automount man page on SmartOS

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       automount - install automatic mount points

       /usr/sbin/automount [-t duration] [-v]

       The  automount  utility	installs autofs mount points and associates an
       automount map with each mount point. It starts the automountd(1M)  dae‐
       mon  if it finds any non-trivial entries in either local or distributed
       automount maps and if the daemon is not	already	 running.  The	autofs
       file system monitors attempts to access directories within it and noti‐
       fies the automountd(1M) daemon. The daemon uses the  map	 to  locate  a
       file  system, which it then mounts at the point of reference within the
       autofs file system. A map can be assigned to an autofs mount  using  an
       entry in the /etc/auto_master map or a direct map.

       If  the	file system is not accessed within an appropriate interval (10
       minutes by default), the automountd daemon unmounts the file system.

       The file /etc/auto_master determines the locations of all autofs	 mount
       points. By default, this file contains three entries:

	 # Master map for automounter
	 /net	       -hosts	 -nosuid
	 /home	       auto_home

       The +auto_master entry is a reference to an external NIS or NIS+ master
       map. If one exists, then its entries are read as if  they  occurred  in
       place  of  the  +auto_master entry. The remaining entries in the master
       file specify a directory on which an autofs mount will be made followed
       by the automounter map to be associated with it. Optional mount options
       may be supplied as an optional third field in  the  each	 entry.	 These
       options	are  used for any entries in the map that do not specify mount
       options explicitly. The automount command is usually run without	 argu‐
       ments.  It  compares the entries /etc/auto_master with the current list
       of autofs mounts in /etc/mnttab and adds,  removes  or  updates	autofs
       mounts  to  bring the /etc/mnttab up to date with the /etc/auto_master.
       At boot time it installs all autofs mounts from the master map.	Subse‐
       quently,	 it may be run to install autofs mounts for new entries in the
       master map or the direct map, or to perform unmounts for	 entries  that
       have been removed from these maps.

   Automount with Solaris Trusted Extensions
       If  a  system is configured with Solaris Trusted Extensions, additional
       processing is performed to facilitate multilevel home directory access.
       A  list of zones whose labels are dominated by the current zone is gen‐
       erated and default auto_home automount maps are generated  if  they  do
       not  currently  exist.  These automount maps are named auto_home_<zone‐
       name>, where <zonename> is the name of each zone's lower-level zone. An
       autofs  mount  of each such auto_home map is then performed, regardless
       of whether it is explicitly or implicitly listed	 in  the  master  map.
       Instead of autofs mounting the standard auto_home map, the zone uses an
       auto_home file appended with its own zone name. Each  zone's  auto_home
       map  is	uniquely  named so that it can be maintained and shared by all
       zones using a common name server.

       By default, the home directories of lower-level zones are mounted read-
       only  under  /zone/<zonename>/export/home when each zone is booted. The
       default auto_home_<zonename> automount map specifies that path  as  the
       source  directory for an lofs remount onto /zone/<zonename>/home/<user‐
       name>. For example, the file  auto_home_public,	as  generated  from  a
       higher level zone would contain:


       *       -fstype=lofs    :/zone/public/export/home/&

       When  a	home  directory	 is referenced and the name does not match any
       other keys in the auto_home_public map, it  will	 match	this  loopback
       mount  specification. If this loopback match occurs and the name corre‐
       sponds to a valid user whose home directory does not exist in the  pub‐
       lic zone, the directory is automatically created on behalf of the user.

       The following options are supported:

       -t duration
		      Specifies	 a duration, in seconds, that a file system is
		      to remain mounted when not in use.  The  default	is  10

		      Verbose  mode.  Notifies	of autofs mounts, unmounts, or
		      other non-essential information.

   Map Entry Format
       A simple map entry (mapping) takes the form:

	 key [ -mount-options ] location ...

       where key is the full pathname of the directory to mount when used in a
       direct  map,  or	 the simple name of a subdirectory in an indirect map.
       mount-options is a comma-separated list of mount options, and  location
       specifies  a  file  system from which the directory may be mounted.  In
       the case of a simple NFS mount, the options that can  be	 used  are  as
       specified in mount_nfs(1M), and location takes the form:


       host  is	 the name of the host from which to mount the file system, and
       pathname is the absolute pathname of the directory to mount.

