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automount(8nfs)						       automount(8nfs)

       automount  -  automatically  and	 transparently mounts and unmounts NFS
       file systems

       /usr/etc/automount [ -mnTv ] [ -D name= value ] [ -f master-file ]
       [ -M mount-directory ] [ -tl duration ] [ -tm interval ] [ -tw interval
       [ directory mapname [ - mount-options ]]

       The  command  transparently  mounts and unmounts NFS file systems on an
       as-needed basis.	 It is useful for mounting file systems	 and  directo‐
       ries  that are needed only occasionally, and it provides an alternative
       to using for NFS mounting file systems on client machines.

       The program can be started from the file or the command line.  The dae‐
       mon  forked  by	the  program  sleeps until a user attempts to access a
       directory that is associated with an map.  The daemon then consults the
       appropriate  map	 and  mounts  the  NFS	file system.  If the indicated
       directory has not already been  created,	 the  daemon  creates  it  and
       removes it after automatic

       Local  maps are typically located in the directory but can be placed in
       any directory.  You also can use the Yellow Pages Service to distribute
       maps.   The  maps indicate where to find the file system to be mounted,
       the local mount point, and mount options.  After a specified period  of
       inactivity  on a file system, 5 minutes by default, the daemon unmounts
       that file system.

       An individual automount map is either local or  served  by  the	Yellow
       Pages.	A  system,  however, can use both local and Yellow Pages auto‐
       mount maps.  When a map is referenced, the program first looks for  the
       designated  mapname locally.  If it cannot find the mapname locally, it
       looks for a Yellow Pages map by that name.  The names of the  maps  are
       passed to from the command line, or from a master map.

       If the command line and the master map contain contradictory arguments,
       those on the command line take precedence.

       By default, the daemon mounts the remote file system under  the	direc‐
       tory  and  creates a symbolic link between the requested and the actual
       mount points.

       Conventionally, maps are files that are located in the  directory  with
       names  that  have the prefix They indicate which remote file systems to
       mount, where to mount them, and which options to use.

   The Master Map
       The program can consult a master map, which contains entries that point
       to  other  maps that can be either direct or indirect.  If Yellow Pages
       is running, checks for the presence of a	 YP  map  named	 You  are  not
       required	 to  run  YP  or have an map.  A master map can also be a file
       whose location is specified with the command line option.

       The master map provides with a list of maps, and	 with  arguments  that
       pertain	to each of the maps.  Each line in the master map has the fol‐
       lowing syntax:

       mount-point   map  [mount-options]

       ·   Mount-point is the full pathname of a local directory  if  the  map
	   argument  is	 the  name of an indirect map or the name of a special
	   map.	 If the map argument is the name of a direct  map,  the	 dummy
	   directory ``/-'' is specified as the mount-point.

       ·   Map	is  the name of the map the automount command uses to find the
	   mount points and locations.	This can either be a  filename,	 a  YP
	   map name, or a special map name.

       ·   Mount-options is a list of options used to regulate the mounting of
	   entries listed in map.

   Direct Maps
       Direct maps specify which remote file systems to mount locally and what
       the  local mount points are. They do not point to other maps. They also
       can specify mount options.  Direct maps have the following syntax:

       key   [mount-options]   location

       ·   Key is the full pathname of the mount point.

       ·   Mount-options  are  the  options  for  this	specific  mount.  When
	   present,  these options override any mount options specified on the
	   command line or in the master map.

       ·   Location is the location of the resource being  mounted,  specified
	   as: server:pathname.	 Multiple location fields can be specified, in
	   which case sends multiple mount requests and mounts from the	 first
	   server to respond.

   Indirect Maps
       Indirect maps have the same format as direct maps.  The only difference
       between a direct and an indirect map is that the key in a direct map is
       a  full	pathname,  whereas the key in an indirect map is a simple name
       that does not begin with a slash.  (Remember that the indirect map as a
       whole  has been associated with a directory specified in the master map
       or on the command line.	The entries in an indirect map list  subdirec‐
       tories  that  are  individually mounted within the directory associated
       with the map.)

   Special Maps
       The map is a special  map  that	is  used  to  access  all  directories
       exported by a server to a client.

