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ARP(4)			  OpenBSD Programmer's Manual			ARP(4)

     arp - Address Resolution Protocol

     pseudo-device ether

     The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used to dynamically map between
     Internet host addresses and Ethernet addresses.  It is used by all of the
     Ethernet interface drivers.  It is not specific to Internet protocols or
     to Ethernet, but this implementation currently supports only that

     ARP caches Internet-Ethernet address mappings.  When an interface
     requests a mapping for an address not in the cache, ARP queues the
     message which requires the mapping and broadcasts a message on the
     associated network requesting the address mapping.	 If a response is
     provided, the new mapping is cached and any pending message is
     transmitted.  ARP will queue at most one packet while waiting for a
     response to a mapping request; only the most recently transmitted packet
     is kept.  If the target host does not respond after several requests, the
     host is considered to be down for a short period (normally 20 seconds),
     allowing an error to be returned to transmission attempts during this
     interval.	The error is EHOSTDOWN for a non-responding destination host,
     and EHOSTUNREACH for a non-responding router.

     The ARP cache is stored in the system routing table as dynamically
     created host routes.  The route to a directly attached Ethernet network
     is installed as a ``cloning'' route (one with the RTF_CLONING flag set),
     causing routes to individual hosts on that network to be created on
     demand.  These routes time out periodically (normally 20 minutes after
     validated; entries are not validated when not in use).  An entry for a
     host which is not responding is a ``reject'' route (one with the
     RTF_REJECT flag set).

     ARP entries may be added, deleted or changed with the arp(8) utility.
     Manually added entries may be temporary, static or permanent, and may be
     ``published'', in which case the system will respond to ARP requests for
     that host as if it were the target of the request.	 A static entry will
     not time out, but may be overwritten by network traffic, while a
     permanent entry will not time out and can not be overwritten.

     In the past, ARP was used to negotiate the use of a trailer
     encapsulation.  This is no longer supported.

     ARP watches passively for hosts impersonating the local host (i.e., a
     host which responds to an ARP mapping request for the local host's

     duplicate IP address %x!! sent from ethernet address:
     %x:%x:%x:%x:%x:%x	ARP has discovered another host on the local network
     which responds to mapping requests for its own Internet address with a
     different Ethernet address, generally indicating that two hosts are
     attempting to use the same Internet address.

     arp info overwritten for %x!! by %x:%x:%x:%x:%x:%x on %x  An existing
     route has been overwritten with a new Ethernet address, for example when
     the other host has changed Ethernet cards.	 If the route previously was
     static/non-expiring, the new route will expire normally.

     arp: attempt to overwrite permanent entry for %x!! by %x:%x:%x:%x:%x:%x
     on %x  As above, but the existing route had been manually set up as
     permanent.	 The routing information is not modified.

     arp: attempt to overwrite entry for %x!! on %x by %x:%x:%x:%x:%x:%x on
     %x	 ARP has noticed an attempt to overwrite a host's routing entry on one
     interface with a routing entry for a different interface.	The routing
     information is not modified.

     arp: received reply to broadcast or multicast address  ARP received a
     response which is a broadcast or multicast address.  This might indicate
     an ARP spoofing attempt.

     arp: ether address is broadcast for IP address %s!	 ARP requested
     information for a host, and received an answer indicating that the host's
     Ethernet address is the Ethernet broadcast address.  This indicates a
     misconfigured or broken device.

     arp: ether address is multicast for IP address %s!	 ARP requested
     information for a host, and received an answer indicating that the host's
     Ethernet address is the Ethernet multicast address.  This indicates a
     misconfigured or broken device.

     arp: attempt to add entry for %s on %s by %s on %s	 This usually
     indicates there is more than one interface connected to the same hub, or
     that the networks have somehow been short-circuited (e.g. IPs that should
     have been present on interface one are present on interface two).

     arplookup: unable to enter address for %s	An IP received on the
     interface does not match the network/netmask of the interface.  This
     indicates a netmask problem.

     inet(4), route(4), arp(8), ifconfig(8), route(8)

     Plummer, D., "RFC 826", An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol.

     Karels, M.J. and Leffler, S.J., "RFC 893", Trailer Encapsulations.

OpenBSD 4.9			 May 31, 2007			   OpenBSD 4.9

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