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X(7)									  X(7)

       X - a portable, network-transparent window system

       The  X  Window System is a network transparent window system which runs
       on a wide range of computing and graphics machines.  It should be rela‐
       tively straightforward to build the X.Org Foundation software distribu‐
       tion on most ANSI C and POSIX compliant systems.	 Commercial  implemen‐
       tations are also available for a wide range of platforms.

       The  X.Org  Foundation  requests	 that the following names be used when
       referring to this software:

				   X Window System
				    X Version 11
			     X Window System, Version 11

       X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.

       X Window System servers run on computers	 with  bitmap  displays.   The
       server distributes user input to and accepts output requests from vari‐
       ous client programs through a variety of different interprocess	commu‐
       nication	 channels.   Although  the  most common case is for the client
       programs to be running on the same machine as the server,  clients  can
       be  run transparently from other machines (including machines with dif‐
       ferent architectures and operating systems) as well.

       X supports overlapping hierarchical subwindows and  text	 and  graphics
       operations, on both monochrome and color displays.  For a full explana‐
       tion of the functions that are available, see the Xlib - C  Language  X
       Interface  manual,  the	X  Window System Protocol specification, the X
       Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual, and  various  toolkit

       The number of programs that use X is quite large.  Programs provided in
       the core X.Org Foundation distribution include:	a  terminal  emulator,
       xterm;  a  window manager, twm; a display manager, xdm; a console redi‐
       rect program, xconsole; a mail interface, xmh; a bitmap editor, bitmap;
       resource	 listing/manipulation  tools,  appres, editres; access control
       programs, xauth, xhost, and iceauth; user preference setting  programs,
       xrdb, xcmsdb, xset, xsetroot, xstdcmap, and xmodmap; clocks, xclock and
       oclock; a font displayer, xfd; utilities for listing information	 about
       fonts, windows, and displays, xlsfonts, xwininfo, xlsclients, xdpyinfo,
       xlsatoms, and xprop; screen image manipulation  utilities,  xwd,	 xwud,
       and  xmag; a performance measurement utility, x11perf; a font compiler,
       bdftopcf; a font server and related utilities, xfs, fsinfo,  fslsfonts,
       fstobdf;	 a display server and related utilities, Xserver, rgb, mkfont‐
       dir; a clipboard manager, xclipboard; keyboard description compiler and
       related	utilities,  xkbcomp, setxkbmap xkbprint, xkbbell, xkbevd, xkb‐
       vleds, and xkbwatch; a utility to terminate clients, xkill; a  firewall
       security	 proxy,	 xfwp;	a  proxy manager to control them, proxymngr; a
       utility to find proxies, xfindproxy; web	 browser  plug-ins,  libxrx.so
       and  libxrxnest.so;  an RX MIME-type helper program, xrx; and a utility
       to cause part or all of the screen to be redrawn, xrefresh.

       Many other  utilities,  window  managers,  games,  toolkits,  etc.  are
       included as user-contributed software in the X.Org Foundation distribu‐
       tion, or are available on the Internet.	See  your  site	 administrator
       for details.

       There  are  two main ways of getting the X server and an initial set of
       client applications started.  The particular  method  used  depends  on
       what  operating system you are running and whether or not you use other
       window systems in addition to X.

       Display Manager
	       If you want to always have X running on your display, your site
	       administrator  can set your machine up to use a Display Manager
	       such as xdm, gdm, or kdm.  This program is typically started by
	       the  system  at	boot time and takes care of keeping the server
	       running and getting users logged in.  If you are running one of
	       these  display  managers, you will normally see a window on the
	       screen welcoming you to the system and asking  for  your	 login
	       information.  Simply type them in as you would at a normal ter‐
	       minal.  If you make a mistake, the display manager will display
	       an error message and ask you to try again.  After you have suc‐
	       cessfully logged in, the display manager will start up  your  X
	       environment.  The documentation for the display manager you use
	       can provide more details.

       xinit (run manually from the shell)
	       Sites that support more than one window system might choose  to
	       use the xinit program for starting X manually.  If this is true
	       for your machine, your site administrator  will	probably  have
	       provided a program named "x11", "startx", or "xstart" that will
	       do site-specific initialization	(such  as  loading  convenient
	       default	resources,  running  a	window	manager,  displaying a
	       clock, and starting several terminal emulators) in a nice  way.
	       If  not,	 you  can build such a script using the xinit program.
	       This utility simply runs one user-specified  program  to	 start
	       the  server,  runs another to start up any desired clients, and
	       then waits for either to finish.	 Since either or both  of  the
	       user-specified  programs may be a shell script, this gives sub‐
	       stantial flexibility at the expense of a nice  interface.   For
	       this reason, xinit is not intended for end users.

       From  the  user's perspective, every X server has a display name of the


       This information is used by the application to determine how it	should
       connect	to  the	 server	 and which screen it should use by default (on
       displays with multiple monitors):

	       The hostname specifies the name of the  machine	to  which  the
	       display is physically connected.	 If the hostname is not given,
	       the most efficient way of communicating to a server on the same
	       machine will be used.

	       The  phrase  "display" is usually used to refer to a collection
	       of monitors that share a common set of input devices (keyboard,
	       mouse,  tablet, etc.).  Most workstations tend to only have one
	       display.	 Larger, multi-user systems, however, frequently  have
	       several	displays  so  that  more  than one person can be doing
	       graphics work at once.  To avoid confusion, each display	 on  a
	       machine	is assigned a display number (beginning at 0) when the
	       X server for that display is started.  The display number  must
	       always be given in a display name.

