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AIO(7)			   Linux Programmer's Manual			AIO(7)

       aio - POSIX asynchronous I/O overview

       The  POSIX asynchronous I/O (AIO) interface allows applications to ini‐
       tiate one or more I/O  operations  that	are  performed	asynchronously
       (i.e., in the background).  The application can elect to be notified of
       completion of the I/O operation in a variety of ways: by delivery of  a
       signal, by instantiation of a thread, or no notification at all.

       The POSIX AIO interface consists of the following functions:

       aio_read(3)     Enqueue	a read request.	 This is the asynchronous ana‐
		       log of read(2).

       aio_write(3)    Enqueue a write request.	 This is the asynchronous ana‐
		       log of write(2).

       aio_fsync(3)    Enqueue a sync request for the I/O operations on a file
		       descriptor.   This  is  the  asynchronous   analog   of
		       fsync(2) and fdatasync(2).

       aio_error(3)    Obtain the error status of an enqueued I/O request.

       aio_return(3)   Obtain the return status of a completed I/O request.

       aio_suspend(3)  Suspend the caller until one or more of a specified set
		       of I/O requests completes.

       aio_cancel(3)   Attempt to cancel outstanding I/O requests on a	speci‐
		       fied file descriptor.

       lio_listio(3)   Enqueue	multiple  I/O requests using a single function

       The aiocb ("asynchronous I/O control block") structure defines  parame‐
       ters  that  control  an	I/O  operation.	  An  argument of this type is
       employed with all of the functions listed above.	  This	structure  has
       the following form:

	   #include <aiocb.h>

	   struct aiocb {
	       /* The order of these fields is implementation-dependent */

	       int	       aio_fildes;     /* File descriptor */
	       off_t	       aio_offset;     /* File offset */
	       volatile void  *aio_buf;	       /* Location of buffer */
	       size_t	       aio_nbytes;     /* Length of transfer */
	       int	       aio_reqprio;    /* Request priority */
	       struct sigevent aio_sigevent;   /* Notification method */
	       int	       aio_lio_opcode; /* Operation to be performed;
						  lio_listio() only */

	       /* Various implementation-internal fields not shown */

	   /* Operation codes for 'aio_lio_opcode': */

	   enum { LIO_READ, LIO_WRITE, LIO_NOP };

       The fields of this structure are as follows:

       aio_filedes     The file descriptor on which the I/O operation is to be

       aio_offset      This is the file offset at which the I/O	 operation  is
		       to be performed.

       aio_buf	       This  is the buffer used to transfer data for a read or
		       write operation.

       aio_nbytes      This is the size of the buffer pointed to by aio_buf.

       aio_reqprio     This field specifies a value that  is  subtracted  from
		       the  calling  thread's  real-time  priority in order to
		       determine  the  priority	 for  execution	 of  this  I/O
		       request	(see pthread_setschedparam(3)).	 The specified
		       value must be between  0	 and  the  value  returned  by
		       sysconf(_SC_AIO_PRIO_DELTA_MAX).	 This field is ignored
		       for file synchronization operations.

       aio_sigevent    This field is a structure that specifies how the caller
		       is  to  be notified when the asynchronous I/O operation
		       completes.	   Possible	    values	   for
		       aio_sigevent.sigev_notify are SIGEV_NONE, SIGEV_SIGNAL,
		       and SIGEV_THREAD.  See sigevent(7) for further details.

       aio_lio_opcode  The type of operation to be performed;  used  only  for

       In  addition  to the standard functions listed above, the GNU C library
       provides the following extension to the POSIX AIO API:

       aio_init(3)     Set parameters for tuning the  behavior	of  the	 glibc
		       POSIX AIO implementation.

       EINVAL The aio_reqprio field of the aiocb structure was less than 0, or
	      was   greater   than   the   limit   returned   by   the	  call

       The POSIX AIO interfaces are provided by glibc since version 2.1.

       POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008.

