atos(1) BSD General Commands Manual atos(1)NAMEatos — convert numeric addresses to symbols of binary images or processes
SYNOPSISatos [-o <binary-image-file>] [-p <pid> | <partial-executable-name>]
[-arch architecture] [-l <load-address>] [-s <slide>] [-printHeader]
[-f <address-input-file>] [<address> ...]
The atos command converts numeric addresses to their symbolic equiva‐
lents. If full debug symbol information is available, for example in a
.app.dSYM sitting beside a .app, then the output of atos will include
file name and source line number information.
The input addresses may be given in one of three ways:
1. A list of addresses at the end of the argument list.
2. Using the -f <address-input-file> argument to specify the path of an
input file containing whitespace-separated numeric addresses.
3. If no addresses were directly specified, atos enters an interactive
mode, reading addresses from stdin.
The symbols are found in either a binary image file or in a currently
executing process, as specified by:
The path to a binary image file in which to look up symbols.
-p <pid> | <partial-executable-name>
The process ID or the partial name of a currently executing
process in which to look up symbols.
Multiple process IDs or paths can be specified if necessary, and the two
can be mixed in any order. When working with a Mach-O binary image file,
atos considers only addresses and symbols defined in that binary image
file, at their default locations (unless the -l or -s option is given).
When working with a running process, atos considers addresses and symbols
defined in all binary images currently loaded by that process, at their
The following additional options are available.
The particular architecure of a binary image file in which to
look up symbols.
The load address of the binary image. This value is always
assumed to be in hex, even without a "0x" prefix. The input
addresses are assumed to be in a binary image with that load
address. Load addresses for binary images can be found in the
Binary Images: section at the bottom of crash, sample, leaks, and
The slide value of the binary image -- this is the difference
between the load address of a binary image, and the address at
which the binary image was built. This slide value is subtracted
from the input addresses. It is usually easier to directly spec‐
ify the load address with the -l argument than to manually calcu‐
late a slide value.
If a process was specified, the first line of atos output should
be a header of the form "Looking up symbols in process <pid>
named: <process-name>". This is primarily used when atos is
invoked as part of a stackshot(1) run, for verification of the
process ID and name.
A stripped, optimized version of Sketch was built as an x86_64 position-
independent executable (PIE) into /BuildProducts/Release. Full debug
symbol information is available in Sketch.app.dSYM, which sits alongside
Sketch.app. When Sketch.app was run, the Sketch binary (which was built
at 0x100000000) was loaded at 0x10acde000. Running 'sample Sketch'
showed 3 addresses that we want to get symbol information for --
0x10acea1d3, 0x10ace4bea, and 0x10ace4b7a.
First notice that the .dSYM is next to the .app:
% ls -1 /BuildProducts/Release/
Now, to symbolicate, we run atos with the -o flag specifying the path to
the actual Sketch executable (not the .app wrapper), the -arch x86_64
flag, and the -l 0x10acde000 flag to specify the load address.
% atos-o /BuildProducts/Release/Sketch.app/Contents/MacOS/Sketch -arch x86_64 -l 0x10acde000 0x10acea1d3 0x10ace4bea 0x10ace4b7a
-[SKTGraphicView drawRect:] (in Sketch) (SKTGraphicView.m:445)
-[SKTGraphic drawHandlesInView:] (in Sketch) (NSGeometry.h:110)
-[SKTGraphic drawHandleInView:atPoint:] (in Sketch) (SKTGraphic.m:490)
GETTING SYMBOLS FOR A DIFFERENT MACHINE ARCHITECTURE
It is possible to get symbols for addresses from a different machine
architecture than the system on which atos is running. For example, when
running atos on an Intel-based system, one may wish to get the symbol for
an address that came from a backtrace of a process running on a PowerPC
machine. To do so, use the -arch flag to specify the desired architec‐
ture (such as i386 or ppc) and pass in a corresponding symbol-rich Mach-O
binary image file with a binary image of the corresponding architecture
(such as a Universal Binary).
BSD January 15, 2010 BSD