	       Some displays share their input devices among two or more moni‐
	       tors.  These may be configured  as  a  single  logical  screen,
	       which  allows  windows to move across screens, or as individual
	       screens, each with their own set	 of  windows.	If  configured
	       such  that each monitor has its own set of windows, each screen
	       is assigned a screen number (beginning at 0) when the X	server
	       for  that  display  is  started.	  If  the screen number is not
	       given, screen 0 will be used.

       On POSIX systems, the default display name is stored  in	 your  DISPLAY
       environment  variable.  This variable is set automatically by the xterm
       terminal emulator.  However, when you log into  another	machine	 on  a
       network,	 you may need to set DISPLAY by hand to point to your display.
       For example,

	   % setenv DISPLAY myws:0
	   $ DISPLAY=myws:0; export DISPLAY
       The ssh program can be used to start an X program on a remote  machine;
       it automatically sets the DISPLAY variable correctly.

       Finally,	 most X programs accept a command line option of -display dis‐
       playname to temporarily override the contents of DISPLAY.  This is most
       commonly used to pop windows on another person's screen or as part of a
       "remote shell" command to start an xterm pointing back to your display.
       For example,

	   % xeyes -display joesws:0 -geometry 1000x1000+0+0
	   % rsh big xterm -display myws:0 -ls </dev/null &

       X  servers  listen for connections on a variety of different communica‐
       tions channels (network byte  streams,  shared  memory,	etc.).	 Since
       there  can be more than one way of contacting a given server, The host‐
       name part of the display name is used to determine the type of  channel
       (also  called  a transport layer) to be used.  X servers generally sup‐
       port the following types of connections:

	       The hostname part of the	 display  name	should	be  the	 empty
	       string.	 For  example:	 :0, :1, and :0.1.  The most efficient
	       local transport will be chosen.

	       The hostname part of the display	 name  should  be  the	server
	       machine's  hostname or IP address.  Full Internet names, abbre‐
	       viated names,  IPv4  addresses,	and  IPv6  addresses  are  all
	       allowed.	    For	   example:    x.org:0,	   expo:0,    [::1]:0,, bigmachine:1, and hydra:0.1.

       An X server can use several types of access control.   Mechanisms  pro‐
       vided in Release 7 are:
	   Host Access			 Simple host-based access control.
	   MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1		 Shared plain-text "cookies".
	   XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1		 Secure DES based private-keys.
	   SUN-DES-1			 Based on Sun's secure rpc system.
	   Server Interpreted		 Server-dependent methods of access control

       Xdm  initializes	 access	 control for the server and also places autho‐
       rization information in a file accessible to the user.	Normally,  the
       list  of	 hosts	from  which  connections are always accepted should be
       empty, so that only clients with are explicitly authorized can  connect
       to  the	display.   When you add entries to the host list (with xhost),
       the server no longer performs any  authorization	 on  connections  from
       those machines.	Be careful with this.

       The  file  from which Xlib extracts authorization data can be specified
       with the environment variable XAUTHORITY,  and  defaults	 to  the  file
       .Xauthority in the home directory.  Xdm uses $HOME/.Xauthority and will
       create it or merge in authorization records if it already exists when a
       user logs in.

       If  you	use  several machines and share a common home directory across
       all of the machines by means of a network file system, you never really
       have  to	 worry	about authorization files, the system should work cor‐
       rectly by default.  Otherwise, as the authorization files are  machine-
       independent,  you  can  simply copy the files to share them.  To manage
       authorization files, use xauth.	This program  allows  you  to  extract
       records	and  insert  them  into other files.  Using this, you can send
       authorization to remote machines when you login, if the remote  machine
       does  not  share a common home directory with your local machine.  Note
       that authorization information transmitted ``in the clear''  through  a
       network	file system or using ftp or rcp can be ``stolen'' by a network
       eavesdropper, and as such may  enable  unauthorized  access.   In  many
       environments,  this  level  of security is not a concern, but if it is,
       you need to know the exact semantics of	the  particular	 authorization
       data to know if this is actually a problem.

       For  more  information  on  access control, see the Xsecurity(7) manual

       One of the advantages of using window systems instead of hardwired ter‐
       minals is that applications don't have to be restricted to a particular
       size or location on the screen.	Although the layout of	windows	 on  a
       display	is  controlled	by the window manager that the user is running
       (described below), most X programs accept a command  line  argument  of
       the  form  -geometry WIDTHxHEIGHT+XOFF+YOFF (where WIDTH, HEIGHT, XOFF,
       and YOFF are numbers) for specifying a preferred size and location  for
       this application's main window.

       The  WIDTH  and	HEIGHT parts of the geometry specification are usually
       measured in either pixels or characters, depending on the  application.
       The  XOFF and YOFF parts are measured in pixels and are used to specify
       the distance of the window from the left or right and  top  and	bottom
       edges  of the screen, respectively.  Both types of offsets are measured
       from the indicated edge of the screen to the corresponding edge of  the
       window.	The X offset may be specified in the following ways:

       +XOFF   The left edge of the window is to be placed XOFF pixels in from
	       the left edge of the screen (i.e., the X coordinate of the win‐
	       dow's  origin  will  be	XOFF).	XOFF may be negative, in which
	       case the window's left edge will be off the screen.

