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X(7)									  X(7)

       X - a portable, network-transparent window system

       The  X  Window System is a network transparent window system which runs
       on a wide range of computing and graphics machines.  It should be rela‐
       tively straightforward to build the X.Org Foundation software distribu‐
       tion on most ANSI C and POSIX compliant systems.	 Commercial  implemen‐
       tations are also available for a wide range of platforms.

       The  X.Org  Foundation  requests	 that the following names be used when
       referring to this software:

				   X Window System
				    X Version 11
			     X Window System, Version 11

       X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.

       X Window System servers run on computers	 with  bitmap  displays.   The
       server distributes user input to and accepts output requests from vari‐
       ous client programs through a variety of different interprocess	commu‐
       nication	 channels.   Although  the  most common case is for the client
       programs to be running on the same machine as the server,  clients  can
       be  run transparently from other machines (including machines with dif‐
       ferent architectures and operating systems) as well.

       X supports overlapping hierarchical subwindows and  text	 and  graphics
       operations, on both monochrome and color displays.  For a full explana‐
       tion of the functions that are available, see the Xlib - C  Language  X
       Interface  manual,  the	X  Window System Protocol specification, the X
       Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual, and  various  toolkit

       The number of programs that use X is quite large.  Programs provided in
       the core X.Org Foundation distribution include:	a  terminal  emulator,
       xterm;  a  window manager, twm; a display manager, xdm; a console redi‐
       rect program, xconsole; a mail interface, xmh; a bitmap editor, bitmap;
       resource	 listing/manipulation  tools,  appres, editres; access control
       programs, xauth, xhost, and iceauth; user preference setting  programs,
       xrdb, xcmsdb, xset, xsetroot, xstdcmap, and xmodmap; clocks, xclock and
       oclock; a font displayer, (xfd; utilities for listing information about
       fonts, windows, and displays, xlsfonts, xwininfo, xlsclients, xdpyinfo,
       xlsatoms, and xprop; screen image manipulation  utilities,  xwd,	 xwud,
       and  xmag; a performance measurement utility, x11perf; a font compiler,
       bdftopcf; a font server and related utilities, xfs, fsinfo,  fslsfonts,
       fstobdf;	 a display server and related utilities, Xserver, rgb, mkfont‐
       dir; a print server and	related	 utilities,  Xprt,  xplsprinters,  and
       xprehashprinterlist;  remote  execution	utilities,  rstart  and xon; a
       clipboard  manager,  xclipboard;	 keyboard  description	compiler   and
       related	utilities,  xkbcomp, setxkbmap xkbprint, xkbbell, xkbevd, xkb‐
       vleds, and xkbwatch; a utility to terminate clients,  xkill;  an	 opti‐
       mized  X	 protocol  proxy, lbxproxy; a firewall security proxy, xfwp; a
       proxy manager to control them, proxymngr; a utility  to	find  proxies,
       xfindproxy;  web	 browser  plug-ins, libxrx.so and libxrxnest.so; an RX
       MIME-type helper program, xrx; and a utility to cause part  or  all  of
       the screen to be redrawn, xrefresh.

       Many  other  utilities,	window	managers,  games,  toolkits,  etc. are
       included as user-contributed software in the X.Org Foundation distribu‐
       tion,  or  are  available on the Internet.  See your site administrator
       for details.

       There are two main ways of getting the X server and an initial  set  of
       client  applications  started.	The  particular method used depends on
       what operating system you are running and whether or not you use	 other
       window systems in addition to X.

       xdm (the X Display Manager)
	       If you want to always have X running on your display, your site
	       administrator can set your machine up to use the X Display Man‐
	       ager  xdm.   This program is typically started by the system at
	       boot time and takes care of keeping the server running and get‐
	       ting  users  logged in.	If you are running xdm, you will see a
	       window on the screen welcoming you to the system and asking for
	       your  username  and password.  Simply type them in as you would
	       at a normal terminal, pressing the Return key after  each.   If
	       you  make  a mistake, xdm will display an error message and ask
	       you to try again.  After you have successfully logged  in,  xdm
	       will  start  up your X environment.  By default, if you have an
	       executable file named .xsession in  your	 home  directory,  xdm
	       will treat it as a program (or shell script) to run to start up
	       your initial clients (such as  terminal	emulators,  clocks,  a
	       window  manager,	 user settings for things like the background,
	       the speed of the pointer, etc.).	 Your site  administrator  can
	       provide details.

       xinit (run manually from the shell)
	       Sites  that support more than one window system might choose to
	       use the xinit program for starting X manually.  If this is true
	       for  your  machine,  your site administrator will probably have
	       provided a program named "x11", "startx", or "xstart" that will
	       do  site-specific  initialization  (such	 as loading convenient
	       default resources,  running  a  window  manager,	 displaying  a
	       clock,  and starting several terminal emulators) in a nice way.
	       If not, you can build such a script using  the  xinit  program.
	       This  utility  simply  runs one user-specified program to start
	       the server, runs another to start up any desired	 clients,  and
	       then  waits  for either to finish.  Since either or both of the
	       user-specified programs may be a shell script, this gives  sub‐
	       stantial	 flexibility  at the expense of a nice interface.  For
	       this reason, xinit is not intended for end users.

       From the user's perspective, every X server has a display name  of  the


       This  information is used by the application to determine how it should
       connect to the server and which screen it should	 use  by  default  (on
       displays with multiple monitors):

	       The  hostname  specifies	 the  name of the machine to which the
	       display is physically connected.	 If the hostname is not given,
	       the most efficient way of communicating to a server on the same
	       machine will be used.

