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ATH(4)			 BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual			ATH(4)

NAME
     ath — Atheros IEEE 802.11 wireless network driver

SYNOPSIS
     To compile this driver into the kernel, place the following lines in your
     kernel configuration file:

	   device ath
	   device ath_hal
	   options AH_SUPPORT_AR5416
	   device ath_rate_sample
	   device wlan

     Alternatively, to load the driver as a module at boot time, place the
     following line in loader.conf(5):

	   if_ath_load="YES"

DESCRIPTION
     The ath driver provides support for wireless network adapters based on
     the Atheros AR5210, AR5211, AR5212, and AR5416 programming APIs.  These
     APIs are used by a wide variety of chips; most all chips with a PCI
     and/or CardBus interface are supported.

     Supported features include 802.11 and 802.3 frames, power management,
     BSS, IBSS, MBSS, TDMA, and host-based access point operation modes.  All
     host/device interaction is via DMA.

     The ath driver encapsulates all IP and ARP traffic as 802.11 frames, how‐
     ever it can receive either 802.11 or 802.3 frames.	 Transmit speed and
     operating mode is selectable and depends on the specific chipset.
     AR5210-based devices support 802.11a operation with transmit speeds of 6
     Mbps, 9 Mbps, 12 Mbps, 18 Mbps, 24 Mbps, 36 Mbps, 48 Mbps, and 54 Mbps.
     AR5211-based devices support 802.11a and 802.11b operation with transmit
     speeds as above for 802.11a operation and 1Mbps, 2Mbps, 5.5 Mbps and
     11Mbps for 802.11b operation.  AR5212-based devices support 802.11a,
     802.11b, and 802.11g operation with transmit speeds appropriate to each.
     AR5416-class devices are capable of 802.11n operation but are supported
     only in legacy modes (802.11a, 11b, 11g).	Most chips also support an
     Atheros Turbo Mode (TM) that operates in the 5Ghz frequency range with 2x
     the transmit speeds.  Some chips also support Turbo mode in the 2.4Ghz
     range with 802.11g though this support is not presently available due to
     regulatory requirements.  (Note that Turbo modes are, however, only
     interoperable with other Atheros-based devices.)  AR5212-based devices
     also support half- (10MHz) and quarter-width (5MHz) channels.  The actual
     transmit speed used is dependent on signal quality and the “rate control”
     algorithm employed by the driver.	All chips support WEP encryption.
     AR5212 and AR5416 parts have hardware support for the AES-CCM, TKIP, and
     Michael cryptographic operations required for WPA.	 To enable encryption,
     use ifconfig(8) as shown below.

     The driver supports station, adhoc, adhoc-demo, hostap, mesh, wds, and
     monitor mode operation.  Multiple hostap virtual interfaces may be con‐
     figured for simultaneous use on cards that use a 5212 part.  When multi‐
     ple interfaces are configured each may have a separate mac address that
     is formed by setting the U/L bits in the mac address assigned to the
     underlying device.	 Any number of wds virtual interfaces may be config‐
     ured together with hostap interfaces.  Multiple station interfaces may be
     operated together with hostap interfaces to construct a wireless repeater
     device.  The driver also support tdma operation when compiled with
     options IEEE80211_SUPPORT_TDMA (which also enables the required 802.11
     support).	For more information on configuring this device, see
     ifconfig(8).

     Devices supported by the ath driver come in either Cardbus or mini-PCI
     packages.	Wireless cards in Cardbus slots may be inserted and ejected on
     the fly.

HARDWARE
     The ath driver supports all Atheros Cardbus and PCI cards, except those
     that are based on the AR5005VL chipset.

     A list of cards that are supported can be found at
     http://customerproducts.atheros.com/customerproducts/default.asp.

EXAMPLES
     Join an existing BSS network (ie: connect to an access point):

	   ifconfig ath0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask 0xffffff00

     Join a specific BSS network with network name “my_net”:

	   ifconfig ath0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net

     Join a specific BSS network with WEP encryption:

	   ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0
	   ifconfig wlan0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
		   wepmode on wepkey 0x8736639624

     Join/create an 802.11b IBSS network with network name “my_net”:

	   ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0 wlanmode adhoc
	   ifconfig wlan0 inet 192.168.0.22 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
		   mode 11b

     Create an 802.11g host-based access point:

	   ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0 wlanmode hostap
	   ifconfig wlan0 inet 192.168.0.10 netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_ap \
		   mode 11g