       -XOFF   The right edge of the window is to be  placed  XOFF  pixels  in
	       from  the  right	 edge of the screen.  XOFF may be negative, in
	       which case the window's right edge will be off the screen.

       The Y offset has similar meanings:

       +YOFF   The top edge of the window is to be YOFF pixels below  the  top
	       edge of the screen (i.e., the Y coordinate of the window's ori‐
	       gin will be YOFF).  YOFF may be negative,  in  which  case  the
	       window's top edge will be off the screen.

       -YOFF   The  bottom  edge  of the window is to be YOFF pixels above the
	       bottom edge of the screen.  YOFF may be negative, in which case
	       the window's bottom edge will be off the screen.

       Offsets	must  be  given	 as pairs; in other words, in order to specify
       either XOFF or YOFF both must be present.  Windows can be placed in the
       four corners of the screen using the following specifications:

       +0+0    upper left hand corner.

       -0+0    upper right hand corner.

       -0-0    lower right hand corner.

       +0-0    lower left hand corner.

       In the following examples, a terminal emulator is placed in roughly the
       center of the screen and a load average monitor, mailbox, and clock are
       placed in the upper right hand corner:

	   xterm -fn 6x10 -geometry 80x24+30+200 &
	   xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 &
	   xload -geometry 48x48-96+0 &
	   xbiff -geometry 48x48-48+0 &

       The  layout  of windows on the screen is controlled by special programs
       called window managers.	Although many window managers will honor geom‐
       etry specifications as given, others may choose to ignore them (requir‐
       ing the user to explicitly draw the window's region on the screen  with
       the pointer, for example).

       Since  window  managers are regular (albeit complex) client programs, a
       variety of different user interfaces can be built.  The	X.Org  Founda‐
       tion  distribution comes with a window manager named twm which supports
       overlapping windows,  popup  menus,  point-and-click  or	 click-to-type
       input models, title bars, nice icons (and an icon manager for those who
       don't like separate icon windows).

       See the user-contributed software in the X.Org Foundation  distribution
       for other popular window managers.

       Collections  of	characters  for	 displaying  text and symbols in X are
       known as fonts.	A font typically contains images that share  a	common
       appearance  and	look  nice together (for example, a single size, bold‐
       ness, slant, and character set).	 Similarly, collections of fonts  that
       are  based  on  a  common  type face (the variations are usually called
       roman, bold, italic, bold italic, oblique, and bold oblique) are called

       Fonts  come  in	various	 sizes.	 The X server supports scalable fonts,
       meaning it is possible to create a font of arbitrary size from a single
       source  for  the	 font.	The server supports scaling from outline fonts
       and bitmap fonts.  Scaling from outline fonts usually produces signifi‐
       cantly better results than scaling from bitmap fonts.

       An  X  server can obtain fonts from individual files stored in directo‐
       ries in the file system, or from one or more font servers,  or  from  a
       mixtures	 of  directories  and  font  servers.	The list of places the
       server looks when trying to find a font is controlled by its font path.
       Although	 most  installations  will  choose to have the server start up
       with all of the commonly used font directories in the  font  path,  the
       font  path  can be changed at any time with the xset program.  However,
       it is important to  remember  that  the	directory  names  are  on  the
       server's machine, not on the application's.

       Bitmap  font  files  are	 usually  created  by compiling a textual font
       description into binary form, using bdftopcf.  Font databases are  cre‐
       ated  by	 running the mkfontdir program in the directory containing the
       source or compiled versions of the fonts.  Whenever fonts are added  to
       a  directory, mkfontdir should be rerun so that the server can find the
       new fonts.  To make the server reread the font database, reset the font
       path  with  the	xset program.  For example, to add a font to a private
       directory, the following commands could be used:

	   % cp newfont.pcf ~/myfonts
	   % mkfontdir ~/myfonts
	   % xset fp rehash

       The xfontsel and xlsfonts programs can be used to  browse  through  the
       fonts available on a server.  Font names tend to be fairly long as they
       contain all of the information needed to uniquely  identify  individual
       fonts.	However,  the  X server supports wildcarding of font names, so
       the full specification


       might be abbreviated as:


       Because the shell also has special meanings for	*  and	?,  wildcarded
       font names should be quoted:

	   % xlsfonts -fn '-*-courier-medium-r-normal--*-100-*-*-*-*-*-*'

       The  xlsfonts program can be used to list all of the fonts that match a
       given pattern.  With no arguments, it lists all available fonts.	  This
       will  usually  list the same font at many different sizes.  To see just
       the base scalable font names, try using one of the following patterns:


       To convert one of the resulting names into a font at a  specific	 size,
       replace	one  of	 the  first two zeros with a nonzero value.  The field
       containing the first zero is for the pixel size; replace it with a spe‐
       cific height in pixels to name a font at that size.  Alternatively, the
       field containing the second zero is for the point size; replace it with
       a  specific size in decipoints (there are 722.7 decipoints to the inch)
       to name a font at that size.  The last zero is an average width	field,
       measured in tenths of pixels; some servers will anamorphically scale if
       this value is specified.

