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arff(8v)							      arff(8v)

Name
       arff - archiver for RT-11 format devices

Syntax
       /etc/arff key

Description
       The  command  manipulates  RT-11 formatted devices, such as the console
       media on VAX computers, or RT-11 formatted device images	 stored	 as  a
       file  on your ULTRIX system.  The key argument is a single letter, pos‐
       sibly followed by one or more letters. Possible values for key follow:

Keys
       d  Name files to be deleted from the RT-11 device.  Note that protected
	  files	 cannot	 be deleted.  Wild cards are available with this func‐
	  tion.	 At least one RT-11 file name or wild card specification  must
	  be given.

       i  The  RT-11  device  is initialized.  The RT-11 device home block and
	  directory segments are  rewritten.   This  effectively  deletes  all
	  files on the RT-11 device.

	  Exactly  one	argument  must	be given instead of a file name.  This
	  argument is a comma-separated list of parameters to use in  initial‐
	  izing the device:

	  1. The  first	 parameter  is the device size in blocks (8 to 65535);
	     this parameter must be given.

	  2. The second parameter is the directory size in segments (1 to 31);
	     this parameter may be omitted.

	  3. The third parameter is the volume identification (1 to 12 charac‐
	     ters); this parameter may be omitted.

	  4. The fourth parameter is the volume owner (1  to  12  characters);
	     this parameter may be omitted.

	  5. The  fifth	 parameter  is the number of extra words per directory
	     entry (0 to 500); this parameter may be omitted.

	  Parameters may be omitted by not placing a value between  the	 sepa‐
	  rating commas.  Trailing commas need not be provided.

	  The  default	value  for the number of directory segments depends on
	  the specified device size.  For sizes up to 640 blocks, 1  directory
	  segment  is  assumed;	  for  641 to 1280 blocks, 2 segments; 1281 to
	  2560 blocks, 4 segments; 2561 to 5120 blocks, 8  segments;  5121  to
	  10240	 blocks,  16  segments; and 10241 or more blocks, 31 segments.
	  This approximates, but does not duplicate, the RT-11 defaults.

	  The default value for the volume identification is  RT11A;  for  the
	  volume  owner, blanks;  and for the number of extra words per direc‐
	  tory segment, 0.  The ``system identification'' in the home block is
	  set to ``DEC ULTRIX''; this cannot be changed by command options.

       p  The  named  files  are  protected  against deletion.	Wild cards are
	  available with this function.	 If no RT-11 file names or  wild  card
	  specifications  are  given,  all  files on the RT-11 device are pro‐
	  tected against deletion.

       r  The key-arguments name files to be replaced on the RT-11 device.  If
	  the  named files do not exist on the RT-11 device, they are added to
	  the RT-11 device.  Wild cards are not available with this function.

       t  The key-arguments name files to be listed.  Wild cards are available
	  with	this function.	If no RT-11 file names or wild card specifica‐
	  tions are given, all files on the RT-11 device are listed.

       u  The key-arguments name files to be made  unprotected	against	 dele‐
	  tion.	  Wild	cards  are  available with this function.  If no RT-11
	  file names or wild card specifications are given, all files  on  the
	  RT-11 device are protected against deletion.

       x  The  key-arguments name files to be extracted from the RT-11 device.
	  Wild cards are available with this function.	If no RT-11 file names
	  or wild card specifications are given, all files on the RT-11 device
	  are extracted into the current working directory.

       b  A boot block is written to an RT-11 device. Currently this works  on
	  VAX  8600  media  only.   The key-arguments name the monitor program
	  file and the device handler program file, in that order. The default
	  files	 if  no key-arguments are specified are rt11fb.sys and dl.sys.
	  The monitor program file and	the  device  handler  file  are	 first
	  extracted  from  the	RT-11  device and a boot block is constructed.
	  The default or named files will not be extracted if  the  ``n''  (no
	  extract) modifier is given.

Key Modifiers
       The key-modifier letters and their effects are:

       c  Create  new directory.  This modifier indicates that a new (one-seg‐
	  ment) directory is to be created on the RT-11 device.	 This modifier
	  may be specified only with the r (replace) function.	The home block
	  is not modified, and, if corrupt, will remain corrupt.

       f  File name.  This modifier indicates that the first file name	speci‐
	  fied	in  the command is the name of a native file which contains an
	  RT-11 device image.  This file is used rather than  the  default  of
	  /dev/bootdev	(the real device name should be linked to this).  This
	  modifier may be specified with any function.

       h  Home block corrupt.  This modifier indicates that the home block  of
	  the RT-11 volume is known to be corrupt.  Directory information con‐
	  tained in the home block  is	ignored	 in  favor  of	usually	 valid
	  assumptions.	This modifier may be necessary when dealing with RT-11
	  format volumes created by the arff program supplied with 4.2bsd  and
	  ULTRIX Version 1.0.