	       The phrase "display" is usually used to refer to collection  of
	       monitors	 that  share  a	 common	 keyboard  and pointer (mouse,
	       tablet, etc.).  Most workstations tend to only  have  one  key‐
	       board,  and  therefore,	only  one display.  Larger, multi-user
	       systems, however, frequently have several displays so that more
	       than  one  person can be doing graphics work at once.  To avoid
	       confusion, each display on a machine is assigned a display num‐
	       ber  (beginning	at  0)	when  the X server for that display is
	       started.	 The display number must always be given in a  display

	       Some  displays share a single keyboard and pointer among two or
	       more monitors.  Since each monitor has its own set of  windows,
	       each  screen  is assigned a screen number (beginning at 0) when
	       the X server for that display is started.  If the screen number
	       is not given, screen 0 will be used.

       On  POSIX  systems,  the default display name is stored in your DISPLAY
       environment variable.  This variable is set automatically by the	 xterm
       terminal	 emulator.   However,  when  you log into another machine on a
       network, you will need to set DISPLAY by hand to point to your display.
       For example,

	   % setenv DISPLAY myws:0
	   $ DISPLAY=myws:0; export DISPLAY
       The  xon	 script can be used to start an X program on a remote machine;
       it automatically sets the DISPLAY variable correctly.

       Finally, most X programs accept a command line option of -display  dis‐
       playname to temporarily override the contents of DISPLAY.  This is most
       commonly used to pop windows on another person's screen or as part of a
       "remote shell" command to start an xterm pointing back to your display.
       For example,

	   % xeyes -display joesws:0 -geometry 1000x1000+0+0
	   % rsh big xterm -display myws:0 -ls </dev/null &

       X servers listen for connections on a variety of	 different  communica‐
       tions  channels	(network  byte	streams,  shared memory, etc.).	 Since
       there can be more than one way of contacting a given server, The	 host‐
       name  part of the display name is used to determine the type of channel
       (also called a transport layer) to be used.  X servers  generally  sup‐
       port the following types of connections:

	       The  hostname  part  of	the  display  name should be the empty
	       string.	For example:  :0, :1, and :0.1.	  The  most  efficient
	       local transport will be chosen.

	       The  hostname  part  of	the  display name should be the server
	       machine's IP address name.  Full	 Internet  names,  abbreviated
	       names,	and  IP	 addresses  are	 all  allowed.	 For  example:
	       x.org:0, expo:0,, bigmachine:1, and hydra:0.1.

	       The hostname part of the display	 name  should  be  the	server
	       machine's nodename, followed by two colons instead of one.  For
	       example:	 myws::0, big::1, and hydra::0.1.

       An X server can use several types of access control.   Mechanisms  pro‐
       vided in Release 6 are:
	   Host Access			 Simple host-based access control.
	   MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1		 Shared plain-text "cookies".
	   XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1		 Secure DES based private-keys.
	   SUN-DES-1			 Based on Sun's secure rpc system.
	   MIT-KERBEROS-5		 Kerberos Version 5 user-to-user.

       Xdm  initializes	 access	 control for the server and also places autho‐
       rization information in a file accessible to the user.	Normally,  the
       list  of	 hosts	from  which  connections are always accepted should be
       empty, so that only clients with are explicitly authorized can  connect
       to  the	display.   When you add entries to the host list (with xhost),
       the server no longer performs any  authorization	 on  connections  from
       those machines.	Be careful with this.

       The  file  from which Xlib extracts authorization data can be specified
       with the environment variable XAUTHORITY,  and  defaults	 to  the  file
       .Xauthority in the home directory.  Xdm uses $HOME/.Xauthority and will
       create it or merge in authorization records if it already exists when a
       user logs in.

       If  you	use  several machines and share a common home directory across
       all of the machines by means of a network file system, you never really
       have  to	 worry	about authorization files, the system should work cor‐
       rectly by default.  Otherwise, as the authorization files are  machine-
       independent,  you  can  simply copy the files to share them.  To manage
       authorization files, use xauth.	This program  allows  you  to  extract
       records	and  insert  them  into other files.  Using this, you can send
       authorization to remote machines when you login, if the remote  machine
       does  not  share a common home directory with your local machine.  Note
       that authorization information transmitted ``in the clear''  through  a
       network	file system or using ftp or rcp can be ``stolen'' by a network
       eavesdropper, and as such may  enable  unauthorized  access.   In  many
       environments,  this  level  of security is not a concern, but if it is,
       you need to know the exact semantics of	the  particular	 authorization
       data to know if this is actually a problem.

       For more information on access control, see the Xsecurity manual page.

       One of the advantages of using window systems instead of hardwired ter‐
       minals is that applications don't have to be restricted to a particular
       size  or	 location  on the screen.  Although the layout of windows on a
       display is controlled by the window manager that the  user  is  running
       (described  below),  most  X programs accept a command line argument of
       the form -geometry WIDTHxHEIGHT+XOFF+YOFF (where WIDTH,	HEIGHT,	 XOFF,
       and  YOFF are numbers) for specifying a preferred size and location for
       this application's main window.

       The WIDTH and HEIGHT parts of the geometry  specification  are  usually
       measured	 in either pixels or characters, depending on the application.
       The XOFF and YOFF parts are measured in pixels and are used to  specify
       the  distance  of  the window from the left or right and top and bottom
       edges of the screen, respectively.  Both types of offsets are  measured
       from  the indicated edge of the screen to the corresponding edge of the
       window.	The X offset may be specified in the following ways:

       +XOFF   The left edge of the window is to be placed XOFF pixels in from
	       the left edge of the screen (i.e., the X coordinate of the win‐
	       dow's origin will be XOFF).  XOFF may  be  negative,  in	 which
	       case the window's left edge will be off the screen.

