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BASH-BUILTINS(7)					      BASH-BUILTINS(7)

NAME
       bash-builtins - bash built-in commands, see bash(1)

SYNOPSIS
       bash defines the following built-in commands: :, ., [, alias, bg, bind,
       break,  builtin,	 case,	cd,  command,  compgen,	 complete,   continue,
       declare,	 dirs, disown, echo, enable, eval, exec, exit, export, fc, fg,
       getopts, hash, help, history, if, jobs, kill, let, local, logout, popd,
       printf,	pushd, pwd, read, readonly, return, set, shift, shopt, source,
       suspend, test, times, trap,  type,  typeset,  ulimit,  umask,  unalias,
       unset, until, wait, while.

BASH BUILTIN COMMANDS
       Unless otherwise noted, each builtin command documented in this section
       as accepting options preceded by - accepts -- to signify the end of the
       options.	  The  :, true, false, and test builtins do not accept options
       and do not treat -- specially.  The exit, logout, break, continue, let,
       and  shift builtins accept and process arguments beginning with - with‐
       out requiring --.  Other builtins that accept  arguments	 but  are  not
       specified  as accepting options interpret arguments beginning with - as
       invalid options and require -- to prevent this interpretation.
       : [arguments]
	      No effect; the command does nothing beyond  expanding  arguments
	      and  performing any specified redirections.  A zero exit code is
	      returned.

	.  filename [arguments]
       source filename [arguments]
	      Read and execute commands from filename  in  the	current	 shell
	      environment  and return the exit status of the last command exe‐
	      cuted from filename.  If filename	 does  not  contain  a	slash,
	      filenames	 in  PATH  are	used  to find the directory containing
	      filename.	 The file searched for in PATH need not be executable.
	      When  bash  is  not  in  posix  mode,  the  current directory is
	      searched if no file is found in PATH.  If the sourcepath	option
	      to  the  shopt  builtin  command	is turned off, the PATH is not
	      searched.	 If any arguments are supplied, they become the	 posi‐
	      tional  parameters  when	filename  is  executed.	 Otherwise the
	      positional parameters are unchanged.  The return status  is  the
	      status  of  the  last  command exited within the script (0 if no
	      commands are executed), and false if filename is	not  found  or
	      cannot be read.

       alias [-p] [name[=value] ...]
	      Alias with no arguments or with the -p option prints the list of
	      aliases in the form alias name=value on standard	output.	  When
	      arguments	 are supplied, an alias is defined for each name whose
	      value is given.  A trailing space in  value causes the next word
	      to be checked for alias substitution when the alias is expanded.
	      For each name in the argument list for which no  value  is  sup‐
	      plied,  the  name	 and  value  of	 the  alias is printed.	 Alias
	      returns true unless a name is given for which no alias has  been
	      defined.

       bg [jobspec ...]
	      Resume  each  suspended  job jobspec in the background, as if it
	      had been started with &.	If jobspec is not present, the shell's
	      notion  of the current job is used.  bg jobspec returns 0 unless
	      run when job control is disabled or, when run with  job  control
	      enabled,	any  specified	jobspec	 was  not found or was started
	      without job control.

