  of
       Professional-YAM are available for such dial-out application.

       Sz sends one or more files with ZMODEM protocol.

       ZMODEM  greatly simplifies file transfers compared to XMODEM.  In addi‐
       tion to a friendly user interface, ZMODEM  provides  Personal  Computer
       and  other  users  an  efficient,  accurate,  and  robust file transfer

       ZMODEM provides complete END-TO-END data integrity between  application
       programs.   ZMODEM's 32 bit CRC catches errors that sneak into even the
       most advanced networks.

       Advanced file management features include AutoDownload (Automatic  file
       Download	 initiated  without  user intervention), Display of individual
       and total file lengths and transmission time estimates, Crash Recovery,
       selective  file	transfers,  and	 preservation  of  exact file date and

       Output from another program may be piped	 to  sz	 for  transmission  by
       denoting standard input with "-":
				    ls -l | sz -
       The  program  output is transmitted with the filename where PID
       is the process ID of the sz program.  If the environment variable ONAME
       is set, that is used instead.  In this case, the Unix command:
			     ls -l | ONAME=con sz -ay -
       will  send  a  "file"  to  the  PC-DOS  console display.	 The -y option
       instructs the receiver to open the file	for  writing  unconditionally.
       The  -a	option	causes the receiver to convert Unix newlines to PC-DOS
       carriage returns and linefeeds.

       Sb batch sends one or more files with YMODEM or ZMODEM  protocol.   The
       initial	ZMODEM	initialization	is  not	 sent.	 When requested by the
       receiver, sb supports YMODEM-g with "cbreak" tty	 mode,	XON/XOFF  flow
       control,	 and  interrupt	 character set to CAN (^X).  YMODEM-g (Profes‐
       sional-YAM g option) increases  throughput  over	 error	free  channels
       (direct	connection, X.PC, etc.)	 by not acknowledging each transmitted

       On Unix systems, additional information about the file is  transmitted.
       If  the	receiving  program uses this information, the transmitted file
       length controls the  exact  number  of  bytes  written  to  the	output
       dataset, and the modify time and file mode are set accordingly.

       Sx  sends  a  single  file with XMODEM or XMODEM-1k protocol (sometimes
       incorrectly called "ymodem").  The user must supply the	file  name  to
       both sending and receiving programs.

       If  sz  is  invoked  with  $SHELL set and if that variable contains the
       string  rsh  ,  rbash  or  rksh	(restricted  shell),  sz  operates  in
       restricted  mode.   Restricted  mode restricts pathnames to the current
       directory and PUBDIR (usually /usr/spool/uucppublic) and/or subdirecto‐
       ries thereof.

       The  fourth form sends a single COMMAND to a ZMODEM receiver for execu‐
       tion.  Sz exits with the COMMAND return	value.	 If  COMMAND  includes
       spaces or characters special to the shell, it must be quoted.

       The  fifth  form sends a single COMMAND to a ZMODEM receiver for execu‐
       tion.  Sz exits as soon as the receiver has correctly received the com‐
       mand, before it is executed.

       The sixth form (sz -TT) attempts to output all 256 code combinations to
       the terminal.  In you are having difficulty sending files, this command
       lets  you  see  which  character codes are being eaten by the operating

       If sz is invoked with stdout and stderr to different datasets,  Verbose
       is  set	to 2, causing frame by frame progress reports to stderr.  This
       may be disabled with the q option.

       The meanings of the available options are:

       -+, --append
	      Instruct the receiver to append transmitted data to an  existing
	      file (ZMODEM only).
       -2, --twostop
	      use two stop bits (if possible). Do not use this unless you know
	      what you are doing.
       -8, --try-8k
	      Try to go up to 8KB blocksize. This is incompatible  with	 stan‐
	      dard  zmodem,  but  a common extension in the bbs world. (ZMODEM
	      Start with 8KB blocksize. Like --try-8k.
       -a, --ascii
	      Convert NL characters in the transmitted file to CR/LF.  This is
	      done  by	the  sender for XMODEM and YMODEM, by the receiver for
       -b, --binary
	      (ZMODEM) Binary override: transfer file without any translation.
       -B NUMBER, --bufsize NUMBER
	      Use a readbuffer of NUMBER bytes. Default is 16384, which should
	      be  enough  for most situations. If you have a slow machine or a
	      bad disk interface or suffer from other  hardware	 problems  you
	      might  want to increase the buffersize.  -1 or auto use a buffer
	      large enough to buffer the whole	file.  Be  careful  with  this
	      option  -	 things normally get worse, not better, if the machine
	      starts to swap.