       -XOFF   The  right  edge	 of  the window is to be placed XOFF pixels in
	       from the right edge of the screen.  XOFF may  be	 negative,  in
	       which case the window's right edge will be off the screen.

       The Y offset has similar meanings:

       +YOFF   The  top	 edge of the window is to be YOFF pixels below the top
	       edge of the screen (i.e., the Y coordinate of the window's ori‐
	       gin  will  be  YOFF).   YOFF may be negative, in which case the
	       window's top edge will be off the screen.

       -YOFF   The bottom edge of the window is to be YOFF  pixels  above  the
	       bottom edge of the screen.  YOFF may be negative, in which case
	       the window's bottom edge will be off the screen.

       Offsets must be given as pairs; in other words,	in  order  to  specify
       either XOFF or YOFF both must be present.  Windows can be placed in the
       four corners of the screen using the following specifications:

       +0+0    upper left hand corner.

       -0+0    upper right hand corner.

       -0-0    lower right hand corner.

       +0-0    lower left hand corner.

       In the following examples, a terminal emulator is placed in roughly the
       center of the screen and a load average monitor, mailbox, and clock are
       placed in the upper right hand corner:

	   xterm -fn 6x10 -geometry 80x24+30+200 &
	   xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 &
	   xload -geometry 48x48-96+0 &
	   xbiff -geometry 48x48-48+0 &

       The layout of windows on the screen is controlled by  special  programs
       called window managers.	Although many window managers will honor geom‐
       etry specifications as given, others may choose to ignore them (requir‐
       ing  the user to explicitly draw the window's region on the screen with
       the pointer, for example).

       Since window managers are regular (albeit complex) client  programs,  a
       variety	of  different user interfaces can be built.  The X.Org Founda‐
       tion distribution comes with a window manager named twm which  supports
       overlapping  windows,  popup  menus,  point-and-click  or click-to-type
       input models, title bars, nice icons (and an icon manager for those who
       don't like separate icon windows).

       See  the user-contributed software in the X.Org Foundation distribution
       for other popular window managers.

       Collections of characters for displaying text  and  symbols  in	X  are
       known  as  fonts.  A font typically contains images that share a common
       appearance and look nice together (for example, a  single  size,	 bold‐
       ness,  slant, and character set).  Similarly, collections of fonts that
       are based on a common type face	(the  variations  are  usually	called
       roman, bold, italic, bold italic, oblique, and bold oblique) are called

       Fonts come in various sizes.  The X  server  supports  scalable	fonts,
       meaning it is possible to create a font of arbitrary size from a single
       source for the font.  The server supports scaling  from	outline	 fonts
       and bitmap fonts.  Scaling from outline fonts usually produces signifi‐
       cantly better results than scaling from bitmap fonts.

       An X server can obtain fonts from individual files stored  in  directo‐
       ries  in	 the  file system, or from one or more font servers, or from a
       mixtures of directories and font	 servers.   The	 list  of  places  the
       server looks when trying to find a font is controlled by its font path.
       Although most installations will choose to have	the  server  start  up
       with  all  of  the commonly used font directories in the font path, the
       font path can be changed at any time with the xset  program.   However,
       it  is  important  to  remember	that  the  directory  names are on the
       server's machine, not on the application's.

       Bitmap font files are usually  created  by  compiling  a	 textual  font
       description  into binary form, using bdftopcf.  Font databases are cre‐
       ated by running the mkfontdir program in the directory  containing  the
       source  or compiled versions of the fonts.  Whenever fonts are added to
       a directory, mkfontdir should be rerun so that the server can find  the
       new fonts.  To make the server reread the font database, reset the font
       path with the xset program.  For example, to add a font	to  a  private
       directory, the following commands could be used:

	   % cp newfont.pcf ~/myfonts
	   % mkfontdir ~/myfonts
	   % xset fp rehash

       The  xfontsel  and  xlsfonts programs can be used to browse through the
       fonts available on a server.  Font names tend to be fairly long as they
       contain	all  of the information needed to uniquely identify individual
       fonts.  However, the X server supports wildcarding of  font  names,  so
       the full specification


       might be abbreviated as:


       Because	the  shell  also  has special meanings for * and ?, wildcarded
       font names should be quoted:

	   % xlsfonts -fn '-*-courier-medium-r-normal--*-100-*-*-*-*-*-*'

       The xlsfonts program can be used to list all of the fonts that match  a
       given  pattern.	With no arguments, it lists all available fonts.  This
       will usually list the same font at many different sizes.	 To  see  just
       the base scalable font names, try using one of the following patterns:


       To  convert  one of the resulting names into a font at a specific size,
       replace one of the first two zeros with a  nonzero  value.   The	 field
       containing the first zero is for the pixel size; replace it with a spe‐
       cific height in pixels to name a font at that size.  Alternatively, the
       field containing the second zero is for the point size; replace it with
       a specific size in decipoints (there are 722.7 decipoints to the	 inch)
       to  name a font at that size.  The last zero is an average width field,
       measured in tenths of pixels; some servers will anamorphically scale if
       this value is specified.