       One of the following forms can be used  to  name	 a  font  server  that
       accepts TCP connections:


       The  hostname  specifies	 the  name (or decimal numeric address) of the
       machine on which the font server is running.  The port is  the  decimal
       TCP  port  on  which the font server is listening for connections.  The
       cataloguelist specifies a list of catalogue names, with '+' as a	 sepa‐

       Examples: tcp/x.org:7100, tcp/

       Most  applications provide ways of tailoring (usually through resources
       or command line arguments) the colors of various elements in  the  text
       and  graphics  they  display.   A  color	 can be specified either by an
       abstract color name, or by a numerical color specification.  The numer‐
       ical  specification  can	 identify  a  color in either device-dependent
       (RGB) or device-independent terms.  Color strings are case-insensitive.

       X supports the use of abstract color names, for example, "red", "blue".
       A  value	 for  this  abstract name is obtained by searching one or more
       color name databases.  Xlib first searches  zero	 or  more  client-side
       databases;  the	number,	 location,  and	 content of these databases is
       implementation dependent.  If the name  is  not	found,	the  color  is
       looked  up  in the X server's database.	The text form of this database
       is commonly stored in the file usr/share/X11/rgb.txt.

       A numerical color specification consists of a color space  name	and  a
       set of values in the following syntax:


       An  RGB Device specification is identified by the prefix "rgb:" and has
       the following syntax:


	       <red>, <green>, <blue> := h | hh | hhh | hhhh
	       h := single hexadecimal digits
       Note that h indicates the value scaled in 4 bits, hh the	 value	scaled
       in  8  bits, hhh the value scaled in 12 bits, and hhhh the value scaled
       in 16 bits, respectively.  These values are passed directly  to	the  X
       server, and are assumed to be gamma corrected.

       The eight primary colors can be represented as:

	   black		rgb:0/0/0
	   red			rgb:ffff/0/0
	   green		rgb:0/ffff/0
	   blue			rgb:0/0/ffff
	   yellow		rgb:ffff/ffff/0
	   magenta		rgb:ffff/0/ffff
	   cyan			rgb:0/ffff/ffff
	   white		rgb:ffff/ffff/ffff

       For  backward  compatibility,  an  older	 syntax for RGB Device is sup‐
       ported, but its continued use is not encouraged.	 The syntax is an ini‐
       tial  sharp  sign character followed by a numeric specification, in one
       of the following formats:

	   #RGB			     (4 bits each)
	   #RRGGBB		     (8 bits each)
	   #RRRGGGBBB		     (12 bits each)
	   #RRRRGGGGBBBB	     (16 bits each)

       The R, G, and B represent single hexadecimal digits.  When  fewer  than
       16 bits each are specified, they represent the most-significant bits of
       the value (unlike the "rgb:" syntax, in which values are scaled).   For
       example, #3a7 is the same as #3000a0007000.

       An  RGB intensity specification is identified by the prefix "rgbi:" and
       has the following syntax:


       The red, green, and blue are floating point values between 0.0 and 1.0,
       inclusive.  They represent linear intensity values, with 1.0 indicating
       full intensity, 0.5 half intensity, and so on.  These  values  will  be
       gamma  corrected	 by Xlib before being sent to the X server.  The input
       format for these values is an optional sign, a string of numbers possi‐
       bly containing a decimal point, and an optional exponent field contain‐
       ing an E or e followed by a possibly signed integer string.

       The standard device-independent string specifications have the  follow‐
       ing syntax:

	   CIEXYZ:<X>/<Y>/<Z>		  (none, 1, none)
	   CIEuvY:<u>/<v>/<Y>		  (~.6, ~.6, 1)
	   CIExyY:<x>/<y>/<Y>		  (~.75, ~.85, 1)
	   CIELab:<L>/<a>/<b>		  (100, none, none)
	   CIELuv:<L>/<u>/<v>		  (100, none, none)
	   TekHVC:<H>/<V>/<C>		  (360, 100, 100)

       All  of	the  values  (C, H, V, X, Y, Z, a, b, u, v, y, x) are floating
       point values.  Some of the values are constrained to  be	 between  zero
       and  some upper bound; the upper bounds are given in parentheses above.
       The syntax for these values is an optional '+' or '-' sign, a string of
       digits  possibly	 containing  a decimal point, and an optional exponent
       field consisting of an 'E' or 'e' followed by an optional  '+'  or  '-'
       followed by a string of digits.

       For  more  information on device independent color, see the Xlib refer‐
       ence manual.

       The X keyboard model is broken into two layers:	server-specific	 codes
       (called	keycodes)  which represent the physical keys, and server-inde‐
       pendent symbols (called keysyms) which represent the letters  or	 words
       that  appear  on	 the keys.  Two tables are kept in the server for con‐
       verting keycodes to keysyms:

       modifier list
	       Some keys (such as Shift, Control, and Caps Lock) are known  as
	       modifier	 and  are  used	 to  select different symbols that are
	       attached to a single key (such as Shift-a generates  a  capital
	       A, and Control-l generates a control character ^L).  The server
	       keeps a list of keycodes corresponding to the various  modifier
	       keys.  Whenever a key is pressed or released, the server gener‐
	       ates an event that contains the keycode of the indicated key as
	       well  as	 a  mask that specifies which of the modifier keys are
	       currently pressed.  Most servers set up this list to  initially
	       contain	the various shift, control, and shift lock keys on the

       keymap table
	       Applications translate event keycodes and modifier  masks  into
	       keysyms	using  a  keysym table which contains one row for each
	       keycode and one column for various modifier states.  This table
	       is initialized by the server to correspond to normal typewriter
	       conventions.  The exact semantics of how the  table  is	inter‐
	       preted  to  produce  keysyms depends on the particular program,
	       libraries, and language input method used,  but	the  following
	       conventions  for	 the first four keysyms in each row are gener‐
	       ally adhered to:

       The first four elements of the  list  are  split	 into  two  groups  of
       keysyms.	  Group	 1 contains the first and second keysyms; Group 2 con‐
       tains the third and fourth keysyms.  Within each group,	if  the	 first
       element	is alphabetic and the the second element is the special keysym
       NoSymbol, then the group is treated as equivalent to a group  in	 which
       the first element is the lowercase letter and the second element is the
       uppercase letter.