       The  following  command	allows a client to access directories that are
       exported from any host in its file, the Yellow Pages hosts database, or
       the BIND database.
       # automount /net -hosts

       For  example,  suppose  that and are both hosts on a local area network
       that is running Yellow Pages.  If the file on contains the command then
       users on can access any directories that exports to All of the exported
       directories are mounted under on

       The map, when indicated on the command line, cancels the map associated
       with the directory indicated.  It can be used to cancel a map specified
       in the master map.  For example, invoking the command in the  following
       manner causes the entry in to be ignored:
       # automount /net -null

   Pattern Matching
       The  ampersand  (&) is expanded into the key field in a map wherever it
       appears.	 In the following example, the ampersand (&) expands to
	       #key	 mount_options	       location
	       oak			     &:/export/&

       The asterisk (*), when supplied as the key field, is recognized as  the
       catch-all  entry.  It is used to substitute for lines that are all for‐
       matted similarly.  Any entry following the asterisk is ignored.	In the
       following  example, the program uses the asterisk to match any hostname
       other than
	    #key	 mount_options	      location
	    oak				      &:/export/&
	    *				      &:/home/&

   Environment Variables
       The value of an environment variable can be used	 within	 an  automount
       map  by	prefixing  a  dollar  sign  ($) to its name.  You can also use
       braces to delimit the name of the variable  from	 appended  letters  or
       digits.	 The  environment variables can be inherited from the environ‐
       ment or can be explicitly defined with the command line option.

   Hierarchical Mounts
       You can mount different directories within  an  file  system  hierarchy
       from different servers.	For example, if you are mounting the file sys‐
       tem on your machine, you can mount the  various	subdirectories	within
       from different servers.

       In  the	following  example,  the  directories and are mounted from the
       machines host1, host2, host3, and host4 respectively.  When the root of
       the hierarchy is referenced, the program mounts the whole hierarchy.

		 /	   -ro	     host1:/usr/local \
		 /bin	   -ro	     host2:/usr/local/bin \
		 /src	   -ro	     host2:/usr/local/src \
		 /tools	   -ro	     host2:/usr/src/tools

       Readability  has	 been  improved by splitting the entry into five lines
       and indenting the continuation lines.

       -m	 Ignores directory-mapname pairs listed in  the	 Yellow	 Pages

       -n	 Disables  dynamic  mounts.  Lookups intercepted by the daemon
		 succeed when the  target  file	 system	 has  been  previously

       -T	 Traces	 all NFS requests received by the daemon.  Information
		 about the details of the request are  expanded	 and  sent  to
		 standard output.

       -v	 Logs  status  messages	 to  the  console.  (Stands for ``ver‐

       -D name=value
		 Defines an environment variable by  assigning	value  to  the

       -f master-file
		 Uses  master-file  for a list of initial directory to mapname
		 pairs, ahead of the Yellow Pages map.	If an entry exists  in
		 both  master-file  and	 that specified in master-file is used
		 since it is read first.  Similarly, entries  on  the  command
		 line  take  precedence	 over master-file entries.  This tech‐
		 nique can be used to replace entries in global maps with your

       -M mount-directory
		 Uses mount-directory instead of the default,

       -tl duration
		 Specifies  a  duration	 in  seconds, that a file system is to
		 remain mounted when not in use.  The default is 5 minutes.

       -tm interval
		 Specifies an interval in seconds, between attempts to mount a
		 file system. The default is 30 seconds.

       -tw interval
		 Specifies an interval in seconds, between attempts to unmount
		 file systems that  have  exceeded  their  cached  times.  The
		 default is 1 minute.

		 Specifies  the	 mount	options	 to  be	 applied to all of the
		 directories listed in mapname.	 If mount options  are	listed
		 in  the  specified  map,  they	 take  precedence  over	 these
		 options.  Sending the SIGINIT signal to the daemon causes  it
		 to kill and restart the code.

		 Sending the SIGTERM signal to the daemon causes it to unmount
		 all file systems that it has mounted, and to exit.

		 Sending the SIGHUP signal to the daemon causes it  to	reread
		 the  system mount table to update its internal record of cur‐
		 rently mounted file systems.  If a file system	 mounted  with
		 is  unmounted	by  a  command, should be forced to reread the
		 system mount table.

       Shell filename expansion	 does  not  apply  to  objects	not  currently

       Because	is  single-threaded,  any request that is delayed by a slow or
       non-responding NFS server will delay all subsequent requests until  the
       delayed request has been completed.

       The following is a sample map:
       # mount-point	       mapname		 mount-options
       /net		       -hosts
       /home		       auto.indirect	 -rw
       /-	 -ro,intr
       The following is a typical indirect map:
       # key		   mount-options	 location
       john					 merge:/home/merge/john
       mary					 stripe:/home/stripe/mary
       fred					 blur:/usr/staff/fred
       The following is a typical direct map:
       # key		   mount-options	 location
       /usr/source	   -ro			 merge:/usr/src/proto
       /usr/local				 blur:/usr/bin/tools
       The  following  is  a sample indirect map that specifies multiple mount
       locations for the file system The file system is mounted from the first
       server to respond to the request.
       reference	   -ro		  earl:/usr/src/ref\

       Directory where automounted file systems reside

See Also
       mount(8), mount(8nfs), umount(8)
       Guide to the Network File System


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