       Options to other file systems are documented on the other mount_*  ref‐
       erence manual pages, for example, mount_cachefs(1M).

   Replicated File Systems
       Multiple	 location fields can be specified for replicated NFS file sys‐
       tems, in which case automount and the kernel will each try to use  that
       information  to	increase availability. If the read-only flag is set in
       the map entry, automountd mounts a list of locations  that  the	kernel
       may  use, sorted by several criteria. Only locations available at mount
       time will be mounted, and thus be  available  to	 the  kernel.  When  a
       server does not respond, the kernel will switch to an alternate server.
       The sort ordering of automount is used to determine how the next server
       is  chosen.  If the read-only flag is not set, automount will mount the
       best single location, chosen by the same sort ordering, and new servers
       will only be chosen when an unmount has been possible, and a remount is
       done. Servers on the same local subnet are given the strongest  prefer‐
       ence, and servers on the local net are given the second strongest pref‐
       erence. Among servers equally far away, response times  will  determine
       the order if no weighting factors (see below) are used.

       If the list includes server locations using both the NFS Version 2 Pro‐
       tocol and the NFS Version 3 Protocol, automount will choose only a sub‐
       set  of	the  server locations on the list, so that all entries will be
       the same protocol. It will choose servers with the NFS Version 3 Proto‐
       col  so long as an NFS Version 2 Protocol server on a local subnet will
       not be ignored. See the	for additional details.

       If each location in the list shares the same  pathname  then  a	single
       location may be used with a comma-separated list of hostnames:


       Requests	 for  a	 server	 may  be  weighted,  with the weighting factor
       appended to the server name as an integer in parentheses. Servers with‐
       out  a weighting are assumed to have a value of zero (most likely to be
       selected). Progressively higher values decrease	the  chance  of	 being
       selected. In the example,

	 man -ro alpha,bravo,charlie(1),delta(4):/usr/man

       hosts  alpha  and  bravo	 have the highest priority; host delta has the

       Server proximity takes priority in the selection process. In the	 exam‐
       ple  above,  if	the server delta is on the same network segment as the
       client, but the others are on different network	segments,  then	 delta
       will  be	 selected;  the	 weighting value is ignored. The weighting has
       effect only when selecting between servers with the same network	 prox‐
       imity.  The automounter always selects the localhost over other servers
       on the same network segment, regardless of weighting.

       In cases where each server has a different export point, the  weighting
       can still be applied. For example:

	 man -ro alpha:/usr/man	 bravo,charlie(1):/usr/share/man

       A  mapping  can be continued across input lines by escaping the NEWLINE
       with a backslash (\) Comments begin with a number sign (#) and  end  at
       the subsequent NEWLINE.

   Map Key Substitution
       The  ampersand  (&) character is expanded to the value of the key field
       for the entry in which it occurs. In this case:

	 jane sparcserver:/home/&

       the & expands to jane.

   Wildcard Key
       The asterisk (*) character, when supplied as the key field,  is	recog‐
       nized as the catch-all entry. Such an entry will match any key not pre‐
       viously matched. For instance, if the following entry appeared  in  the
       indirect map for /config:

	 *	   &:/export/config/&

       this  would allow automatic mounts in /config of any remote file system
       whose location could be specified as:


       Note that the wildcard key  does	 not  work  in	conjunction  with  the
       -browse option.

   Variable Substitution
       Client  specific	 variables  can	 be  used within an automount map. For
       instance, if $HOST appeared within a map, automount would expand it  to
       its current value for the client's host name. Supported variables are:

       ARCH	  The output of arch		      The architecture name.
						      For example, sun4 on a
						      sun4u machine.
       CPU	  The output of uname -p	      The processor type.
						      For example, "sparc"
       HOST	  The output of uname -n	      The host name.
						      For example, myhost.
       KARCH	  The output of arch -k or uname -m   The  kernel  architec‐
						      ture name	 or  machine
						      hardware	 name.	 For
						      example, sun4u.