       Switching between groups is controlled by the keysym named MODE SWITCH,
       by  attaching that keysym to some key and attaching that key to any one
       of the modifiers Mod1  through  Mod5.   This  modifier  is  called  the
       ``group	modifier.''   Group  1 is used when the group modifier is off,
       and Group 2 is used when the group modifier is on.

       Within a group, the modifier state determines which keysym to use.  The
       first  keysym  is  used when the Shift and Lock modifiers are off.  The
       second keysym is used when the Shift modifier is on, when the Lock mod‐
       ifier  is on and the second keysym is uppercase alphabetic, or when the
       Lock modifier is on and is interpreted as ShiftLock.   Otherwise,  when
       the  Lock  modifier  is on and is interpreted as CapsLock, the state of
       the Shift modifier is applied first to select a	keysym;	 but  if  that
       keysym is lowercase alphabetic, then the corresponding uppercase keysym
       is used instead.

       Most X programs attempt to use the same names for command line  options
       and  arguments.	All applications written with the X Toolkit Intrinsics
       automatically accept the following options:

       -display display
	       This option specifies the name of the X server to use.

       -geometry geometry
	       This option specifies the initial size and location of the win‐

       -bg color, -background color
	       Either  option  specifies the color to use for the window back‐

       -bd color, -bordercolor color
	       Either option specifies the color to use for the window border.

       -bw number, -borderwidth number
	       Either option specifies the width in pixels of the window  bor‐

       -fg color, -foreground color
	       Either option specifies the color to use for text or graphics.

       -fn font, -font font
	       Either option specifies the font to use for displaying text.

	       This  option  indicates	that  the  user	 would prefer that the
	       application's windows initially not be visible as if  the  win‐
	       dows had be immediately iconified by the user.  Window managers
	       may choose not to honor the application's request.

	       This option specifies the name under which  resources  for  the
	       application  should  be	found.	This option is useful in shell
	       aliases to distinguish between invocations of  an  application,
	       without	resorting  to  creating	 links to alter the executable
	       file name.

       -rv, -reverse
	       Either  option  indicates  that	the  program  should  simulate
	       reverse video if possible, often by swapping the foreground and
	       background colors.  Not all programs honor this or implement it
	       correctly.  It is usually only used on monochrome displays.

	       This  option  indicates	that  the  program should not simulate
	       reverse video.  This is used to	override  any  defaults	 since
	       reverse video doesn't always work properly.

	       This  option specifies the timeout in milliseconds within which
	       two communicating applications must respond to one another  for
	       a selection request.

	       This  option  indicates that requests to the X server should be
	       sent synchronously, instead of asynchronously.  Since Xlib nor‐
	       mally buffers requests to the server, errors do not necessarily
	       get reported immediately after they occur.  This	 option	 turns
	       off  the buffering so that the application can be debugged.  It
	       should never be used with a working program.

       -title string
	       This option specifies the title to be  used  for	 this  window.
	       This  information is sometimes used by a window manager to pro‐
	       vide some sort of header identifying the window.

       -xnllanguage language[_territory][.codeset]
	       This option specifies the language, territory, and codeset  for
	       use in resolving resource and other filenames.

       -xrm resourcestring
	       This option specifies a resource name and value to override any
	       defaults.  It is also very useful for  setting  resources  that
	       don't have explicit command line arguments.

       To make the tailoring of applications to personal preferences easier, X
       provides a mechanism for storing default values for  program  resources
       (e.g.  background  color,  window title, etc.) that is used by programs
       that use toolkits based on the  X  Toolkit  Intrinsics  library	libXt.
       (Programs using the common Gtk+ and Qt toolkits use other configuration
       mechanisms.)  Resources are specified as strings that are read in  from
       various	places	when  an  application  is run.	Program components are
       named in a hierarchical fashion, with each node in the hierarchy	 iden‐
       tified  by a class and an instance name.	 At the top level is the class
       and instance name of the application itself.  By convention, the	 class
       name  of the application is the same as the program name, but with  the
       first letter capitalized (e.g. Bitmap or Emacs) although some  programs
       that  begin with the letter ``x'' also capitalize the second letter for
       historical reasons.

       The precise syntax for resources is:

       ResourceLine	 = Comment | IncludeFile | ResourceSpec | <empty line>
       Comment		 = "!" {<any character except null or newline>}
       IncludeFile	 = "#" WhiteSpace "include" WhiteSpace FileName WhiteSpace
       FileName		 = <valid filename for operating system>
       ResourceSpec	 = WhiteSpace ResourceName WhiteSpace ":" WhiteSpace Value
       ResourceName	 = [Binding] {Component Binding} ComponentName
       Binding		 = "." | "*"
       WhiteSpace	 = {<space> | <horizontal tab>}
       Component	 = "?" | ComponentName
       ComponentName	 = NameChar {NameChar}
       NameChar		 = "a"-"z" | "A"-"Z" | "0"-"9" | "_" | "-"
       Value		 = {<any character except null or unescaped newline>}

       Elements separated by vertical bar (|) are alternatives.	 Curly	braces
       ({...})	indicate  zero	or  more repetitions of the enclosed elements.
       Square brackets ([...]) indicate that the enclosed element is optional.
       Quotes ("...") are used around literal characters.

