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atof(3)								       atof(3)

Name
       atof, atoi, atol, strtol, strtoul, strtod - convert ASCII to numbers

Syntax
       #include <stdlib.h>

       double atof(nptr)
       char *nptr;

       atoi(nptr)
       char *nptr;

       long atol(nptr)
       char *nptr;

       long strtol(nptr, eptr, base)
       char *nptr, **eptr;
       int base;

       unsigned long strtoul(nptr, eptr, base)
       char *nptr, **eptr;
       int base;

       double strtod (nptr, eptr)
       char *nptr, **eptr;

       unsigned long strtoul(nptr, eptr, base)
       char *nptr, **eptr;
       int base;

Description
       These  functions convert a string pointed to by nptr to floating, inte‐
       ger, and long integer representation respectively.  The first  unrecog‐
       nized character ends the string.

       The  function  recognizes  (in order), an optional string of spaces, an
       optional sign, a string of digits optionally containing a radix charac‐
       ter,  an	 optional  `e'	or `E', and then an optionally signed integer.
       The function is defined in both and

       The and functions recognize (in order), an optional string  of  spaces,
       an  optional sign, then a string of digits.  The function is defined in
       both and

       The function returns as a long integer, the value  represented  by  the
       character string nstr.  The string is scanned up to the first character
       inconsistent  with  the	base.	Leading	 white-space  characters   are
       ignored.

       If  the value of eptr is not (char **) NULL, a pointer to the character
       terminating the scan is returned in  **eptr.   If  no  integer  can  be
       formed, **eptr is set to nstr , and zero is returned.

       If base is positive and not greater than 36, it is used as the base for
       conversion.  After an optional leading sign, leading zeros are ignored,
       and 0x or 0X is ignored if base is 16.

       If  base is zero, the string itself determines the base thus:  After an
       optional leading sign, a leading zero indicates octal conversion, and a
       leading 0x or 0X hexadecimal conversion.	 Otherwise, decimal conversion
       is used.

       Truncation from long to int can take place upon assignment,  or	by  an
       explicit cast.

       The  function  is  the same as except that returns, as an unsigned long
       integer, the value represented by the character string nstr.

       The function returns as a double-precision floating point  number,  the
       value  represented  by  the  character  string pointed to by nptr.  The
       string is scanned up to the first unrecognized character.  The function
       is defined in both and

       The  function  recognizes an optional string of white-space characters,
       as defined by isspace in then an optional sign, then a string of digits
       optionally  containing  a radix character, then an optional e or E fol‐
       lowed by an optional sign or space, followed by an integer.

       If the value of eptr is not (char **)NULL, a pointer to	the  character
       terminating  the	 scan  is returned in the location pointed to by eptr.
       If no number can be formed, *eptr is set to nptr, and zero is returned.

       The radix character for and is that defined by the last successful call
       to  category  If	 category  has not been called successfully, or if the
       radix character is not defined for  a  supported	 language,  the	 radix
       character is defined as a period (.).

   International Environment
       LC_CTYPE	      If  this environment variable is set and valid, uses the
		      international language database named in the  definition
		      to determine character classification rules.

       LC_NUMERIC     If this environment is set and valid, and use the inter‐
		      national language database named in  the	definition  to
		      determine radix character rules.

       LANG	      If  this	environment  variable is set and valid and use
		      the international language database named in the defini‐
		      tion to determine collation and character classification
		      rules.  If or is defined,	 their	definition  supercedes
		      the definition of LANG.

Diagnostics
       The  function  returns HUGE if an overflow occurs, and  a 0 value if an
       underflow occurs, and sets errno to ERANGE.  HUGE is defined in

       The function returns INT_MAX or INT_MIN (according to the sign  of  the
       value)  and  sets  errno to ERANGE, if the correct value is outside the
       range of values that can be represented.

       The function returns LONG_MAX or LONG_MIN (according to the sign of the
       value)  and  sets  errno to ERANGE, if the correct value is outside the
       range of values that can be represented.

       The function returns LONG_MAX or LONG_MIN (according to the sign of the
       value)  and  sets  errno to ERANGE, if the correct value is outside the
       range of values that can be represented.

       The function returns ULONG_MAX and sets errno to ERANGE, if the correct
       value is outside the range of values that can be represented.

       The  function  returns  HUGE  (according to the sign of the value), and
       sets errno to ERANGE if the correct value would cause overflow.	A 0 is
       returned	 and  errno  is set to ERANGE if the correct value would cause
       underflow.

See Also
       ctype(3), setlocale(3), scanf(3s), environ(5int)

								       atof(3)
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