       OSNAME	  The output of uname -s	      The OS name.
						      For example, "SunOS"
       OSREL	  The output of uname -r	      The OS release name.
						      For example "5.3"
       OSVERS	  The output of uname -v	      The OS version.
						      For example, "beta1.0"

       NATISA	  The output of isainfo -n	      The native instruction
						      set  architecture	 for
						      the system.
						      For example, "sparcv9"
       PLATFORM	  The output of uname -i	      The platform name. For
						      example,	   SUNW,Sun-

       If a reference needs to be protected from affixed characters,  you  can
       surround the variable name with curly braces ({}).

   Multiple Mounts
       A multiple mount entry takes the form:

	 key [-mount-options] [[mountpoint] [-mount-options] location...]...

       The initial /[mountpoint] is optional for the first mount and mandatory
       for all subsequent mounts. The optional mountpoint is taken as a	 path‐
       name  relative  to the directory named by key. If mountpoint is omitted
       in the first occurrence, a mountpoint of / (root) is implied.

       Given an entry in the indirect map for /src

	 beta	  -ro\
	   /	       svr1,svr2:/export/src/beta  \
	   /1.0	       svr1,svr2:/export/src/beta/1.0  \
	   /1.0/man    svr1,svr2:/export/src/beta/1.0/man

       All offsets must exist on the server under beta. automount  will	 auto‐
       matically  mount	 /src/beta,  /src/beta/1.0,  and /src/beta/1.0/man, as
       needed, from either  svr1  or  svr2,  whichever	host  is  nearest  and
       responds first.

   Other File System Types
       The automounter assumes NFS mounts as a default file system type. Other
       file system types can be described using the fstype mount option. Other
       mount  options  specific	 to this file system type can be combined with
       the fstype option. The location field must contain information specific
       to  the	file system type. If the location field begins with a slash, a
       colon character must be prepended, for instance, to  mount  a  CD  file

	 cdrom -fstype=hsfs,ro	 :/dev/sr0

       or to perform an autofs mount:

	 src -fstype=autofs    auto_src

       Use this procedure only if you are not using Volume Manager.

       Mounts  using  CacheFS are most useful when applied to an entire map as
       map defaults. The following entry in the master	map  describes	cached
       home  directory	mounts.	 It  assumes the default location of the cache
       directory, /cache.

	 /home auto_home -fstype =cachefs,backfstype=nfs

       See the	NOTES section for information on option inheritance.

   Indirect Maps
       An indirect map allows you to specify mappings for  the	subdirectories
       you wish to mount under the directory indicated on the command line. In
       an indirect map, each key consists of a simple name that refers to  one
       or more file systems that are to be mounted as needed.

   Direct Maps
       Entries	in  a  direct  map  are	 associated directly with autofs mount
       points.	Each key is the full pathname of an autofs  mount  point.  The
       direct map as a whole is not associated with any single directory.

       Direct  maps  are  distinguished	 from indirect maps by the /- key. For

	 # Master map for automounter
	 /net		 -hosts		 -nosuid,nobrowse
	 /home		 auto_home	 -nobrowse
	 /-		 auto_direct

   Included Maps
       The contents of another map can be included within a map with an	 entry
       of the form


       If  mapname  begins with a slash, it is assumed to be the pathname of a
       local file. Otherwise, the location of the map  is  determined  by  the
       policy  of the name service switch according to the entry for the auto‐
       mounter in /etc/nsswitch.conf, such as

	 automount: files nis

       If the name service is files, then the name is assumed to be that of  a
       local  file  in /etc. If the key being searched for is not found in the
       included map, the search continues with the next entry.

   Special Maps
       There are two special maps available: -hosts and -null. The -hosts  map
       is  used	 with  the  /net directory and assumes that the map key is the
       hostname of an NFS server. The automountd daemon dynamically constructs
       a map entry from the server's list of exported file systems. References
       to a directory under /net/hermes will refer to the corresponding direc‐
       tory relative to hermes root.

       The  -null map cancels a previous map for the directory indicated. This
       is most useful in the  /etc/auto_master	for  cancelling	 entries  that
       would otherwise be inherited from the +auto_master include entry. To be
       effective, the -null entries must be inserted before the	 included  map

   Executable Maps
       Local maps that have the execute bit set in their file permissions will
       be executed by the automounter and provided with a key to be looked  up
       as an argument. The executable map is expected to return the content of
       an automounter map entry on its stdout or no output if the entry cannot
       be determined. A direct map cannot be made executable.