       IncludeFile  lines  are interpreted by replacing the line with the con‐
       tents of the specified file.  The word "include" must be in  lowercase.
       The  filename  is  interpreted relative to the directory of the file in
       which the line occurs (for example, if the filename contains no	direc‐
       tory or contains a relative directory specification).

       If a ResourceName contains a contiguous sequence of two or more Binding
       characters, the sequence will be replaced with single "." character  if
       the  sequence contains only "." characters, otherwise the sequence will
       be replaced with a single "*" character.

       A resource database never contains more than  one  entry	 for  a	 given
       ResourceName.  If a resource file contains multiple lines with the same
       ResourceName, the last line in the file is used.

       Any whitespace character before	or  after  the	name  or  colon	 in  a
       ResourceSpec  are  ignored.  To allow a Value to begin with whitespace,
       the two-character sequence ``\space'' (backslash followed by space)  is
       recognized  and	replaced  by  a space character, and the two-character
       sequence ``\tab'' (backslash followed by horizontal tab) is  recognized
       and  replaced  by a horizontal tab character.  To allow a Value to con‐
       tain embedded newline characters, the two-character sequence ``\n''  is
       recognized and replaced by a newline character.	To allow a Value to be
       broken across multiple lines in a text file, the two-character sequence
       ``\newline''  (backslash followed by newline) is recognized and removed
       from the value.	To allow a Value to contain arbitrary character codes,
       the four-character sequence ``\nnn'', where each n is a digit character
       in the range of ``0''-``7'', is recognized and replaced with  a	single
       byte that contains the octal value specified by the sequence.  Finally,
       the two-character sequence ``\\'' is recognized	and  replaced  with  a
       single backslash.

       When  an	 application looks for the value of a resource, it specifies a
       complete path in the hierarchy, with both  class	 and  instance	names.
       However,	 resource  values are usually given with only partially speci‐
       fied names and classes, using pattern matching constructs.  An asterisk
       (*) is a loose binding and is used to represent any number of interven‐
       ing components, including none.	A period (.) is a tight binding and is
       used  to separate immediately adjacent components.  A question mark (?)
       is used to match any single component name or class.  A database	 entry
       cannot  end  in	a  loose binding; the final component (which cannot be
       "?") must be specified.	The lookup  algorithm  searches	 the  resource
       database for the entry that most closely matches (is most specific for)
       the full name and class being queried.  When  more  than	 one  database
       entry  matches  the  full  name and class, precedence rules are used to
       select just one.

       The full name and class are scanned from left to	 right	(from  highest
       level  in  the  hierarchy to lowest), one component at a time.  At each
       level, the corresponding component  and/or  binding  of	each  matching
       entry  is  determined,  and  these matching components and bindings are
       compared according to precedence rules.	Each of the rules  is  applied
       at  each level, before moving to the next level, until a rule selects a
       single entry over all others.  The rules (in order of precedence) are:

       1.   An entry that contains a matching component (whether name,	class,
	    or	"?")  takes precedence over entries that elide the level (that
	    is, entries that match the level in a loose binding).

       2.   An entry with a matching name takes precedence over	 both  entries
	    with  a matching class and entries that match using "?".  An entry
	    with a matching class takes precedence  over  entries  that	 match
	    using "?".

       3.   An entry preceded by a tight binding takes precedence over entries
	    preceded by a loose binding.

       Programs based on the X Toolkit Intrinsics obtain  resources  from  the
       following  sources (other programs usually support some subset of these

       RESOURCE_MANAGER root window property
	       Any global resources that should be available to clients on all
	       machines	 should	 be stored in the RESOURCE_MANAGER property on
	       the root window of the first screen  using  the	xrdb  program.
	       This  is	 frequently  taken  care  of when the user starts up X
	       through the display manager or xinit.

       SCREEN_RESOURCES root window property
	       Any resources specific to a given  screen  (e.g.	 colors)  that
	       should be available to clients on all machines should be stored
	       in the SCREEN_RESOURCES property on the	root  window  of  that
	       screen.	The xrdb program will sort resources automatically and
	       place them in RESOURCE_MANAGER or SCREEN_RESOURCES,  as	appro‐

       application-specific files
	       Directories  named by the environment variable XUSERFILESEARCH‐
	       PATH or the environment variable	 XAPPLRESDIR  (which  names  a
	       single  directory  and should end with a '/' on POSIX systems),
	       plus  directories  in   a   standard   place   (usually	 under
	       /usr/share/X11/,	 but  this  can	 be overridden with the XFILE‐
	       SEARCHPATH environment variable) are searched for for  applica‐
	       tion-specific  resources.   For	example,  application  default
	       resources are  usually  kept  in	 /usr/share/X11/app-defaults/.
	       See  the X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual for

	       Any user- and machine-specific resources may  be	 specified  by
	       setting	the XENVIRONMENT environment variable to the name of a
	       resource file to be loaded by all applications.	If this	 vari‐
	       able  is not defined, a file named $HOME/.Xdefaults-hostname is
	       looked for instead, where hostname is  the  name	 of  the  host
	       where the application is executing.