     Create an 802.11a mesh station:

	   ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0 wlanmode mesh
	   ifconfig wlan0 meshid my_mesh mode 11a inet 192.168.0.10/24

     Create two virtual 802.11a host-based access points, one with with WEP
     enabled and one with no security, and bridge them to the fxp0 (wired)
     device:

	   ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0 wlanmode hostap \
		   ssid paying-customers wepmode on wepkey 0x1234567890 \
		   mode 11a up
	   ifconfig wlan1 create wlandev ath0 wlanmode hostap bssid \
		   ssid freeloaders up
	   ifconfig bridge0 create addm wlan0 addm wlan1 addm fxp0 up

     Create a master node in a two slot TDMA BSS configured to use 2.5 mil‐
     lisecond slots.

	   ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0 wlanmode tdma \
		   ssid tdma-test tmdaslot 0 tdmaslotlen 2500 \
		   channel 36 up

DIAGNOSTICS
     ath%d: unable to attach hardware; HAL status %u  The Atheros Hardware
     Access Layer was unable to configure the hardware as requested.  The sta‐
     tus code is explained in the HAL include file sys/dev/ath/ath_hal/ah.h.

     ath%d: failed to allocate descriptors: %d	The driver was unable to allo‐
     cate contiguous memory for the transmit and receive descriptors.  This
     usually indicates system memory is scarce and/or fragmented.

     ath%d: unable to setup a data xmit queue!	The request to the HAL to set
     up the transmit queue for normal data frames failed.  This should not
     happen.

     ath%d: unable to setup a beacon xmit queue!  The request to the HAL to
     set up the transmit queue for 802.11 beacon frames frames failed.	This
     should not happen.

     ath%d: 802.11 address: %s	The MAC address programmed in the EEPROM is
     displayed.

     ath%d: hardware error; resetting  An unrecoverable error in the hardware
     occurred.	Errors of this sort include unrecoverable DMA errors.  The
     driver will reset the hardware and continue.

     ath%d: rx FIFO overrun; resetting	The receive FIFO in the hardware over‐
     flowed before the data could be transferred to the host.  This typically
     occurs because the hardware ran short of receive descriptors and had no
     place to transfer received data.  The driver will reset the hardware and
     continue.

     ath%d: unable to reset hardware; hal status %u  The Atheros Hardware
     Access Layer was unable to reset the hardware as requested.  The status
     code is explained in the HAL include file sys/dev/ath/ath_hal/ah.h.  This
     should not happen.

     ath%d: unable to start recv logic	The driver was unable to restart frame
     reception.	 This should not happen.

     ath%d: device timeout  A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmis‐
     sion did not complete in time.  The driver will reset the hardware and
     continue.	This should not happen.

     ath%d: bogus xmit rate 0x%x  An invalid transmit rate was specified for
     an outgoing frame.	 The frame is discarded.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: ath_chan_set: unable to reset channel %u (%u MHz)  The Atheros
     Hardware Access Layer was unable to reset the hardware when switching
     channels during scanning.	This should not happen.

     ath%d: failed to enable memory mapping  The driver was unable to enable
     memory-mapped I/O to the PCI device registers.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: failed to enable bus mastering  The driver was unable to enable
     the device as a PCI bus master for doing DMA.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: cannot map register space  The driver was unable to map the device
     registers into the host address space.  This should not happen.

     ath%d: could not map interrupt  The driver was unable to allocate an IRQ
     for the device interrupt.	This should not happen.

     ath%d: could not establish interrupt  The driver was unable to install
     the device interrupt handler.  This should not happen.

SEE ALSO
     ath_hal(4), cardbus(4), intro(4), pcic(4), wlan(4), wlan_ccmp(4),
     wlan_tkip(4), wlan_wep(4), wlan_xauth(4), hostapd(8), ifconfig(8),
     wpa_supplicant(8)

HISTORY
     The ath device driver first appeared in FreeBSD 5.2.

CAVEATS
     Revision A1 of the D-LINK DWL-G520 and DWL-G650 are based on an Intersil
     PrismGT chip and are not supported by this driver.

BUGS
     There is no software retransmit; only hardware retransmit is used.

     The driver does not fully enable power-save operation of the chip in sta‐
     tion mode; consequently power use is suboptimal (e.g. on a laptop).

     WPA is not supported for 5210 parts.

BSD				 July 8, 2009				   BSD
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