arff(8v)arff(8v)Namearff - archiver for RT-11 format devices
The command manipulates RT-11 formatted devices, such as the console
media on VAX computers, or RT-11 formatted device images stored as a
file on your ULTRIX system. The key argument is a single letter, pos‐
sibly followed by one or more letters. Possible values for key follow:
d Name files to be deleted from the RT-11 device. Note that protected
files cannot be deleted. Wild cards are available with this func‐
tion. At least one RT-11 file name or wild card specification must
i The RT-11 device is initialized. The RT-11 device home block and
directory segments are rewritten. This effectively deletes all
files on the RT-11 device.
Exactly one argument must be given instead of a file name. This
argument is a comma-separated list of parameters to use in initial‐
izing the device:
1. The first parameter is the device size in blocks (8 to 65535);
this parameter must be given.
2. The second parameter is the directory size in segments (1 to 31);
this parameter may be omitted.
3. The third parameter is the volume identification (1 to 12 charac‐
ters); this parameter may be omitted.
4. The fourth parameter is the volume owner (1 to 12 characters);
this parameter may be omitted.
5. The fifth parameter is the number of extra words per directory
entry (0 to 500); this parameter may be omitted.
Parameters may be omitted by not placing a value between the sepa‐
rating commas. Trailing commas need not be provided.
The default value for the number of directory segments depends on
the specified device size. For sizes up to 640 blocks, 1 directory
segment is assumed; for 641 to 1280 blocks, 2 segments; 1281 to
2560 blocks, 4 segments; 2561 to 5120 blocks, 8 segments; 5121 to
10240 blocks, 16 segments; and 10241 or more blocks, 31 segments.
This approximates, but does not duplicate, the RT-11 defaults.
The default value for the volume identification is RT11A; for the
volume owner, blanks; and for the number of extra words per direc‐
tory segment, 0. The ``system identification'' in the home block is
set to ``DEC ULTRIX''; this cannot be changed by command options.
p The named files are protected against deletion. Wild cards are
available with this function. If no RT-11 file names or wild card
specifications are given, all files on the RT-11 device are pro‐
tected against deletion.
r The key-arguments name files to be replaced on the RT-11 device. If
the named files do not exist on the RT-11 device, they are added to
the RT-11 device. Wild cards are not available with this function.
t The key-arguments name files to be listed. Wild cards are available
with this function. If no RT-11 file names or wild card specifica‐
tions are given, all files on the RT-11 device are listed.
u The key-arguments name files to be made unprotected against dele‐
tion. Wild cards are available with this function. If no RT-11
file names or wild card specifications are given, all files on the
RT-11 device are protected against deletion.
x The key-arguments name files to be extracted from the RT-11 device.
Wild cards are available with this function. If no RT-11 file names
or wild card specifications are given, all files on the RT-11 device
are extracted into the current working directory.
b A boot block is written to an RT-11 device. Currently this works on
VAX 8600 media only. The key-arguments name the monitor program
file and the device handler program file, in that order. The default
files if no key-arguments are specified are rt11fb.sys and dl.sys.
The monitor program file and the device handler file are first
extracted from the RT-11 device and a boot block is constructed.
The default or named files will not be extracted if the ``n'' (no
extract) modifier is given.
The key-modifier letters and their effects are:
c Create new directory. This modifier indicates that a new (one-seg‐
ment) directory is to be created on the RT-11 device. This modifier
may be specified only with the r (replace) function. The home block
is not modified, and, if corrupt, will remain corrupt.
f File name. This modifier indicates that the first file name speci‐
fied in the command is the name of a native file which contains an
RT-11 device image. This file is used rather than the default of
/dev/bootdev (the real device name should be linked to this). This
modifier may be specified with any function.
h Home block corrupt. This modifier indicates that the home block of
the RT-11 volume is known to be corrupt. Directory information con‐
tained in the home block is ignored in favor of usually valid
assumptions. This modifier may be necessary when dealing with RT-11
format volumes created by the arff program supplied with 4.2bsd and
ULTRIX Version 1.0.