       -xrm resourcestring
	       Resources  can  also  be	 specified from the command line.  The
	       resourcestring is a single resource name	 and  value  as	 shown
	       above.  Note that if the string contains characters interpreted
	       by the shell (e.g., asterisk), they must be quoted.  Any number
	       of -xrm arguments may be given on the command line.

       Program	resources  are	organized  into groups called classes, so that
       collections  of	individual  resources  (each  of  which	  are	called
       instances) can be set all at once.  By convention, the instance name of
       a resource begins with a lowercase letter and class name with an	 upper
       case  letter.   Multiple word resources are concatenated with the first
       letter of the succeeding words capitalized.  Applications written  with
       the X Toolkit Intrinsics will have at least the following resources:

       background (class Background)
	       This  resource  specifies the color to use for the window back‐

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
	       This resource specifies the width in pixels of the window  bor‐

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
	       This resource specifies the color to use for the window border.

       Most applications using the X Toolkit Intrinsics also have the resource
       foreground (class Foreground), specifying the color to use for text and
       graphics within the window.

       By combining class and instance specifications, application preferences
       can be set quickly and easily.  Users of color displays will frequently
       want  to	 set Background and Foreground classes to particular defaults.
       Specific color instances such as text cursors can  then	be  overridden
       without having to define all of the related resources.  For example,

	   bitmap*Dashed:  off
	   XTerm*cursorColor:  gold
	   XTerm*multiScroll:  on
	   XTerm*jumpScroll:  on
	   XTerm*reverseWrap:  on
	   XTerm*curses:  on
	   XTerm*Font:	6x10
	   XTerm*scrollBar: on
	   XTerm*scrollbar*thickness: 5
	   XTerm*multiClickTime: 500
	   XTerm*charClass:  33:48,37:48,45-47:48,64:48
	   XTerm*cutNewline: off
	   XTerm*cutToBeginningOfLine: off
	   XTerm*titeInhibit:  on
	   XTerm*ttyModes:  intr ^c erase ^? kill ^u
	   XLoad*Background: gold
	   XLoad*Foreground: red
	   XLoad*highlight: black
	   XLoad*borderWidth: 0
	   emacs*Geometry:  80x65-0-0
	   emacs*Background:  rgb:5b/76/86
	   emacs*Foreground:  white
	   emacs*Cursor:  white
	   emacs*BorderColor:  white
	   emacs*Font:	6x10
	   xmag*geometry: -0-0
	   xmag*borderColor:  white

       If  these  resources  were  stored in a file called .Xresources in your
       home directory, they could be added to any existing  resources  in  the
       server with the following command:

	   % xrdb -merge $HOME/.Xresources

       This  is	 frequently  how user-friendly startup scripts merge user-spe‐
       cific defaults into any site-wide defaults.  All sites  are  encouraged
       to  set	up convenient ways of automatically loading resources. See the
       Xlib manual section Resource Manager Functions for more information.

	      This is the only mandatory environment variable. It  must	 point
	      to an X server. See section "Display Names" above.

	      This  must point to a file that contains authorization data. The
	      default  is  $HOME/.Xauthority.  See   Xsecurity(7),   xauth(1),
	      xdm(1), Xau(3).

	      This  must point to a file that contains authorization data. The
	      default is $HOME/.ICEauthority.

	      The first non-empty value among these three determines the  cur‐
	      rent  locale's  facet  for character handling, and in particular
	      the  default  text  encoding.   See   locale(7),	 setlocale(3),

	      This  variable  can  be  set  to	contain additional information
	      important for the	 current  locale  setting.  Typically  set  to
	      @im=<input-method>  to  enable  a	 particular  input method. See

	      This must point to a directory containing the locale.alias  file
	      and Compose and XLC_LOCALE file hierarchies for all locales. The
	      default value is /usr/share/X11/locale.

	      This must point to a file containing X resources. The default is
	      $HOME/.Xdefaults-<hostname>.  Unlike  $HOME/.Xresources,	it  is
	      consulted each time an X application starts.

	      This must contain a colon	 separated  list  of  path  templates,
	      where  libXt  will  search for resource files. The default value
	      consists of


	      A path template is transformed to a pathname by substituting:

		  %D => the implementation-specific default path
		  %N => name (basename) being searched for
		  %T => type (dirname) being searched for
		  %S => suffix being searched for
		  %C => value of the resource "customization"
			(class "Customization")
		  %L => the locale name
		  %l => the locale's language (part before '_')
		  %t => the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
		  %c => the locale's encoding (part after '.')

	      This must contain a colon	 separated  list  of  path  templates,
	      where  libXt  will search for user dependent resource files. The
	      default value is:


	      $XAPPLRESDIR defaults to $HOME, see below.

	      A path template is transformed to a pathname by substituting:

		  %D => the implementation-specific default path
		  %N => name (basename) being searched for
		  %T => type (dirname) being searched for
		  %S => suffix being searched for
		  %C => value of the resource "customization"
			(class "Customization")
		  %L => the locale name
		  %l => the locale's language (part before '_')
		  %t => the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
		  %c => the locale's encoding (part after '.')

	      This must point to a base directory where the  user  stores  his
	      application  dependent  resource	files.	The  default  value is
	      $HOME. Only used if XUSERFILESEARCHPATH is not set.

	      This must point to a file containing nonstandard keysym  defini‐
	      tions.  The default value is /usr/share/X11/XKeysymDB.