       It  is a good idea to zero out the control block buffer before use (see
       memset(3)).  The control block buffer and  the  buffer  pointed	to  by
       aio_buf	must  not  be  changed while the I/O operation is in progress.
       These buffers must remain valid until the I/O operation completes.

       Simultaneous asynchronous read or write operations using the same aiocb
       structure yield undefined results.

       The current Linux POSIX AIO implementation is provided in user space by
       glibc.  This has a number of limitations, most notably that maintaining
       multiple	 threads  to  perform  I/O  operations is expensive and scales
       poorly.	Work has been in progress for some time	 on  a	kernel	state-
       machine-based  implementation  of  asynchronous	I/O (see io_submit(2),
       io_setup(2), io_cancel(2), io_destroy(2),  io_getevents(2)),  but  this
       implementation  hasn't  yet  matured  to	 the point where the POSIX AIO
       implementation can be completely reimplemented using the kernel	system

       The  program  below  opens  each of the files named in its command-line
       arguments and queues a request on the resulting file  descriptor	 using
       aio_read(3).   The  program then loops, periodically monitoring each of
       the I/O operations that is still in progress using aio_error(3).	  Each
       of  the I/O requests is set up to provide notification by delivery of a
       signal.	After all I/O requests have completed, the  program  retrieves
       their status using aio_return(3).

       The  SIGQUIT  signal (generated by typing control-\) causes the program
       to request cancellation of  each	 of  the  outstanding  requests	 using

       Here  is an example of what we might see when running this program.  In
       this example, the program queues two requests to	 standard  input,  and
       these are satisfied by two lines of input containing "abc" and "x".

	   $ ./a.out /dev/stdin /dev/stdin
	   opened /dev/stdin on descriptor 3
	   opened /dev/stdin on descriptor 4
	       for request 0 (descriptor 3): In progress
	       for request 1 (descriptor 4): In progress
	   I/O completion signal received
	       for request 0 (descriptor 3): I/O succeeded
	       for request 1 (descriptor 4): In progress
	       for request 1 (descriptor 4): In progress
	   I/O completion signal received
	       for request 1 (descriptor 4): I/O succeeded
	   All I/O requests completed
	       for request 0 (descriptor 3): 4
	       for request 1 (descriptor 4): 2

   Program source

       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <unistd.h>
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <errno.h>
       #include <aio.h>
       #include <signal.h>

       #define BUF_SIZE 20     /* Size of buffers for read operations */

       #define errExit(msg) do { perror(msg); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } while (0)

       #define errMsg(msg)  do { perror(msg); } while (0)

       struct ioRequest {      /* Application-defined structure for tracking
				  I/O requests */
	   int		 reqNum;
	   int		 status;
	   struct aiocb *aiocbp;

       static volatile sig_atomic_t gotSIGQUIT = 0;
			       /* On delivery of SIGQUIT, we attempt to
				  cancel all outstanding I/O requests */

       static void	       /* Handler for SIGQUIT */
       quitHandler(int sig)
	   gotSIGQUIT = 1;

       #define IO_SIGNAL SIGUSR1   /* Signal used to notify I/O completion */

       static void		   /* Handler for I/O completion signal */
       aioSigHandler(int sig, siginfo_t *si, void *ucontext)
	   write(STDOUT_FILENO, "I/O completion signal received\n", 31);

	   /* The corresponding ioRequest structure would be available as
		  struct ioRequest *ioReq = si->si_value.sival_ptr;
	      and the file descriptor would then be available via
		  ioReq->aiocbp->aio_fildes */

       main(int argc, char *argv[])
	   struct ioRequest *ioList;
	   struct aiocb *aiocbList;
	   struct sigaction sa;
	   int s, j;
	   int numReqs;	       /* Total number of queued I/O requests */
	   int openReqs;       /* Number of I/O requests still in progress */

	   if (argc < 2) {
	       fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s <pathname> <pathname>...\n",

	   numReqs = argc - 1;

	   /* Allocate our arrays */

	   ioList = calloc(numReqs, sizeof(struct ioRequest));
	   if (ioList == NULL)

	   aiocbList = calloc(numReqs, sizeof(struct aiocb));
	   if (aiocbList == NULL)