Note that if the home block is noticed to be corrupt and this modi‐
fier is not given, a warning message is issued and this modifier is
m No sector mapping. This modifier indicates that the device driver
mapping is to be used. If this modifier is not given on ULTRIX sys‐
tems, the RX01 mapping used by the Digital proprietary operating
systems is applied to the RT-11 device image. This modifier should
not be specified when the RT-11 device image is the VAX-11/780 or
VAX-11/785 RX01 diskette or a physical image thereof, and should be
specified in all other cases. On operating system other than
ULTRIX, this modifier is assumed and its specification has no
effect. This modifier may be specified with any function.
p Printable files. This modifier indicates that the files transferred
to and from the RT-11 device are printable text files. When
extracted from the RT-11 device, NUL characters are deleted and CR
LF sequences are replaced by newline. When replaced into the RT-11
device, newline is replaced by CR LF sequences. When this modifier
is not specified, trailing NUL characters are deleted on extraction,
and sufficient NUL characters to fill out a block are appended on
replacement. This modifier may be specified only with the r
(replace) and x (extract) functions.
v Verbose. When specified with the t (list) function, the listing
produced is that which would be produced by the RT-11 command
DIRECTORY /FULL /POSITION /VOLUME /COLUMNS:2
rather than the RT-11 command
DIRECTORY /BRIEF /COLUMNS:6
When specified with the i (initialize) function, the volume parame‐
ters specified and implied by the defaulting rules are written to
the standard output. When specified with the r (replace), x
(extract), d (delete), p (protect), or u (unprotect) functions, the
names of the files affected are listed on the standard output as
they are processed.
n No extract. Do not extract the monitor program and the handler code
from the RT-11 device prior to writing a boot block. Used only on
VAX 8600 RT-11 device and with the ``b'' option given above.
Most of the functions take a list of file names specifying the files
upon which the functions are to be performed. RT-11 file names may be
specified in three formats:
RT-11 file names
These consist of one to six characters followed by a period followed
by zero to three characters. The characters must be in the set A-Z,
0-9, and dollar sign. The characters before the period are known as
the filename; the characters before the period are known as the
RT-11 wild card specifications
These consist of zero to six characters optionally followed by a
period optionally followed by one to three characters. The charac‐
ters must be in the set A-Z, 0-9, dollar sign, percent sign, and
asterisk. Percent sign will match any single character in the RT-11
file names on the RT-11 volume; asterisk will match zero or more
characters in the RT-11 file names on the RT-11 volume. An RT-11
wild card specification may be distinguished from an RT-11 file name
by the lack of a filename, the lack of a period and extension, or
the use of at least one * or % wild card character. A null filename
is equivalent to *. No string is equivalent to *.*.
Native file names
These consist of one or more characters optionally followed by a
period optionally followed by one or more characters. If no period
appears, the file name must be at least seven characters long.
Native file names generate RT-11 file names as follows: If there is
no period or if there are at least seven characters before the first
period, the filename is the first six characters and the extension
is up to the next three characters, terminated by the end of the
native file name or the appearance of a period. If there are one to
six characters before the first period, the filename is those char‐
acters and the extension is up to the next three characters, termi‐
nated by the end of the native file name or the appearance of
In any format, path information may be prepended.
When native file names are generated (for the extract function), the
form of the generated file name depends upon the file name argument
specified. All prepended path information is present verbatim. If the
argument is an RT-11 wild card specification, the last component of the
full path name is the lowercase equivalent of the RT-11 file name.
Otherwise, the last component of the full path name is exactly that
specified in the argument, with uppercase and lowercase intact. Thus,
as an argument to the extract function would extract all files on the
RT-11 device (a null specification is equivalent to the *.* wild card),
and store them in the directory with file names the lowercase equiva‐
lent of the RT-11 file names; but as an argument to the extract func‐
tion would extract the RT-11 file MAKEFI.LE and store it as
The following example produces a full listing of the files on the RT-11
device image in the file ``device_image''.
arff tvf device_image
The following example produces a short listing of the files with exten‐
sion ``C'' on the RT-11 device image in the file ``device_image''.
arff tf device_image .c
The following example extracts the file FILENAME.C from the RT-11
device at the standard place and places it in the file (with upper‐
arff x /usr/users/kmd/FILENAME.C
The following example protects all files on the RT-11 device at the
standard place against deletion.
The following example unprotects all files on the RT-11 device at the
standard place with extension ``OBJ'' against deletion, and notes each
file so unprotected on the standard output.
arff uv .obj
The following example causes an error message.
The following example initializes the file test_device to be an RT-11
device image with two directory segments, 494 total blocks, and one
extra word per directory entry.
arff ivf test_device 494,2,,,1
The following example extracts the files rt11fb.sys and dl.sys from the
RT-11 device, constructs a boot block, and writes the boot block back
to the device.
The following example uses the files rt11a.sys and dd.sys to contruct a
boot block for an RT-11 device. This boot block is then written to the
arff bnm rt11a.sys dd.sys
RT-11 file image for the ``replace'' function