       XCMSDB This must point to a color name database file. The default value

	      This serves as main identifier for resources  belonging  to  the
	      program  being executed. It defaults to the basename of pathname
	      of the program.

	      Denotes the session manager to which the application should con‐
	      nect. See xsm(1), rstart(1).

	      Setting	this  variable	to  a  non-empty  value	 disables  the
	      XFree86-Bigfont extension. This  extension  is  a	 mechanism  to
	      reduce the memory consumption of big fonts by use of shared mem‐


       These variables influence the X Keyboard Extension.

       The following is a collection of sample command lines for some  of  the
       more  frequently	 used  commands.  For more information on a particular
       command, please refer to that command's manual page.

	   %  xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
	   %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
	   %  mkfontdir /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
	   %  xset fp+ /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
	   %  xmodmap $HOME/.keymap.km
	   %  xsetroot -solid 'rgbi:.8/.8/.8'
	   %  xset b 100 400 c 50 s 1800 r on
	   %  xset q
	   %  twm
	   %  xmag
	   %  xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 -bg blue -fg white
	   %  xeyes -geometry 48x48-48+0
	   %  xbiff -update 20
	   %  xlsfonts '*helvetica*'
	   %  xwininfo -root
	   %  xdpyinfo -display joesworkstation:0
	   %  xhost -joesworkstation
	   %  xrefresh
	   %  xwd | xwud
	   %  bitmap companylogo.bm 32x32
	   %  xcalc -bg blue -fg magenta
	   %  xterm -geometry 80x66-0-0 -name myxterm $*

       A wide variety of error messages are generated from  various  programs.
       The  default  error  handler  in Xlib (also used by many toolkits) uses
       standard resources to construct diagnostic messages when errors	occur.
       The    defaults	  for	these	messages   are	 usually   stored   in
       usr/share/X11/XErrorDB.	If this file is not  present,  error  messages
       will be rather terse and cryptic.

       When  the  X  Toolkit  Intrinsics  encounter errors converting resource
       strings to the appropriate internal format, no error messages are  usu‐
       ally  printed.  This is convenient when it is desirable to have one set
       of resources across a variety of displays (e.g. color  vs.  monochrome,
       lots  of	 fonts	vs. very few, etc.), although it can pose problems for
       trying to determine why an application might be failing.	 This behavior
       can be overridden by the setting the StringConversionWarnings resource.

       To  force  the  X  Toolkit Intrinsics to always print string conversion
       error messages, the following resource should be	 placed	 in  the  file
       that gets loaded onto the RESOURCE_MANAGER property using the xrdb pro‐
       gram (frequently called .Xresources or .Xres in the user's home	direc‐

	   *StringConversionWarnings: on

       To  have conversion messages printed for just a particular application,
       the appropriate instance name can be placed before the asterisk:

	   xterm*StringConversionWarnings: on

       XOrgFoundation(7), XStandards(7), Xsecurity(7), appres(1), bdftopcf(1),
       bitmap(1), editres(1), fsinfo(1), fslsfonts(1), fstobdf(1), iceauth(1),
       imake(1), makedepend(1), mkfontdir(1), oclock(1), proxymngr(1), rgb(1),
       resize(1),  rstart(1),  smproxy(1), twm(1), x11perf(1), x11perfcomp(1),
       xauth(1), xclipboard(1),	 xclock(1),  xcmsdb(1),	 xconsole(1),  xdm(1),
       xdpyinfo(1),   xfd(1),	xfindproxy(1),	 xfs(1),   xfwp(1),  xhost(1),
       xinit(1), xkbbell(1), xkbcomp(1), xkbevd(1), xkbprint(1),  xkbvleds(1),
       xkbwatch(1),   xkill(1),	 xlogo(1),  xlsatoms(1),  xlsclients(1),  xls‐
       fonts(1), xmag(1), xmh(1), xmodmap(1), xprop(1), xrdb(1),  xrefresh(1),
       xrx(1),	xset(1),  xsetroot(1),	xsm(1), xstdcmap(1), xterm(1), xwd(1),
       xwininfo(1),  xwud(1).	Xserver(1),   Xorg(1),	 Xdmx(1),   Xephyr(1),
       Xnest(1),  Xquartz(1),  Xvfb(1), Xvnc(1), XWin(1).  Xlib - C Language X
       Interface, and X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface

       X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.

       A cast of thousands, literally.	Releases 6.7 and later are brought  to
       you  by	the  X.Org  Foundation.	 The names of all people who made it a
       reality will be found in the individual documents and source files.

       Releases 6.6 and 6.5 were done by The X.Org  Group.   Release  6.4  was
       done  by The X Project Team.  The Release 6.3 distribution was from The
       X Consortium, Inc.  The staff members at the X  Consortium  responsible
       for that release were: Donna Converse (emeritus), Stephen Gildea (emer‐
       itus), Kaleb Keithley, Matt Landau (emeritus),  Ralph  Mor  (emeritus),
       Janet  O'Halloran, Bob Scheifler, Ralph Swick, Dave Wiggins (emeritus),
       and Reed Augliere.

       The X Window System standard was originally developed at the Laboratory
       for  Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and
       all rights thereto were assigned to the	X  Consortium  on  January  1,
       1994.   X  Consortium, Inc. closed its doors on December 31, 1996.  All
       rights to the X Window System have been assigned to The Open Group.

X Version 11			 xorg-docs 1.7				  X(7)

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