       One  of	the  following	forms  can  be used to name a font server that
       accepts TCP connections:


       The hostname specifies the name (or decimal  numeric  address)  of  the
       machine	on  which the font server is running.  The port is the decimal
       TCP port on which the font server is listening  for  connections.   The
       cataloguelist  specifies a list of catalogue names, with '+' as a sepa‐

       Examples: tcp/x.org:7100, tcp/

       One of the following forms can be used  to  name	 a  font  server  that
       accepts DECnet connections:


       The  nodename  specifies	 the  name (or decimal numeric address) of the
       machine on which the font server is running.  The objname is a  normal,
       case-insensitive	 DECnet	 object	 name.	 The cataloguelist specifies a
       list of catalogue names, with '+' as a separator.

       Examples: DECnet/SRVNOD::FONT$DEFAULT,  decnet/44.70::font$special/sym‐

       Most  applications provide ways of tailoring (usually through resources
       or command line arguments) the colors of various elements in  the  text
       and  graphics  they  display.   A  color	 can be specified either by an
       abstract color name, or by a numerical color specification.  The numer‐
       ical  specification  can	 identify  a  color in either device-dependent
       (RGB) or device-independent terms.  Color strings are case-insensitive.

       X supports the use of abstract color names, for example, "red", "blue".
       A  value	 for  this  abstract name is obtained by searching one or more
       color name databases.  Xlib first searches  zero	 or  more  client-side
       databases;  the	number,	 location,  and	 content of these databases is
       implementation dependent.  If the name  is  not	found,	the  color  is
       looked  up  in the X server's database.	The text form of this database
       is commonly stored in the file usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt.

       A numerical color specification consists of a color space  name	and  a
       set of values in the following syntax:


       An  RGB Device specification is identified by the prefix "rgb:" and has
       the following syntax:


	       <red>, <green>, <blue> := h | hh | hhh | hhhh
	       h := single hexadecimal digits
       Note that h indicates the value scaled in 4 bits, hh the	 value	scaled
       in  8  bits, hhh the value scaled in 12 bits, and hhhh the value scaled
       in 16 bits, respectively.  These values are passed directly  to	the  X
       server, and are assumed to be gamma corrected.

       The eight primary colors can be represented as:

	   black		rgb:0/0/0
	   red			rgb:ffff/0/0
	   green		rgb:0/ffff/0
	   blue			rgb:0/0/ffff
	   yellow		rgb:ffff/ffff/0
	   magenta		rgb:ffff/0/ffff
	   cyan			rgb:0/ffff/ffff
	   white		rgb:ffff/ffff/ffff

       For  backward  compatibility,  an  older	 syntax for RGB Device is sup‐
       ported, but its continued use is not encouraged.	 The syntax is an ini‐
       tial  sharp  sign character followed by a numeric specification, in one
       of the following formats:

	   #RGB			     (4 bits each)
	   #RRGGBB		     (8 bits each)
	   #RRRGGGBBB		     (12 bits each)
	   #RRRRGGGGBBBB	     (16 bits each)

       The R, G, and B represent single hexadecimal digits.  When  fewer  than
       16 bits each are specified, they represent the most-significant bits of
       the value (unlike the "rgb:" syntax, in which values are scaled).   For
       example, #3a7 is the same as #3000a0007000.

       An  RGB intensity specification is identified by the prefix "rgbi:" and
       has the following syntax:


       The red, green, and blue are floating point values between 0.0 and 1.0,
       inclusive.  They represent linear intensity values, with 1.0 indicating
       full intensity, 0.5 half intensity, and so on.  These  values  will  be
       gamma  corrected	 by Xlib before being sent to the X server.  The input
       format for these values is an optional sign, a string of numbers possi‐
       bly containing a decimal point, and an optional exponent field contain‐
       ing an E or e followed by a possibly signed integer string.

       The standard device-independent string specifications have the  follow‐
       ing syntax:

	   CIEXYZ:<X>/<Y>/<Z>		  (none, 1, none)
	   CIEuvY:<u>/<v>/<Y>		  (~.6, ~.6, 1)
	   CIExyY:<x>/<y>/<Y>		  (~.75, ~.85, 1)
	   CIELab:<L>/<a>/<b>		  (100, none, none)
	   CIELuv:<L>/<u>/<v>		  (100, none, none)
	   TekHVC:<H>/<V>/<C>		  (360, 100, 100)

       All  of	the  values  (C, H, V, X, Y, Z, a, b, u, v, y, x) are floating
       point values.  Some of the values are constrained to  be	 between  zero
       and  some upper bound; the upper bounds are given in parentheses above.
       The syntax for these values is an optional '+' or '-' sign, a string of
       digits  possibly	 containing  a decimal point, and an optional exponent
       field consisting of an 'E' or 'e' followed by an optional  '+'  or  '-'
       followed by a string of digits.

       For  more  information on device independent color, see the Xlib refer‐
       ence manual.

       The X keyboard model is broken into two layers:	server-specific	 codes
       (called	keycodes)  which represent the physical keys, and server-inde‐
       pendent symbols (called keysyms) which represent the letters  or	 words
       that  appear  on	 the keys.  Two tables are kept in the server for con‐
       verting keycodes to keysyms:

       modifier list
	       Some keys (such as Shift, Control, and Caps Lock) are known  as
	       modifier	 and  are  used	 to  select different symbols that are
	       attached to a single key (such as Shift-a generates  a  capital
	       A, and Control-l generates a control character ^L).  The server
	       keeps a list of keycodes corresponding to the various  modifier
	       keys.  Whenever a key is pressed or released, the server gener‐
	       ates an event that contains the keycode of the indicated key as
	       well  as	 a  mask that specifies which of the modifier keys are
	       currently pressed.  Most servers set up this list to  initially
	       contain	the various shift, control, and shift lock keys on the

       keymap table
	       Applications translate event keycodes and modifier  masks  into
	       keysyms	using  a  keysym table which contains one row for each
	       keycode and one column for various modifier states.  This table
	       is initialized by the server to correspond to normal typewriter
	       conventions.  The exact semantics of how the  table  is	inter‐
	       preted  to  produce  keysyms depends on the particular program,
	       libraries, and language input method used,  but	the  following
	       conventions  for	 the first four keysyms in each row are gener‐
	       ally adhered to:

       The first four elements of the  list  are  split	 into  two  groups  of
       keysyms.	  Group	 1 contains the first and second keysyms; Group 2 con‐
       tains the third and fourth keysyms.  Within each group,	if  the	 first
       element	is alphabetic and the the second element is the special keysym
       NoSymbol, then the group is treated as equivalent to a group  in	 which
       the first element is the lowercase letter and the second element is the
       uppercase letter.

       Switching between groups is controlled by the keysym named MODE SWITCH,
       by  attaching that keysym to some key and attaching that key to any one
       of the modifiers Mod1  through  Mod5.   This  modifier  is  called  the
       ``group	modifier.''   Group  1 is used when the group modifier is off,
       and Group 2 is used when the group modifier is on.

       Within a group, the modifier state determines which keysym to use.  The
       first  keysym  is  used when the Shift and Lock modifiers are off.  The
       second keysym is used when the Shift modifier is on, when the Lock mod‐
       ifier  is on and the second keysym is uppercase alphabetic, or when the
       Lock modifier is on and is interpreted as ShiftLock.   Otherwise,  when
       the  Lock  modifier  is on and is interpreted as CapsLock, the state of
       the Shift modifier is applied first to select a	keysym;	 but  if  that
       keysym is lowercase alphabetic, then the corresponding uppercase keysym
       is used instead.

       Most X programs attempt to use the same names for command line  options
       and  arguments.	All applications written with the X Toolkit Intrinsics
       automatically accept the following options:

       -display display
	       This option specifies the name of the X server to use.

       -geometry geometry
	       This option specifies the initial size and location of the win‐

       -bg color, -background color
	       Either  option  specifies the color to use for the window back‐

       -bd color, -bordercolor color
	       Either option specifies the color to use for the window border.

       -bw number, -borderwidth number
	       Either option specifies the width in pixels of the window  bor‐

       -fg color, -foreground color
	       Either option specifies the color to use for text or graphics.

       -fn font, -font font
	       Either option specifies the font to use for displaying text.

	       This  option  indicates	that  the  user	 would prefer that the
	       application's windows initially not be visible as if  the  win‐
	       dows had be immediately iconified by the user.  Window managers
	       may choose not to honor the application's request.

	       This option specifies the name under which  resources  for  the
	       application  should  be	found.	This option is useful in shell
	       aliases to distinguish between invocations of  an  application,
	       without	resorting  to  creating	 links to alter the executable
	       file name.

       -rv, -reverse
	       Either  option  indicates  that	the  program  should  simulate
	       reverse video if possible, often by swapping the foreground and
	       background colors.  Not all programs honor this or implement it
	       correctly.  It is usually only used on monochrome displays.

	       This  option  indicates	that  the  program should not simulate
	       reverse video.  This is used to	override  any  defaults	 since
	       reverse video doesn't always work properly.

	       This  option specifies the timeout in milliseconds within which
	       two communicating applications must respond to one another  for
	       a selection request.

	       This  option  indicates that requests to the X server should be
	       sent synchronously, instead of asynchronously.  Since Xlib nor‐
	       mally buffers requests to the server, errors do not necessarily
	       get reported immediately after they occur.  This	 option	 turns
	       off  the buffering so that the application can be debugged.  It
	       should never be used with a working program.

       -title string
	       This option specifies the title to be  used  for	 this  window.
	       This  information is sometimes used by a window manager to pro‐
	       vide some sort of header identifying the window.

       -xnllanguage language[_territory][.codeset]
	       This option specifies the language, territory, and codeset  for
	       use in resolving resource and other filenames.

       -xrm resourcestring
	       This option specifies a resource name and value to override any
	       defaults.  It is also very useful for  setting  resources  that
	       don't have explicit command line arguments.

       To make the tailoring of applications to personal preferences easier, X
       provides a mechanism for storing default values for  program  resources
       (e.g. background color, window title, etc.)  Resources are specified as
       strings that are read in from various places  when  an  application  is
       run.  Program components are named in a hierarchical fashion, with each
       node in the hierarchy identified by a class and an instance  name.   At
       the top level is the class and instance name of the application itself.
       By convention, the class name of the application is  the	 same  as  the
       program	name,  but  with  the first letter capitalized (e.g. Bitmap or
       Emacs) although some programs that begin with  the  letter  ``x''  also
       capitalize the second letter for historical reasons.

       The precise syntax for resources is:

       ResourceLine	 = Comment | IncludeFile | ResourceSpec | <empty line>
       Comment		 = "!" {<any character except null or newline>}
       IncludeFile	 = "#" WhiteSpace "include" WhiteSpace FileName WhiteSpace
       FileName		 = <valid filename for operating system>
       ResourceSpec	 = WhiteSpace ResourceName WhiteSpace ":" WhiteSpace Value
       ResourceName	 = [Binding] {Component Binding} ComponentName
       Binding		 = "." | "*"
       WhiteSpace	 = {<space> | <horizontal tab>}
       Component	 = "?" | ComponentName
       ComponentName	 = NameChar {NameChar}
       NameChar		 = "a"-"z" | "A"-"Z" | "0"-"9" | "_" | "-"
       Value		 = {<any character except null or unescaped newline>}

       Elements	 separated by vertical bar (|) are alternatives.  Curly braces
       ({...}) indicate zero or more repetitions  of  the  enclosed  elements.
       Square brackets ([...]) indicate that the enclosed element is optional.
       Quotes ("...") are used around literal characters.