	   /* Establish handlers for SIGQUIT and the I/O completion signal */

	   sa.sa_flags = SA_RESTART;

	   sa.sa_handler = quitHandler;
	   if (sigaction(SIGQUIT, &sa, NULL) == -1)

	   sa.sa_flags = SA_RESTART | SA_SIGINFO;
	   sa.sa_sigaction = aioSigHandler;
	   if (sigaction(IO_SIGNAL, &sa, NULL) == -1)

	   /* Open each file specified on the command line, and queue
	      a read request on the resulting file descriptor */

	   for (j = 0; j < numReqs; j++) {
	       ioList[j].reqNum = j;
	       ioList[j].status = EINPROGRESS;
	       ioList[j].aiocbp = &aiocbList[j];

	       ioList[j].aiocbp->aio_fildes = open(argv[j + 1], O_RDONLY);
	       if (ioList[j].aiocbp->aio_fildes == -1)
	       printf("opened %s on descriptor %d\n", argv[j + 1],

	       ioList[j].aiocbp->aio_buf = malloc(BUF_SIZE);
	       if (ioList[j].aiocbp->aio_buf == NULL)

	       ioList[j].aiocbp->aio_nbytes = BUF_SIZE;
	       ioList[j].aiocbp->aio_reqprio = 0;
	       ioList[j].aiocbp->aio_offset = 0;
	       ioList[j].aiocbp->aio_sigevent.sigev_notify = SIGEV_SIGNAL;
	       ioList[j].aiocbp->aio_sigevent.sigev_signo = IO_SIGNAL;
	       ioList[j].aiocbp->aio_sigevent.sigev_value.sival_ptr =

	       s = aio_read(ioList[j].aiocbp);
	       if (s == -1)

	   openReqs = numReqs;

	   /* Loop, monitoring status of I/O requests */

	   while (openReqs > 0) {
	       sleep(3);       /* Delay between each monitoring step */

	       if (gotSIGQUIT) {

		   /* On receipt of SIGQUIT, attempt to cancel each of the
		      outstanding I/O requests, and display status returned
		      from the cancellation requests */

		   printf("got SIGQUIT; canceling I/O requests: \n");

		   for (j = 0; j < numReqs; j++) {
		       if (ioList[j].status == EINPROGRESS) {
			   printf("    Request %d on descriptor %d:", j,
			   s = aio_cancel(ioList[j].aiocbp->aio_fildes,
			   if (s == AIO_CANCELED)
			       printf("I/O canceled\n");
			   else if (s == AIO_NOTCANCELED)
				   printf("I/O not canceled\n");
			   else if (s == AIO_ALLDONE)
			       printf("I/O all done\n");

		   gotSIGQUIT = 0;

	       /* Check the status of each I/O request that is still
		  in progress */

	       for (j = 0; j < numReqs; j++) {
		   if (ioList[j].status == EINPROGRESS) {
		       printf("	   for request %d (descriptor %d): ",
			       j, ioList[j].aiocbp->aio_fildes);
		       ioList[j].status = aio_error(ioList[j].aiocbp);

		       switch (ioList[j].status) {
		       case 0:
			   printf("I/O succeeded\n");
		       case EINPROGRESS:
			   printf("In progress\n");
		       case ECANCELED:

		       if (ioList[j].status != EINPROGRESS)

	   printf("All I/O requests completed\n");

	   /* Check status return of all I/O requests */

	   for (j = 0; j < numReqs; j++) {
	       ssize_t s;

	       s = aio_return(ioList[j].aiocbp);
	       printf("	   for request %d (descriptor %d): %zd\n",
		       j, ioList[j].aiocbp->aio_fildes, s);


       io_cancel(2), io_destroy(2), io_getevents(2), io_setup(2),
       io_submit(2), aio_cancel(3), aio_error(3), aio_init(3), aio_read(3),
       aio_return(3), aio_write(3), lio_listio(3)


       This page is part of release 3.65 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can
       be found at

Linux				  2014-04-06				AIO(7)

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