       bind [-m keymap] [-lpsvPSVX]
       bind [-m keymap] [-q function] [-u function] [-r keyseq]
       bind [-m keymap] -f filename
       bind [-m keymap] -x keyseq:shell-command
       bind [-m keymap] keyseq:function-name
       bind readline-command
	      Display current readline key and function bindings, bind	a  key
	      sequence	to  a  readline	 function  or macro, or set a readline
	      variable.	 Each non-option argument is a	command	 as  it	 would
	      appear  in  .inputrc, but each binding or command must be passed
	      as a separate argument; e.g.,  '"\C-x\C-r":  re-read-init-file'.
	      Options, if supplied, have the following meanings:
	      -m keymap
		     Use keymap as the keymap to be affected by the subsequent
		     bindings.	Acceptable keymap names are emacs, emacs-stan‐
		     dard,  emacs-meta,	 emacs-ctlx,  vi, vi-move, vi-command,
		     and vi-insert.  vi is equivalent to vi-command; emacs  is
		     equivalent to emacs-standard.
	      -l     List the names of all readline functions.
	      -p     Display  readline	function  names and bindings in such a
		     way that they can be re-read.
	      -P     List current readline function names and bindings.
	      -s     Display readline key sequences bound to  macros  and  the
		     strings  they  output  in such a way that they can be re-
		     read.
	      -S     Display readline key sequences bound to  macros  and  the
		     strings they output.
	      -v     Display  readline variable names and values in such a way
		     that they can be re-read.
	      -V     List current readline variable names and values.
	      -f filename
		     Read key bindings from filename.
	      -q function
		     Query about which keys invoke the named function.
	      -u function
		     Unbind all keys bound to the named function.
	      -r keyseq
		     Remove any current binding for keyseq.
	      -x keyseq:shell-command
		     Cause shell-command to be	executed  whenever  keyseq  is
		     entered.	When shell-command is executed, the shell sets
		     the READLINE_LINE variable to the contents of  the	 read‐
		     line  line	 buffer and the READLINE_POINT variable to the
		     current location of the insertion point.  If the executed
		     command  changes  the  value  of  READLINE_LINE  or READ‐
		     LINE_POINT, those new values will	be  reflected  in  the
		     editing state.
	      -X     List  all	key  sequences bound to shell commands and the
		     associated commands in a format that  can	be  reused  as
		     input.

	      The  return value is 0 unless an unrecognized option is given or
	      an error occurred.

       break [n]
	      Exit from within a for, while, until, or select loop.  If	 n  is
	      specified, break n levels.  n must be ≥ 1.  If n is greater than
	      the number of enclosing loops, all enclosing loops  are  exited.
	      The  return  value is 0 unless n is not greater than or equal to
	      1.

       builtin shell-builtin [arguments]
	      Execute the specified shell builtin, passing it  arguments,  and
	      return its exit status.  This is useful when defining a function
	      whose name is the same as a shell builtin, retaining  the	 func‐
	      tionality of the builtin within the function.  The cd builtin is
	      commonly redefined this way.  The	 return	 status	 is  false  if
	      shell-builtin is not a shell builtin command.

       caller [expr]
	      Returns the context of any active subroutine call (a shell func‐
	      tion or a script executed with the . or source builtins).	 With‐
	      out expr, caller displays the line number and source filename of
	      the current subroutine call.  If a non-negative integer is  sup‐
	      plied as expr, caller displays the line number, subroutine name,
	      and source file corresponding to that position  in  the  current
	      execution	 call  stack.  This extra information may be used, for
	      example, to print a stack trace.	The current frame is frame  0.
	      The  return  value is 0 unless the shell is not executing a sub‐
	      routine call or expr does not correspond to a valid position  in
	      the call stack.

       cd [-L|[-P [-e]] [-@]] [dir]
	      Change  the  current  directory to dir.  if dir is not supplied,
	      the value of the HOME shell variable is the default.  Any	 addi‐
	      tional arguments following dir are ignored.  The variable CDPATH
	      defines the search path for the directory containing  dir:  each
	      directory	 name  in  CDPATH  is  searched	 for dir.  Alternative
	      directory names in CDPATH are separated by a colon (:).  A  null
	      directory	 name  in CDPATH is the same as the current directory,
	      i.e., ``.''.  If dir begins with a slash (/), then CDPATH is not
	      used.  The  -P  option  causes  cd to use the physical directory
	      structure by resolving symbolic links while traversing  dir  and
	      before processing instances of .. in dir (see also the -P option
	      to the set builtin command); the -L option forces symbolic links
	      to  be followed by resolving the link after processing instances
	      of .. in dir.  If .. appears in dir, it is processed by removing
	      the  immediately previous pathname component from dir, back to a
	      slash or the beginning of dir.  If the  -e  option  is  supplied
	      with  -P,	 and  the current working directory cannot be success‐
	      fully determined after a successful directory  change,  cd  will
	      return  an unsuccessful status.  On systems that support it, the
	      -@ option presents the extended  attributes  associated  with  a
	      file  as	a directory.  An argument of - is converted to $OLDPWD
	      before the directory change is attempted.	 If a non-empty direc‐
	      tory  name  from	CDPATH is used, or if - is the first argument,
	      and the directory change is successful, the absolute pathname of
	      the  new	working	 directory  is written to the standard output.
	      The return value is  true	 if  the  directory  was  successfully
	      changed; false otherwise.