   Configuration and the auto_master Map
       When initiated without arguments, automount consults the master map for
       a list of autofs mount points and their	maps.  It  mounts  any	autofs
       mounts  that  are  not already mounted, and unmounts autofs mounts that
       have been removed from the master map or direct map.

       The master map is assumed to be called auto_master and its location  is
       determined  by  the name service switch policy. Normally the master map
       is located initially as a local file /etc/auto_master.

       The automount daemon  supports  browsability  of	 indirect  maps.  This
       allows  all of the potential mount points to be visible, whether or not
       they are mounted. The -nobrowse option can be  added  to	 any  indirect
       autofs map to disable browsing. For example:

	 /net	  -hosts      -nosuid,nobrowse
	 /home	  auto_home

       In  this	 case,	any hostnames would only be visible in /net after they
       are mounted, but all potential mount  points  would  be	visible	 under
       /home.  The -browse option enables browsability of autofs file systems.
       This is the default for all indirect maps.

       The -browse option does not work in conjunction with the wildcard key.

   Restricting Mount Maps
       Options specified for a map are used as the default options for all the
       entries	in  that  map. They are ignored when map entries specify their
       own mount options.

       In some cases, however, it is desirable	to  force  nosuid,  nodevices,
       nosetuid,  or  noexec for a complete mount map and its submounts.  This
       can be done by specifying the additional mount option, -restrict.

	  /home	    auto_home	    -restrict,nosuid,hard

       The -restrict option forces the	inheritance  of	 all  the  restrictive
       options nosuid, nodevices, nosetuid, and noexec as well as the restrict
       option itself. In this particular  example,  the	 nosuid	 and  restrict
       option  are  inherited  but the hard option is not. The restrict option
       also prevents the execution of "executable maps" and  is	 enforced  for
       auto  mounts  established  by  programs	with fewer than all privileges
       available in their zone.

       The following exit values are returned:

	    Successful completion.

	    An error occurred.

			      Master automount map.

			      Map to support automounted home directories.

			      Supplies default values for parameters for auto‐
			      mount and automountd. See autofs(4).

			      Name service switch configuration file. See nss‐

       isainfo(1),  ls(1),  svcs(1),  uname(1),	  automountd(1M),   mount(1M),
       mount_cachefs(	  1M),	   mount_nfs(1M),    svcadm(1M),    autofs(4),
       attributes(5), nfssec(5), smf(5)

       autofs mount points must not be hierarchically related. automount  does
       not  allow  an  autofs  mount point to be created within another autofs

       Since each direct map entry results in a new  autofs  mount  such  maps
       should be kept short.

       Entries	in  both direct and indirect maps can be modified at any time.
       The new information is used when automountd next uses the map entry  to
       do a mount.

       New  entries  added  to	a  master map or direct map will not be useful
       until the automount command is run to install them as new autofs	 mount
       points. New entries added to an indirect map may be used immediately.

       As  of  the  Solaris  2.6  release, a listing (see ls(1)) of the autofs
       directory associated with an indirect map shows all potential mountable
       entries. The attributes associated with the potential mountable entries
       are temporary. The real file system attributes will only be shown  once
       the file system has been mounted.

       Default	mount  options can be assigned to an entire map when specified
       as an optional third field in the master map. These options apply  only
       to  map entries that have no mount options. Note that map entities with
       options override the default options, as at this time, the  options  do
       not  concatenate.  The  concatenation  feature  is planned for a future

       When operating on a map that invokes an NFS mount, the  default	number
       of  retries  for the automounter is 0, that is, a single mount attempt,
       with no retries. Note that this is  significantly  different  from  the
       default (10000) for the mount_nfs(1M) utility.

       The  Network Information Service (NIS) was formerly known as Sun Yellow
       Pages (YP). The functionality of the two remains the same.

       The automount service is managed by the	service	 management  facility,
       smf(5), under the service identifier:


       Administrative actions on this service, such as enabling, disabling, or
       requesting restart, can be performed using  svcadm(1M).	The  service's
       status can be queried using the svcs(1) command.

				 Mar 28, 2008			 AUTOMOUNT(1M)

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