       IncludeFile lines are interpreted by replacing the line with  the  con‐
       tents  of the specified file.  The word "include" must be in lowercase.
       The filename is interpreted relative to the directory of	 the  file  in
       which  the line occurs (for example, if the filename contains no direc‐
       tory or contains a relative directory specification).

       If a ResourceName contains a contiguous sequence of two or more Binding
       characters,  the sequence will be replaced with single "." character if
       the sequence contains only "." characters, otherwise the sequence  will
       be replaced with a single "*" character.

       A  resource  database  never  contains  more than one entry for a given
       ResourceName.  If a resource file contains multiple lines with the same
       ResourceName, the last line in the file is used.

       Any  whitespace	character  before  or  after  the  name	 or colon in a
       ResourceSpec are ignored.  To allow a Value to begin  with  whitespace,
       the  two-character sequence ``\space'' (backslash followed by space) is
       recognized and replaced by a space  character,  and  the	 two-character
       sequence	 ``\tab'' (backslash followed by horizontal tab) is recognized
       and replaced by a horizontal tab character.  To allow a Value  to  con‐
       tain  embedded newline characters, the two-character sequence ``\n'' is
       recognized and replaced by a newline character.	To allow a Value to be
       broken across multiple lines in a text file, the two-character sequence
       ``\newline'' (backslash followed by newline) is recognized and  removed
       from the value.	To allow a Value to contain arbitrary character codes,
       the four-character sequence ``\nnn'', where each n is a digit character
       in  the	range of ``0''-``7'', is recognized and replaced with a single
       byte that contains the octal value specified by the sequence.  Finally,
       the  two-character  sequence  ``\\''  is recognized and replaced with a
       single backslash.

       When an application looks for the value of a resource, it  specifies  a
       complete	 path  in  the	hierarchy, with both class and instance names.
       However, resource values are usually given with only  partially	speci‐
       fied names and classes, using pattern matching constructs.  An asterisk
       (*) is a loose binding and is used to represent any number of interven‐
       ing components, including none.	A period (.) is a tight binding and is
       used to separate immediately adjacent components.  A question mark  (?)
       is  used to match any single component name or class.  A database entry
       cannot end in a loose binding; the final	 component  (which  cannot  be
       "?")  must  be  specified.   The lookup algorithm searches the resource
       database for the entry that most closely matches (is most specific for)
       the  full  name	and  class being queried.  When more than one database
       entry matches the full name and class, precedence  rules	 are  used  to
       select just one.

       The  full  name	and class are scanned from left to right (from highest
       level in the hierarchy to lowest), one component at a  time.   At  each
       level,  the  corresponding  component  and/or  binding of each matching
       entry is determined, and these matching	components  and	 bindings  are
       compared	 according  to precedence rules.  Each of the rules is applied
       at each level, before moving to the next level, until a rule selects  a
       single entry over all others.  The rules (in order of precedence) are:

       1.   An	entry that contains a matching component (whether name, class,
	    or "?")  takes precedence over entries that elide the level	 (that
	    is, entries that match the level in a loose binding).

       2.   An	entry  with a matching name takes precedence over both entries
	    with a matching class and entries that match using "?".  An	 entry
	    with  a  matching  class  takes precedence over entries that match
	    using "?".

       3.   An entry preceded by a tight binding takes precedence over entries
	    preceded by a loose binding.

       Programs	 based	on  the	 X Tookit Intrinsics obtain resources from the
       following sources (other programs usually support some subset of	 these

       RESOURCE_MANAGER root window property
	       Any global resources that should be available to clients on all
	       machines should be stored in the RESOURCE_MANAGER  property  on
	       the  root  window  of  the first screen using the xrdb program.
	       This is frequently taken care of when  the  user	 starts	 up  X
	       through the display manager or xinit.

       SCREEN_RESOURCES root window property
	       Any  resources  specific	 to  a given screen (e.g. colors) that
	       should be available to clients on all machines should be stored
	       in  the	SCREEN_RESOURCES  property  on the root window of that
	       screen.	The xrdb program will sort resources automatically and
	       place  them  in RESOURCE_MANAGER or SCREEN_RESOURCES, as appro‐

       application-specific files
	       Directories named by the environment variable  XUSERFILESEARCH‐
	       PATH  or	 the  environment  variable XAPPLRESDIR (which names a
	       single directory and should end with a '/' on  POSIX  systems),
	       plus   directories   in	 a   standard	place  (usually	 under
	       /usr/lib/X11/, but this can be overridden with the XFILESEARCH‐
	       PATH  environment  variable)  are searched for for application-
	       specific resources.  For example, application default resources
	       are  usually  kept  in  /usr/lib/X11/app-defaults/.   See the X
	       Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual for details.

	       Any user- and machine-specific resources may  be	 specified  by
	       setting	the XENVIRONMENT environment variable to the name of a
	       resource file to be loaded by all applications.	If this	 vari‐
	       able  is not defined, a file named $HOME/.Xdefaults-hostname is
	       looked for instead, where hostname is  the  name	 of  the  host
	       where the application is executing.