       command [-pVv] command [arg ...]
	      Run  command  with  args	suppressing  the normal shell function
	      lookup. Only builtin commands or commands found in the PATH  are
	      executed.	  If the -p option is given, the search for command is
	      performed using a default value for PATH that is	guaranteed  to
	      find  all	 of  the  standard  utilities.	If either the -V or -v
	      option is supplied, a description of command is printed.	The -v
	      option  causes  a single word indicating the command or filename
	      used to invoke command to be displayed; the -V option produces a
	      more  verbose  description.  If the -V or -v option is supplied,
	      the exit status is 0 if command was found, and  1	 if  not.   If
	      neither option is supplied and an error occurred or command can‐
	      not be found, the exit status is 127.  Otherwise, the exit  sta‐
	      tus of the command builtin is the exit status of command.

       compgen [option] [word]
	      Generate	possible  completion matches for word according to the
	      options, which may  be  any  option  accepted  by	 the  complete
	      builtin  with  the exception of -p and -r, and write the matches
	      to the standard output.  When using the -F or  -C	 options,  the
	      various  shell  variables	 set  by  the  programmable completion
	      facilities, while available, will not have useful values.

	      The matches will be generated in the same way as if the program‐
	      mable completion code had generated them directly from a comple‐
	      tion specification with the same flags.  If word	is  specified,
	      only those completions matching word will be displayed.

	      The  return  value is true unless an invalid option is supplied,
	      or no matches were generated.

       complete [-abcdefgjksuv] [-o comp-option] [-DE] [-A action]  [-G	 glob‐
       pat] [-W wordlist] [-F function] [-C command]
	      [-X filterpat] [-P prefix] [-S suffix] name [name ...]
       complete -pr [-DE] [name ...]
	      Specify  how arguments to each name should be completed.	If the
	      -p option is supplied, or if no options are  supplied,  existing
	      completion  specifications are printed in a way that allows them
	      to be reused as input.  The -r option removes a completion spec‐
	      ification	 for each name, or, if no names are supplied, all com‐
	      pletion  specifications.	 The  -D  option  indicates  that  the
	      remaining	 options  and  actions should apply to the ``default''
	      command completion; that is, completion attempted on  a  command
	      for  which  no  completion  has previously been defined.	The -E
	      option indicates that the remaining options and  actions	should
	      apply  to	 ``empty''  command  completion;  that	is, completion
	      attempted on a blank line.

	      The process of applying  these  completion  specifications  when
	      word  completion	is attempted is described above under Program‐
	      mable Completion.