	  Note	that if the home block is noticed to be corrupt and this modi‐
	  fier is not given, a warning message is issued and this modifier  is
	  assumed.

       m  No  sector  mapping.	This modifier indicates that the device driver
	  mapping is to be used.  If this modifier is not given on ULTRIX sys‐
	  tems,	 the  RX01  mapping  used by the Digital proprietary operating
	  systems is applied to the RT-11 device image.	 This modifier	should
	  not  be  specified  when the RT-11 device image is the VAX-11/780 or
	  VAX-11/785  RX01 diskette or a physical image thereof, and should be
	  specified  in	 all  other  cases.   On  operating  system other than
	  ULTRIX, this modifier	 is  assumed  and  its	specification  has  no
	  effect.  This modifier may be specified with any function.

       p  Printable files.  This modifier indicates that the files transferred
	  to and from  the  RT-11  device  are	printable  text	 files.	  When
	  extracted  from  the RT-11 device, NUL characters are deleted and CR
	  LF sequences are replaced by newline.	 When replaced into the	 RT-11
	  device,  newline is replaced by CR LF sequences.  When this modifier
	  is not specified, trailing NUL characters are deleted on extraction,
	  and  sufficient  NUL	characters to fill out a block are appended on
	  replacement.	This  modifier	may  be	 specified  only  with	the  r
	  (replace) and x (extract) functions.

       v  Verbose.   When  specified  with  the t (list) function, the listing
	  produced is that which would be produced by the RT-11 command
	  DIRECTORY /FULL /POSITION /VOLUME /COLUMNS:2
	  rather than the RT-11 command
	  DIRECTORY /BRIEF /COLUMNS:6
	  When specified with the i (initialize) function, the volume  parame‐
	  ters	specified  and	implied by the defaulting rules are written to
	  the standard	output.	  When	specified  with	 the  r	 (replace),  x
	  (extract),  d (delete), p (protect), or u (unprotect) functions, the
	  names of the files affected are listed on  the  standard  output  as
	  they are processed.

       n  No extract.  Do not extract the monitor program and the handler code
	  from the RT-11 device prior to writing a boot block.	Used  only  on
	  VAX 8600 RT-11 device and with the ``b'' option given above.

File Names
       Most  of	 the  functions take a list of file names specifying the files
       upon which the functions are to be performed.  RT-11 file names may  be
       specified in three formats:

       RT-11 file names
	  These consist of one to six characters followed by a period followed
	  by zero to three characters.	The characters must be in the set A-Z,
	  0-9, and dollar sign.	 The characters before the period are known as
	  the filename; the characters before the  period  are	known  as  the
	  extension.

       RT-11 wild card specifications
	  These	 consist  of  zero  to six characters optionally followed by a
	  period optionally followed by one to three characters.  The  charac‐
	  ters	must  be  in  the set A-Z, 0-9, dollar sign, percent sign, and
	  asterisk.  Percent sign will match any single character in the RT-11
	  file	names  on  the RT-11 volume;  asterisk will match zero or more
	  characters in the RT-11 file names on the RT-11  volume.   An	 RT-11
	  wild card specification may be distinguished from an RT-11 file name
	  by the lack of a filename, the lack of a period  and	extension,  or
	  the use of at least one * or % wild card character.  A null filename
	  is equivalent to *.  No string is equivalent to *.*.

       Native file names
	  These consist of one or more characters  optionally  followed	 by  a
	  period  optionally followed by one or more characters.  If no period
	  appears, the file name must  be  at  least  seven  characters	 long.
	  Native  file names generate RT-11 file names as follows: If there is
	  no period or if there are at least seven characters before the first
	  period,  the	filename is the first six characters and the extension
	  is up to the next three characters, terminated by  the  end  of  the
	  native file name or the appearance of a period.  If there are one to
	  six characters before the first period, the filename is those	 char‐
	  acters  and the extension is up to the next three characters, termi‐
	  nated by the end of the  native  file	 name  or  the	appearance  of
	  another period.

       In any format, path information may be prepended.

       When  native  file  names are generated (for the extract function), the
       form of the generated file name depends upon  the  file	name  argument
       specified.  All prepended path information is present verbatim.	If the
       argument is an RT-11 wild card specification, the last component of the
       full  path  name	 is  the  lowercase equivalent of the RT-11 file name.
       Otherwise, the last component of the full path  name  is	 exactly  that
       specified  in the argument, with uppercase and lowercase intact.	 Thus,
       as an argument to the extract function would extract all files  on  the
       RT-11 device (a null specification is equivalent to the *.* wild card),
       and store them in the directory with file names the  lowercase  equiva‐
       lent  of the RT-11 file names;  but as an argument to the extract func‐
       tion would extract the RT-11 file MAKEFI.LE and store it as

Examples
       The following example produces a full listing of the files on the RT-11
       device image in the file ``device_image''.
       arff tvf device_image
       The following example produces a short listing of the files with exten‐
       sion ``C'' on the RT-11 device image in the file ``device_image''.
       arff tf device_image .c
       The following example extracts  the  file  FILENAME.C  from  the	 RT-11
       device  at  the	standard  place and places it in the file (with upper‐
       case).
       arff x /usr/users/kmd/FILENAME.C
       The following example protects all files on the	RT-11  device  at  the
       standard place against deletion.
       arff p
       The  following  example unprotects all files on the RT-11 device at the
       standard place with extension ``OBJ'' against deletion, and notes  each
       file so unprotected on the standard output.
       arff uv .obj
       The following example causes an error message.
       arff d
       The  following  example initializes the file test_device to be an RT-11
       device image with two directory segments, 494  total  blocks,  and  one
       extra word per directory entry.
       arff ivf test_device 494,2,,,1
       The following example extracts the files rt11fb.sys and dl.sys from the
       RT-11 device, constructs a boot block, and writes the boot  block  back
       to the device.
       arff bm
       The following example uses the files rt11a.sys and dd.sys to contruct a
       boot block for an RT-11 device. This boot block is then written to  the
       device.
       arff bnm rt11a.sys dd.sys

Files
       RT-11 file image for the ``replace'' function

				      VAX			      arff(8v)
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