badsect man page on OpenBSD

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BADSECT(8)		OpenBSD System Manager's Manual		    BADSECT(8)

     badsect - create files to contain bad sectors

     badsect bbdir sector ...

     badsect makes a file to contain a bad sector.  Normally, bad sectors are
     made inaccessible by the standard formatter, which provides a forwarding
     table for bad sectors to the driver.  If a driver supports the bad
     blocking standard, it is much more preferable to use that method to
     isolate bad blocks, since the bad block forwarding makes the pack appear
     perfect, and such packs can then be copied with dd(1).  The technique
     used by this program is also less general than bad block forwarding, as
     badsect can't make amends for bad blocks in the i-list of file systems or
     in swap areas.

     On some disks, adding a sector which is suddenly bad to the bad sector
     table currently requires the running of the standard DEC formatter.  Thus
     to deal with a newly bad block or on disks where the drivers do not
     support the bad-blocking standard badsect may be used to good effect.

     badsect is used on a quiet file system in the following way: First mount
     the file system, and change to its root directory.	 Make a directory BAD
     there.  Run badsect, giving as argument the BAD directory followed by all
     the bad sectors you wish to add.  (The sector numbers must be relative to
     the beginning of the file system, but this is not hard as the system
     reports relative sector numbers in its console error messages.)  Then
     change back to the root directory, unmount the file system and run
     fsck(8) on the file system.  The bad sectors should show up in two files
     or in the bad sector files and the free list.  Have fsck remove files
     containing the offending bad sectors, but do not have it remove the
     BAD/nnnnn files.  This will leave the bad sectors in only the BAD files.

     badsect works by giving the specified sector numbers in a mknod(2) system
     call, creating an illegal file whose first block address is the block
     containing the bad sector, and whose name is the bad sector number.  When
     it is discovered by fsck it will ask ``HOLD BAD BLOCK?'' A positive
     response will cause fsck to convert the inode to a regular file
     containing the bad block.

     badsect refuses to attach a block that resides in a critical area or is
     out of range of the file system.  A warning is issued if the block is
     already in use.


     The badsect command appeared in 4.1BSD.

     If more than one sector which comprises a file system fragment is bad,
     you should specify only one of them to badsect, as the blocks in the bad
     sector files actually cover all the sectors in a file system fragment.

OpenBSD 4.9			August 6, 2007			   OpenBSD 4.9

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