	      Other options, if specified, have the following  meanings.   The
	      arguments	 to the -G, -W, and -X options (and, if necessary, the
	      -P and -S options) should be quoted to protect them from	expan‐
	      sion before the complete builtin is invoked.
	      -o comp-option
		      The  comp-option	controls  several aspects of the comp‐
		      spec's behavior beyond the simple generation of  comple‐
		      tions.  comp-option may be one of:
		      bashdefault
			      Perform the rest of the default bash completions
			      if the compspec generates no matches.
		      default Use readline's default  filename	completion  if
			      the compspec generates no matches.
		      dirnames
			      Perform  directory  name completion if the comp‐
			      spec generates no matches.
		      filenames
			      Tell readline that the compspec generates	 file‐
			      names,  so  it can perform any filename-specific
			      processing (like adding  a  slash	 to  directory
			      names,  quoting special characters, or suppress‐
			      ing trailing spaces).  Intended to be used  with
			      shell functions.
		      noquote Tell  readline  not to quote the completed words
			      if they are filenames (quoting filenames is  the
			      default).
		      nospace Tell   readline  not  to	append	a  space  (the
			      default) to words completed at the  end  of  the
			      line.
		      plusdirs
			      After  any  matches  defined by the compspec are
			      generated,   directory   name   completion    is
			      attempted	 and  any  matches  are	 added	to the
			      results of the other actions.
	      -A action
		      The action may be one of the  following  to  generate  a
		      list of possible completions:
		      alias   Alias names.  May also be specified as -a.
		      arrayvar
			      Array variable names.
		      binding Readline key binding names.
		      builtin Names  of	 shell	builtin commands.  May also be
			      specified as -b.
		      command Command names.  May also be specified as -c.
		      directory
			      Directory names.	May also be specified as -d.
		      disabled
			      Names of disabled shell builtins.
		      enabled Names of enabled shell builtins.
		      export  Names of exported shell variables.  May also  be
			      specified as -e.
		      file    File names.  May also be specified as -f.
		      function
			      Names of shell functions.
		      group   Group names.  May also be specified as -g.
		      helptopic
			      Help topics as accepted by the help builtin.
		      hostname
			      Hostnames,  as  taken from the file specified by
			      the HOSTFILE shell variable.
		      job     Job names, if job control is active.   May  also
			      be specified as -j.
		      keyword Shell  reserved words.  May also be specified as
			      -k.
		      running Names of running jobs, if job control is active.
		      service Service names.  May also be specified as -s.
		      setopt  Valid arguments for the -o  option  to  the  set
			      builtin.
		      shopt   Shell  option  names  as	accepted  by the shopt
			      builtin.
		      signal  Signal names.
		      stopped Names of stopped jobs, if job control is active.
		      user    User names.  May also be specified as -u.
		      variable
			      Names of all shell variables.  May also be spec‐
			      ified as -v.
	      -C command
		      command  is  executed in a subshell environment, and its
		      output is used as the possible completions.
	      -F function
		      The shell function function is executed in  the  current
		      shell  environment.   When the function is executed, the
		      first argument ($1) is the name  of  the	command	 whose
		      arguments	 are being completed, the second argument ($2)
		      is the word being completed, and the third argument ($3)
		      is  the  word  preceding the word being completed on the
		      current command line.  When it  finishes,	 the  possible
		      completions  are retrieved from the value of the COMPRE‐
		      PLY array variable.
	      -G globpat
		      The pathname expansion pattern globpat  is  expanded  to
		      generate the possible completions.
	      -P prefix
		      prefix  is  added at the beginning of each possible com‐
		      pletion after all other options have been applied.
	      -S suffix
		      suffix is appended to each possible completion after all
		      other options have been applied.
	      -W wordlist
		      The  wordlist  is	 split using the characters in the IFS
		      special variable as delimiters, and each resultant  word
		      is  expanded.   The possible completions are the members
		      of the resultant list which match the  word  being  com‐
		      pleted.
	      -X filterpat
		      filterpat	 is  a pattern as used for pathname expansion.
		      It is applied to the list of possible completions gener‐
		      ated  by	the  preceding options and arguments, and each
		      completion matching filterpat is removed from the	 list.
		      A	 leading  !  in filterpat negates the pattern; in this
		      case, any completion not matching filterpat is removed.

	      The return value is true unless an invalid option	 is  supplied,
	      an  option  other than -p or -r is supplied without a name argu‐
	      ment, an attempt is made to remove  a  completion	 specification
	      for a name for which no specification exists, or an error occurs
	      adding a completion specification.

       compopt [-o option] [-DE] [+o option] [name]
	      Modify  completion  options  for	each  name  according  to  the
	      options,	or  for the currently-executing completion if no names
	      are supplied.  If no options are given, display  the  completion
	      options  for  each name or the current completion.  The possible
	      values of option	are  those  valid  for	the  complete  builtin
	      described	 above.	  The  -D  option indicates that the remaining
	      options should apply to the ``default'' command completion; that
	      is,  completion  attempted  on a command for which no completion
	      has previously been defined.  The -E option indicates  that  the
	      remaining	 options should apply to ``empty'' command completion;
	      that is, completion attempted on a blank line.

	      The return value is true unless an invalid option	 is  supplied,
	      an attempt is made to modify the options for a name for which no
	      completion specification exists, or an output error occurs.

       continue [n]
	      Resume the next iteration of the enclosing for, while, until, or
	      select  loop.   If  n  is specified, resume at the nth enclosing
	      loop.  n must be ≥ 1.  If	 n  is	greater	 than  the  number  of
	      enclosing	 loops,	 the  last  enclosing  loop (the ``top-level''
	      loop) is resumed.	 The return value is 0 unless n is not greater
	      than or equal to 1.