	      Using this option turns of memory mapping	 of  the  input	 file.
	      This increases memory and CPU usage.
       -c COMMAND, --command COMMAND
	      Send  COMMAND  to	 the  receiver for execution, return with COM‐
	      MAND´s exit status.
       -C N, --command-tries N
	      Retry to send command N times (default: 11).
       -d, --dot-to-slash
	      Change all instances of "." to "/" in the transmitted  pathname.
	      Thus,  C.omenB0000  (which  is unacceptable to MSDOS or CP/M) is
	      transmitted as C/omenB0000.  If the resultant filename has  more
	      than  8  characters  in  the  stem, a "." is inserted to allow a
	      total of eleven.

	      This option enables the --full-path option.
       --delay-startup N
	      Wait N seconds before doing anything.
       -e, --escape
	      Escape all control characters; normally XON, XOFF, DLE, CR-@-CR,
	      and Ctrl-X are escaped.
       Force the sender to rename the new file if a file with the same
	      name already exists.
       -f, --full-path
	      Send  Full  pathname.   Normally directory prefixes are stripped
	      from the transmitted filename.

	      This is also turned on with to --dot-to-slash option.
       -h, --help
	      give help.
       -i COMMAND, --immediate-command COMMAND
	      Send COMMAND to the receiver for execution,  return  immediately
	      upon  the	 receiving  program's successful reception of the com‐
       -k, --1k
	      (XMODEM/YMODEM) Send files using 1024 byte  blocks  rather  than
	      the  default  128	 byte  blocks.	 1024  byte packets speed file
	      transfers at high bit rates.  (ZMODEM streams the data  for  the
	      best possible throughput.)
       -L N, --packetlen N
	      Use  ZMODEM  sub-packets	of  length  N.	A larger N (32 <= N <=
	      1024) gives slightly higher throughput, a smaller N speeds error
	      recovery.	  The  default	is  128	 below 300 baud, 256 above 300
	      baud, or 1024 above 2400 baud.
       -m N, --min-bps N
	      Stop transmission if BPS-Rate (Bytes Per Second) falls  below  N
	      for a certain time (see --min-bps-time option).
       -M N, --min-bps-time
	      Used together with --min-bps. Default is 120 (seconds).
       -l N, --framelen N
	      Wait for the receiver to acknowledge correct data every N (32 <=
	      N <= 1024) characters.  This may be used to avoid network	 over‐
	      run when XOFF flow control is lacking.
       -n, --newer
	      (ZMODEM)	Send  each  file  if  destination file does not exist.
	      Overwrite destination file if source file is newer than the des‐
	      tination file.
       -N, --newer-or-longer
	      (ZMODEM)	Send  each  file  if  destination file does not exist.
	      Overwrite destination file if source file	 is  newer  or	longer
	      than the destination file.
       -o, --16-bit-crc
	      (ZMODEM) Disable automatic selection of 32 bit CRC.
       -O, --disable-timeouts
	      Disable  read timeout handling. This makes lsz hang if the other
	      side doesn't send anything, but increases performance (not much)
	      and  decreases  system  load  (reduces number of system calls by
	      about 50 percent).

	      Use this option with care.
       -p, --protect
	      (ZMODEM) Protect existing destination files by skipping transfer
	      if the destination file exists.
       -q, --quiet
	      Quiet suppresses verbosity.
       -R, --restricted
	      Restricted  mode:	 restricts  pathnames to the current directory
	      and PUBDIR (usually /usr/spool/uucppublic) and/or subdirectories
       -r, --resume
	      (ZMODEM)	Resume	interrupted file transfer.  If the source file
	      is longer than the destination file, the transfer	 commences  at
	      the offset in the source file that equals the length of the des‐
	      tination file.
       -s HH:MM, --stop-at HH:MM
	      Stop transmission at HH  hours,  MM  minutes.  Another  variant,
	      using +N instead of HH:MM, stops transmission in N seconds.
       -S, --timesync
	      enable  timesync	protocol support. See timesync.doc for further

	      This option is incompatible with standard zmodem.	 Use  it  with
	      turn syslogging on or off. the default is set at configure time.
	      This option is ignored if no syslog support is compiled in.
       -t TIM, --timeout TIM
	      Change timeout to TIM tenths of seconds.
       -T, --turbo
	      Do not escape certain characters (^P,  ^P|0x80,  telenet	escape
	      sequence [CR + @]). This improves performance by about 1 percent
	      and shouldn't hurt in the normal case (but be careful - ^P might
	      be useful if connected through a terminal server).
       --tcp  Try  to initiate a TCP/IP connection. lsz will ask the receiving
	      zmodem to open  a	 TCP/IP	 connection.  All  handshaking	(which
	      address / port to use) will be done by the zmodem programs.

