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AR(1)			  BSD General Commands Manual			 AR(1)

NAME
     ar, ranlib — manage archives

SYNOPSIS
     ar -d [-T] [-j] [-v] [-z] archive files ...
     ar -m [-T] [-a position-after] [-b position-before] [-i position-before]
	[-j] [-s] [-z] archive files ...
     ar -p [-T] [-v] archive [files ...]
     ar -r [-T] [-a position-after] [-b position-before] [-c]
	[-i position-before] [-j] [-s] [-u] [-v] [-z] archive files ...
     ar -s [-j] [-z] archive
     ar -t [-T] [-v] archive [files ...]
     ar -x [-C] [-T] [-o] [-u] [-v] archive [files ...]
     ranlib archive ...

DESCRIPTION
     The ar utility creates and maintains groups of files combined into an ar‐
     chive.  Once an archive has been created, new files can be added to it,
     and existing files can be extracted, deleted or replaced.

     Files are named in the archive by their last file name component, so if a
     file referenced by a path containing a “/” is archived, it will be named
     by the last component of the path.	 Similarly when matching paths listed
     on the command line against file names stored in the archive, only the
     last component of the path will be compared.

     The normal use of ar is for the creation and maintenance of libraries
     suitable for use with the link editor ld(1), although it is not
     restricted to this purpose.  The ar utility can create and manage an ar‐
     chive symbol table (see ar(5)) used to speed up link editing operations.
     If a symbol table is present in an archive, it will be kept up-to-date by
     subsequent operations on the archive (excepting the quick update speci‐
     fied by the -q option).

     The ranlib utility is used to add an archive symbol table to an existing
     archive.

OPTIONS
     The ar utility supports the following options:

     -a member-after
	     When used with option -m this option specifies that the archive
	     members specified by arguments files ... are moved to after the
	     archive member named by argument member-after.  When used with
	     option -r this option specifies that the files specified by argu‐
	     ments files ... are added after the archive member named by argu‐
	     ment member-after.

     -b member-before
	     When used with option -m this option specifies that the archive
	     members specified by arguments files ... are moved to before the
	     archive member named by argument member-before.  When used with
	     option -r this option specifies that the files specified by argu‐
	     ments files ... are added before the archive member named by
	     argument member-before.

     -c	     Suppress the informational message printed when a new archive is
	     created using the -r and -q options.

     -C	     Prevent extracted files from replacing like-named files in the
	     file system.

     -d	     Delete the members named by arguments files ... from the archive
	     specified by argument archive.  The archive's symbol table, if
	     present, is updated to reflect the new contents of the archive.

     -f	     Synonymous with option -T.

     -i member-before
	     Synonymous with option -b.

     -j	     Compress the resulting archive with bzip2(1).

     -m	     Move archive members specified by arguments files ... within the
	     archive.  If a position has been specified by one of the -a, -b
	     or -i options, the members are moved to before or after the spec‐
	     ified position.  If no position has been specified, the specified
	     members are moved to the end of the archive.  If the archive has
	     a symbol table, it is updated to reflect the new contents of the
	     archive.

     -o	     Preserve the original modification times of members when extract‐
	     ing them.

     -p	     Write the contents of the specified archive members named by
	     arguments files ... to standard output.  If no members were spec‐
	     ified, the contents of all the files in the archive are written
	     in the order they appear in the archive.

     -q	     Append the files specified by arguments files ... to the archive
	     specified by argument archive without checking if the files
	     already exist in the archive and without updating the archive's
	     symbol table.  If the archive file archive does not already
	     exist, a new archive is created.  However, to be compatible with
	     GNU ar, option -q will update the archive's symbol table.

     -r	     Replace (add) the files specified by arguments files ... in the
	     archive specified by argument archive, creating the archive if
	     necessary.	 Files that replace existing files do not change the
	     order of files within the archive.	 If a file named in arguments
	     files ... does not exist, existing members in the archive that
	     match that name are not changed.  New files are added to the end
	     of the archive unless one of the positioning options -a, -b or -i
	     is specified.  The archive symbol table, if it exists, is updated
	     to reflect the new state of the archive.

     -s	     Add an archive symbol table (see ar(5)) to the archive specified
	     by argument archive.  Invoking ar with the -s option alone is
	     equivalent to invoking ranlib.

     -t	     List the files specified by arguments files ... in the order in
	     which they appear in the archive, one per line.  If no files are
	     specified, all files in the archive are listed.

     -T	     Use only the first fifteen characters of the archive member name
	     or command line file name argument when naming archive members.

     -u	     Conditionally update the archive or extract members.  When used
	     with the -r option, files named by arguments files ... will be
	     replaced in the archive if they are newer than their archived
	     versions.	When used with the -x option, the members specified by
	     arguments files ... will be extracted only if they are newer than
	     the corresponding files in the file system.

     -v	     Provide verbose output.  When used with the -d, -m, -q or -x
	     options, ar gives a file-by-file description of the archive modi‐
	     fication being performed, which consists of three white-space
	     separated fields: the option letter, a dash “-”, and the file
	     name.  When used with the -r option, ar displays the description
	     as above, but the initial letter is an “a” if the file is added
	     to the archive, or an “r” if the file replaces a file already in
	     the archive.  When used with the -p option, the name of the file
	     enclosed in “<” and “>” characters is written to standard output
	     preceded by a single newline character and followed by two new‐
	     line characters.  The contents of the named file follow the file
	     name.  When used with the -t option, ar displays eight whitespace
	     separated fields: the file permissions as displayed by
	     strmode(3), decimal user and group IDs separated by a slash (
	     “/”), the file size in bytes, the file modification time in
	     strftime(3) format “%b %e %H:%M %Y”, and the name of the file.

     -x	     Extract archive members specified by arguments files ... into the
	     current directory.	 If no members have been specified, extract
	     all members of the archive.  If the file corresponding to an
	     extracted member does not exist it will be created.  If the file
	     corresponding to an extracted member does exist, its owner and
	     group will not be changed while its contents will be overwritten
	     and its permissions will set to that entered in the archive.  The
	     file's access and modification time would be that of the time of
	     extraction unless the -o option was specified.

     -z	     Compress the resulting archive with gzip(1).

EXAMPLES
     To create a new archive ex.a containing three files ex1.o, ex2.o and
     ex3.o, use:
	   ar -rc ex.a ex1.o ex2.o ex3.o

     To add an archive symbol table to an existing archive ex.a, use:
	   ar -s ex.a

     To delete file ex1.o from archive ex.a, use:
	   ar -d ex.a ex1.o

     To verbosely list the contents of archive ex.a, use:
	   ar -tv ex.a

DIAGNOSTICS
     The ar utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

SEE ALSO
     ld(1), archive(3), elf(3), strftime(3), strmode(3), ar(5)

HISTORY
     An ar command first appeared in AT&T UNIX Version 1.  In FreeBSD 8.0, Kai
     Wang ⟨kaiw@FreeBSD.org⟩ reimplemented ar and ranlib using the library
     “libarchive” and the library “libelf”.

BSD				August 31, 2007				   BSD
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