       declare [-aAfFgilnrtux] [-p] [name[=value] ...]
       typeset [-aAfFgilnrtux] [-p] [name[=value] ...]
	      Declare  variables and/or give them attributes.  If no names are
	      given then display the values of variables.  The -p option  will
	      display the attributes and values of each name.  When -p is used
	      with name arguments, additional options, other than -f  and  -F,
	      are  ignored.   When  -p	is supplied without name arguments, it
	      will display the attributes and values of all  variables	having
	      the attributes specified by the additional options.  If no other
	      options  are  supplied  with  -p,	 declare  will	 display   the
	      attributes  and  values  of  all shell variables.	 The -f option
	      will restrict the display to shell  functions.   The  -F	option
	      inhibits	the display of function definitions; only the function
	      name and attributes are printed.	If the extdebug	 shell	option
	      is  enabled  using  shopt,  the source file name and line number
	      where the function is defined are displayed  as  well.   The  -F
	      option implies -f.  The -g option forces variables to be created
	      or modified at the global scope, even when declare  is  executed
	      in  a  shell  function.	It is ignored in all other cases.  The
	      following options can be used to restrict	 output	 to  variables
	      with the specified attribute or to give variables attributes:
	      -a     Each  name	 is  an	 indexed  array	 variable  (see Arrays
		     above).
	      -A     Each name is an associative array	variable  (see	Arrays
		     above).
	      -f     Use function names only.
	      -i     The variable is treated as an integer; arithmetic evalua‐
		     tion (see ARITHMETIC EVALUATION above) is performed  when
		     the variable is assigned a value.
	      -l     When  the	variable  is  assigned a value, all upper-case
		     characters are converted to lower-case.   The  upper-case
		     attribute is disabled.
	      -n     Give  each	 name  the nameref attribute, making it a name
		     reference to another variable.  That  other  variable  is
		     defined by the value of name.  All references and assign‐
		     ments to name,  except  for  changing  the	 -n  attribute
		     itself,  are  performed  on  the  variable	 referenced by
		     name's value.  The -n  attribute  cannot  be  applied  to
		     array variables.
	      -r     Make names readonly.  These names cannot then be assigned
		     values by subsequent assignment statements or unset.
	      -t     Give each name the	 trace	attribute.   Traced  functions
		     inherit  the  DEBUG  and  RETURN  traps  from the calling
		     shell.  The trace attribute has no	 special  meaning  for
		     variables.
	      -u     When  the	variable  is  assigned a value, all lower-case
		     characters are converted to upper-case.   The  lower-case
		     attribute is disabled.
	      -x     Mark  names  for  export  to  subsequent commands via the
		     environment.

	      Using `+' instead of `-' turns off the attribute	instead,  with
	      the exceptions that +a may not be used to destroy an array vari‐
	      able and +r will not remove the readonly attribute.   When  used
	      in a function, declare and typeset make each name local, as with
	      the local command, unless the -g option is supplied.  If a vari‐
	      able  name  is  followed by =value, the value of the variable is
	      set to value.  When using -a or -A and the  compound  assignment
	      syntax  to  create array variables, additional attributes do not
	      take effect until subsequent assignments.	 The return value is 0
	      unless  an  invalid option is encountered, an attempt is made to
	      define a function using ``-f foo=bar'', an attempt  is  made  to
	      assign  a	 value	to  a readonly variable, an attempt is made to
	      assign a value to an array variable without using	 the  compound
	      assignment  syntax (see Arrays above), one of the names is not a
	      valid shell variable name, an attempt is made to turn off	 read‐
	      only  status for a readonly variable, an attempt is made to turn
	      off array status for an array variable, or an attempt is made to
	      display a non-existent function with -f.

       dirs [-clpv] [+n] [-n]
	      Without  options,	 displays  the	list  of  currently remembered
	      directories.  The default display	 is  on	 a  single  line  with
	      directory	 names	separated by spaces.  Directories are added to
	      the list with  the  pushd	 command;  the	popd  command  removes
	      entries from the list.
	      -c     Clears  the  directory  stack  by	deleting  all  of  the
		     entries.
	      -l     Produces a listing	 using	full  pathnames;  the  default
		     listing format uses a tilde to denote the home directory.
	      -p     Print the directory stack with one entry per line.
	      -v     Print  the	 directory stack with one entry per line, pre‐
		     fixing each entry with its index in the stack.
	      +n     Displays the nth entry counting from the left of the list
		     shown by dirs when invoked without options, starting with
		     zero.
	      -n     Displays the nth entry counting from  the	right  of  the
		     list shown by dirs when invoked without options, starting
		     with zero.