       -xrm resourcestring
	       Resources  can  also  be	 specified from the command line.  The
	       resourcestring is a single resource name	 and  value  as	 shown
	       above.  Note that if the string contains characters interpreted
	       by the shell (e.g., asterisk), they must be quoted.  Any number
	       of -xrm arguments may be given on the command line.

       Program	resources  are	organized  into groups called classes, so that
       collections  of	individual  resources  (each  of  which	  are	called
       instances) can be set all at once.  By convention, the instance name of
       a resource begins with a lowercase letter and class name with an	 upper
       case  letter.   Multiple word resources are concatenated with the first
       letter of the succeeding words capitalized.  Applications written  with
       the X Toolkit Intrinsics will have at least the following resources:

       background (class Background)
	       This  resource  specifies the color to use for the window back‐

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
	       This resource specifies the width in pixels of the window  bor‐

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
	       This resource specifies the color to use for the window border.

       Most applications using the X Toolkit Intrinsics also have the resource
       foreground (class Foreground), specifying the color to use for text and
       graphics within the window.

       By combining class and instance specifications, application preferences
       can be set quickly and easily.  Users of color displays will frequently
       want  to	 set Background and Foreground classes to particular defaults.
       Specific color instances such as text cursors can  then	be  overridden
       without having to define all of the related resources.  For example,

	   bitmap*Dashed:  off
	   XTerm*cursorColor:  gold
	   XTerm*multiScroll:  on
	   XTerm*jumpScroll:  on
	   XTerm*reverseWrap:  on
	   XTerm*curses:  on
	   XTerm*Font:	6x10
	   XTerm*scrollBar: on
	   XTerm*scrollbar*thickness: 5
	   XTerm*multiClickTime: 500
	   XTerm*charClass:  33:48,37:48,45-47:48,64:48
	   XTerm*cutNewline: off
	   XTerm*cutToBeginningOfLine: off
	   XTerm*titeInhibit:  on
	   XTerm*ttyModes:  intr ^c erase ^? kill ^u
	   XLoad*Background: gold
	   XLoad*Foreground: red
	   XLoad*highlight: black
	   XLoad*borderWidth: 0
	   emacs*Geometry:  80x65-0-0
	   emacs*Background:  rgb:5b/76/86
	   emacs*Foreground:  white
	   emacs*Cursor:  white
	   emacs*BorderColor:  white
	   emacs*Font:	6x10
	   xmag*geometry: -0-0
	   xmag*borderColor:  white

       If  these  resources  were  stored in a file called .Xresources in your
       home directory, they could be added to any existing  resources  in  the
       server with the following command:

	   % xrdb -merge $HOME/.Xresources

       This  is	 frequently  how user-friendly startup scripts merge user-spe‐
       cific defaults into any site-wide defaults.  All sites  are  encouraged
       to  set	up convenient ways of automatically loading resources. See the
       Xlib manual section Resource Manager Functions for more information.

	      This is the only mandatory environment variable. It  must	 point
	      to an X server. See section "Display Names" above.

	      This  must point to a file that contains authorization data. The
	      default  is  $HOME/.Xauthority.  See   Xsecurity(7),   xauth(1),
	      xdm(1), Xau(3).

	      This  must point to a file that contains authorization data. The
	      default is $HOME/.ICEauthority.

	      The first non-empty value among these three determines the  cur‐
	      rent  locale's  facet  for character handling, and in particular
	      the  default  text  encoding.   See   locale(7),	 setlocale(3),

	      This  variable  can  be  set  to	contain additional information
	      important for the	 current  locale  setting.  Typically  set  to
	      @im=<input-method>  to  enable  a	 particular  input method. See

	      This must point to a directory containing the locale.alias  file
	      and Compose and XLC_LOCALE file hierarchies for all locales. The
	      default value is /usr/lib/X11/locale.

	      This must point to a file containing X resources. The default is
	      $HOME/.Xdefaults-<hostname>.  Unlike /usr/lib/X11/Xresources, it
	      is consulted each time an X application starts.

	      This must contain a colon	 separated  list  of  path  templates,
	      where  libXt  will  search for resource files. The default value
	      consists of


	      A path template is transformed to a pathname by substituting:

		  %N => name (basename) being searched for
		  %T => type (dirname) being searched for
		  %S => suffix being searched for
		  %C => value of the resource "customization"
			(class "Customization")
		  %L => the locale name
		  %l => the locale's language (part before '_')
		  %t => the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
		  %c => the locale's encoding (part after '.')

	      This must contain a colon	 separated  list  of  path  templates,
	      where  libXt  will search for user dependent resource files. The
	      default value is:


	      $XAPPLRESDIR defaults to $HOME, see below.

	      A path template is transformed to a pathname by substituting:

		  %N => name (basename) being searched for
		  %T => type (dirname) being searched for
		  %S => suffix being searched for
		  %C => value of the resource "customization"
			(class "Customization")
		  %L => the locale name
		  %l => the locale's language (part before '_')
		  %t => the locale's territory (part after '_` but before '.')
		  %c => the locale's encoding (part after '.')

	      This must point to a base directory where the  user  stores  his
	      application  dependent  resource	files.	The  default  value is
	      $HOME. Only used if XUSERFILESEARCHPATH is not set.

	      This must point to a file containing nonstandard keysym  defini‐
	      tions.  The default value is /usr/lib/X11/XKeysymDB.

       XCMSDB This must point to a color name database file. The default value
	      is usr/lib/X11/Xcms.txt.

	      This must point to a configuration file for the Xft library. The
	      default value is /usr/lib/X11/XftConfig.