	      You  will	 normally  not want to use this option as lrzsz is the
	      only zmodem which understands what to  do	 (private  extension).
	      You  might  want to use this option if the two programs are con‐
	      nected (stdin/out) over a slow or bad (not 8bit  clean)  network

	      Use  of this option imposes a security risk, somebody else could
	      connect to the port in between. See SECURITY for details.
       --tcp-client ADDRESS:PORT
	      Act as a tcp/ip client: Connect to the given port.

	      See --tcp-server for more information.

	      Act as a server: Open a socket, print out what to do,  wait  for

	      You  will	 normally  not want to use this option as lrzsz is the
	      only zmodem which understands what to  do	 (private  extension).
	      You  might want to use this if you have to use zmodem (for which
	      reason whatever), and cannot use the --tcp option of  lsz	 (per‐
	      haps  because your telnet doesn't allow to spawn a local program
	      with stdin/stdout connected to the remote side).

	      If you use this option you have to start	lsz  with  the	--tcp-
	      client ADDRESS:PORT option.  lrz will print the address and port
	      on startup.

	      Use of this option imposes a security risk, somebody else	 could
	      connect to the port in between. See SECURITY for details.

       -u     Unlink the file after successful transmission.
       -U, --unrestrict
	      Turn  off restricted mode (this is not possible if running under
	      a restricted shell).
       -w N, --windowsize N
	      Limit the transmit window size to N bytes (ZMODEM).
       -v, --verbose
	      Verbose output to stderr. More v's generate more output.
       -X, --xmodem
	      use XMODEM protocol.
       -y, --overwrite
	      Instruct a ZMODEM receiving program to  overwrite	 any  existing
	      file with the same name.
       -Y, --overwrite-or-skip
	      Instruct	a  ZMODEM  receiving program to overwrite any existing
	      file with the same name, and to skip any source  files  that  do
	      have a file with the same pathname on the destination system.
	      use ZMODEM protocol.
       -Z, --zmodem
	      use ZMODEM protocol.

       Restricted mode restricts pathnames to the current directory and PUBDIR
       (usually /var/spool/uucppublic) and/or subdirectories thereof, and dis‐
       ables remote command execution.

       Restricted  mode	 is entered if the R option is given or if lsz detects
       that it runs under a restricted shell or if  the	 environment  variable
       ZMODEM_RESTRICTED is found.

       Restricted mode can be turned of with the U option if not running under
       a restricted shell.

       Use of the
	      --tcp-client or --tcp-server options imposes a security risk, as
	      somebody	else  could  connect to the port before you do it, and
	      grab your data. If there's strong demand for a more secure  mode
	      i might introduce some sort of password challenge.

       ZNULLS may  be  used  to	 specify  the number of nulls to send before a
	      ZDATA frame.

       SHELL  lsz recognizes a restricted shell if this variable includes  rsh
	      or rksh

	      lrz enters restricted mode if the variable is set.

       TMPDIR If  this	environment variable is set its content is used as the
	      directory to place in the answer file  to	 a  timesync  request.
	      TMP  Used	 instead  of  TMPDIR  if TMPDIR is not set. If neither
	      TMPDIR nor TMP is set /tmp will be used.

       ZMODEM File Transfer (Unix to DSZ/ZCOMM/Professional-YAM)
       % sz -a *.c
       This single command transfers all .c files in the current  Unix	direc‐
       tory with conversion (-a) to end of line conventions appropriate to the
       receiving environment.  With ZMODEM AutoDownload enabled, Professional-
       YAM   and ZCOMM will automatically receive the files after performing a
       security check.

       % sz -Yan *.c *.h
       Send only the .c and .h files that exist on both systems, and are newer
       on  the	sending system than the corresponding version on the receiving
       system, converting Unix to DOS text format.
       $ sz -\Yan file1.c file2.c file3.c foo.h baz.h ®(for VMS)

       ZMODEM Command Download (Unix to Professional-YAM)
	   sz -c "c:;cd /yam/dist"
	   sz -ya $(YD)/*.me
	   sz -yqb y*.exe
	   sz -c "cd /yam"
	   sz -i "!insms"
       This Makefile fragment uses sz to issue commands to Professional-YAM to
       change  current	disk  and directory.  Next, sz transfers the .me files
       from the $YD directory, commanding the receiver to  overwrite  the  old
       files  and  to convert from Unix end of line conventions to PC-DOS con‐
       ventions.  The third line transfers some .exe files.   The  fourth  and
       fifth  lines  command  Pro-YAM to change directory and execute a PC-DOS
       batch file insms .  Since the batch file takes considerable  time,  the
       -i form is used to allow sz to exit immediately.