	      This  serves  as	main identifier for resources belonging to the
	      program being executed. It defaults to the basename of  pathname
	      of the program.

	      Denotes  the session manager the application should connect. See
	      xsm(1), rstart(1).

	      Setting  this  variable  to  a  non-empty	 value	disables   the
	      XFree86-Bigfont  extension.  This	 extension  is	a mechanism to
	      reduce the memory consumption of big fonts by use of shared mem‐


	      These variables influence the X Keyboard Extension.

       The  following  is a collection of sample command lines for some of the
       more frequently used commands.  For more information  on	 a  particular
       command, please refer to that command's manual page.

	   %  xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
	   %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
	   %  mkfontdir /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
	   %  xset fp+ /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
	   %  xmodmap $HOME/.keymap.km
	   %  xsetroot -solid 'rgbi:.8/.8/.8'
	   %  xset b 100 400 c 50 s 1800 r on
	   %  xset q
	   %  twm
	   %  xmag
	   %  xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 -bg blue -fg white
	   %  xeyes -geometry 48x48-48+0
	   %  xbiff -update 20
	   %  xlsfonts '*helvetica*'
	   %  xwininfo -root
	   %  xdpyinfo -display joesworkstation:0
	   %  xhost -joesworkstation
	   %  xrefresh
	   %  xwd | xwud
	   %  bitmap companylogo.bm 32x32
	   %  xcalc -bg blue -fg magenta
	   %  xterm -geometry 80x66-0-0 -name myxterm $*
	   %  xon filesysmachine xload

       A  wide	variety of error messages are generated from various programs.
       The default error handler in Xlib (also used  by	 many  toolkits)  uses
       standard	 resources to construct diagnostic messages when errors occur.
       The defaults for these messages are usually stored in  usr/lib/X11/XEr‐
       rorDB.	If  this  file	is  not present, error messages will be rather
       terse and cryptic.

       When the X Toolkit  Intrinsics  encounter  errors  converting  resource
       strings	to the appropriate internal format, no error messages are usu‐
       ally printed.  This is convenient when it is desirable to have one  set
       of  resources  across a variety of displays (e.g. color vs. monochrome,
       lots of fonts vs. very few, etc.), although it can  pose	 problems  for
       trying to determine why an application might be failing.	 This behavior
       can be overridden by the setting the StringConversionsWarning resource.

       To force the X Toolkit Intrinsics to  always  print  string  conversion
       error  messages,	 the  following	 resource should be placed in the file
       that gets loaded onto the RESOURCE_MANAGER property using the xrdb pro‐
       gram  (frequently called .Xresources or .Xres in the user's home direc‐

	   *StringConversionWarnings: on

       To have conversion messages printed for just a particular  application,
       the appropriate instance name can be placed before the asterisk:

	   xterm*StringConversionWarnings: on

       XOrgFoundation(7),  XStandards(7),  Xsecurity(7), Xprint(7), appres(1),
       bdftopcf(1),   bitmap(1),    editres(1),	   fsinfo(1),	 fslsfonts(1),
       fstobdf(1),  iceauth(1),	 imake(1),  lbxproxy(1),  kbd_mode(1), makede‐
       pend(1),	 mkfontdir(1),	oclock(1),  proxymngr(1),  rgb(1),  resize(1),
       rstart(1),  smproxy(1),	twm(1),	 x11perf(1), x11perfcomp(1), xauth(1),
       xclipboard(1), xclock(1), xcmsdb(1), xconsole(1), xdm(1),  xdpyinfo(1),
       xfd(1), xfindproxy(1), xfs(1), xfwp(1), xhost(1), xinit(1), xkbbell(1),
       xkbcomp(1), xkbevd(1), xkbprint(1), xkbvleds(1), xkbwatch(1), xkill(1),
       xlogo(1),  xlsatoms(1),	xlsclients(1),	xlsfonts(1),  xmag(1), xmh(1),
       xmodmap(1), xon(1), xplsprinters(1),  xprop(1),	xrdb(1),  xrefresh(1),
       xrx(1),	xset(1),  xsetroot(1),	xsm(1), xstdcmap(1), xterm(1), xwd(1),
       xwininfo(1),  xwud(1).	Xserver(1),   Xdec(1),	 Xdmx(1),   XmacII(1),
       Xsun(1),	 Xnest(1),  Xvfb(1),  Xorg(1),	XDarwin(1), Xprt(1).  Xlib - C
       Language X Interface, and X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface

       X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.

       A cast of thousands, literally.	Releases 6.7 and later are brought  to
       you by the X.Org Foundation, LLC. The names of all people who made it a
       reality will be found in the individual documents and source files.

       Releases 6.6 and 6.5 were done by The X.Org  Group.   Release  6.4  was
       done  by The X Project Team.  The Release 6.3 distribution was from The
       X Consortium, Inc.  The staff members at the X  Consortium  responsible
       for that release were: Donna Converse (emeritus), Stephen Gildea (emer‐
       itus), Kaleb Keithley, Matt Landau (emeritus),  Ralph  Mor  (emeritus),
       Janet  O'Halloran, Bob Scheifler, Ralph Swick, Dave Wiggins (emeritus),
       and Reed Augliere.

       The X Window System standard was originally developed at the Laboratory
       for  Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and
       all rights thereto were assigned to the	X  Consortium  on  January  1,
       1994.   X  Consortium, Inc. closed its doors on December 31, 1996.  All
       rights to the X Window System have been assigned to The Open Group.

X Version 11			 xorg-docs 1.3				  X(7)

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