       XMODEM File Transfer (Unix to Crosstalk)
       % sx -a foo.c
       rx foo.c
       The  above  three commands transfer a single file from Unix to a PC and
       Crosstalk with sz translating Unix newlines to DOS CR/LF.  This	combi‐
       nation is much slower and far less reliable than ZMODEM.

       "Caught	signal	99"  indicates	the program was not properly compiled,
       refer to "bibi(99)" in rbsb.c for details.

       rz(omen),   ZMODEM.DOC,	 YMODEM.DOC,   Professional-YAM,    crc(omen),
       sq(omen), todos(omen), tocpm(omen), tomac(omen), yam(omen)

       Compile	time  options  required	 for  various  operating  systems  are
       described in the source file.

       The VMS version does not support wild cards.  Because of VMS DCL, upper
       case option letters muse be represented by \ proceeding the letter.

       The current VMS version does not support XMODEM, XMODEM-1k, or YMODEM.

       VMS C Standard I/O and RMS may interact to modify the file contents.

       32 bit CRC code courtesy Gary S. Brown.

       sz.c, crctab.c, rbsb.c, zm.c, zmodem.h Unix source files

       sz.c,  crctab.c,	 vrzsz.c,  zm.c,  zmodem.h,  vmodem.h,	vvmodem.c, VMS
       source files.

       /tmp/szlog stores debugging output (sz -vv) (szlog on VMS).

       The command "sz -T file" exercises the Attn sequence error recovery  by
       commanding  errors  with	 unterminated  packets.	 The receiving program
       should complain five times about binary data packets  being  too	 long.
       Each  time sz is interrupted, it should send a ZDATA header followed by
       another defective packet.  If the receiver does not  detect  five  long
       data packets, the Attn sequence is not interrupting the sender, and the
       Myattn string in sz.c must be modified.

       After 5 packets, sz stops the "transfer" and prints the total number of
       characters  "sent"  (Tcount).   The  difference between Tcount and 5120
       represents the number of characters stored in various buffers when  the
       Attn sequence is generated.

       Calling	sz  from  most	versions  of  cu(1)  doesn't work because cu's
       receive process fights sz for characters from the modem.

       On at least one BSD system, sz would hang or exit when it got within  a
       few  kilobytes  of the end of file.  Using the "-w 8192" flag fixed the
       problem.	 The real cause is unknown, perhaps a bug in  the  kernel  TTY
       output routines.

       Programs	 that  do  not	properly implement the specified file transfer
       protocol may cause sz to "hang" the port for a  minute  or  two.	  This
       problem	is  corrected by using ZCOMM, Pro-YAM, or other program with a
       correct implementation of the specified protocol.

       Many programs claiming to support YMODEM only support  XMODEM  with  1k
       blocks, and they often don't get that quite right.

       XMODEM  transfers  add up to 127 garbage bytes per file.	 XMODEM-1k and
       YMODEM-1k transfers use 128 byte blocks to avoid extra padding.

       YMODEM programs use the file length transmitted at the beginning of the
       transfer	 to prune the file to the correct length; this may cause prob‐
       lems with source files that grow during the  course  of	the  transfer.
       This  problem  does not pertain to ZMODEM transfers, which preserve the
       exact file length unconditionally.

       Most ZMODEM options are merely passed to the receiving program; some do
       not implement all these options.

       Circular	 buffering  and	 a  ZMODEM  sliding window should be used when
       input is from pipes instead of acknowledging frames  each  1024	bytes.
       If no files can be opened, sz sends a ZMODEM command to echo a suitable
       complaint; perhaps it should check for the presence  of	at  least  one
       accessible  file before getting hot and bothered.  The test mode leaves
       a zero length file on the receiving system.

       A few high speed modems have a firmware bug that drops characters  when
       the  direction of high speed transmission is reversed.  The environment
       variable ZNULLS may be used to specify the  number  of  nulls  to  send
       before  a  ZDATA frame.	Values of 101 for a 4.77 MHz PC and 124 for an
       AT are typical.

lrzsz-0.12b			   2.6.1996				 SZ(1)

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