	      The return value is 0 unless an invalid option is supplied or  n
	      indexes beyond the end of the directory stack.

       disown [-ar] [-h] [jobspec ...]
	      Without  options,	 remove	 each jobspec from the table of active
	      jobs.  If jobspec is not present, and neither the -a nor the  -r
	      option  is  supplied, the current job is used.  If the -h option
	      is given, each jobspec is not removed from  the  table,  but  is
	      marked  so  that	SIGHUP	is  not	 sent  to the job if the shell
	      receives a SIGHUP.  If no jobspec is  supplied,  the  -a	option
	      means  to	 remove or mark all jobs; the -r option without a job‐
	      spec argument restricts operation to running jobs.   The	return
	      value is 0 unless a jobspec does not specify a valid job.

       echo [-neE] [arg ...]
	      Output  the  args,  separated  by spaces, followed by a newline.
	      The return status is 0 unless a write error occurs.   If	-n  is
	      specified, the trailing newline is suppressed.  If the -e option
	      is given,	 interpretation	 of  the  following  backslash-escaped
	      characters  is  enabled.	The -E option disables the interpreta‐
	      tion of these escape characters, even on systems where they  are
	      interpreted  by  default.	 The xpg_echo shell option may be used
	      to dynamically determine	whether	 or  not  echo	expands	 these
	      escape  characters  by  default.	 echo does not interpret -- to
	      mean the end of options.	echo interprets the  following	escape
	      sequences:
	      \a     alert (bell)
	      \b     backspace
	      \c     suppress further output
	      \e
	      \E     an escape character
	      \f     form feed
	      \n     new line
	      \r     carriage return
	      \t     horizontal tab
	      \v     vertical tab
	      \\     backslash
	      \0nnn  the  eight-bit  character	whose value is the octal value
		     nnn (zero to three octal digits)
	      \xHH   the eight-bit character whose value  is  the  hexadecimal
		     value HH (one or two hex digits)
	      \uHHHH the  Unicode (ISO/IEC 10646) character whose value is the
		     hexadecimal value HHHH (one to four hex digits)
	      \UHHHHHHHH
		     the Unicode (ISO/IEC 10646) character whose value is  the
		     hexadecimal value HHHHHHHH (one to eight hex digits)

       enable [-a] [-dnps] [-f filename] [name ...]
	      Enable  and disable builtin shell commands.  Disabling a builtin
	      allows a disk command which has the same name as a shell builtin
	      to  be  executed without specifying a full pathname, even though
	      the shell normally searches for builtins before  disk  commands.
	      If  -n  is  used,	 each  name  is disabled; otherwise, names are
	      enabled.	For example, to use the test binary found via the PATH
	      instead  of  the	shell builtin version, run ``enable -n test''.
	      The -f option means to load the new builtin  command  name  from
	      shared object filename, on systems that support dynamic loading.
	      The -d option will delete a builtin previously loaded  with  -f.
	      If no name arguments are given, or if the -p option is supplied,
	      a list of shell builtins is printed.  With no other option argu‐
	      ments,  the  list consists of all enabled shell builtins.	 If -n
	      is supplied, only disabled builtins are printed.	If -a is  sup‐
	      plied,  the  list printed includes all builtins, with an indica‐
	      tion of whether or not each is enabled.  If -s is supplied,  the
	      output  is restricted to the POSIX special builtins.  The return
	      value is 0 unless a name is not a shell builtin or there	is  an
	      error loading a new builtin from a shared object.

       eval [arg ...]
	      The  args	 are read and concatenated together into a single com‐
	      mand.  This command is then read and executed by the shell,  and
	      its  exit status is returned as the value of eval.  If there are
	      no args, or only null arguments, eval returns 0.

       exec [-cl] [-a name] [command [arguments]]
	      If command is specified, it replaces the shell.  No new  process
	      is  created.  The arguments become the arguments to command.  If
	      the -l option is supplied, the shell places a dash at the begin‐
	      ning  of	the  zeroth  argument passed to command.  This is what
	      login(1) does.  The -c option causes command to be executed with
	      an  empty environment.  If -a is supplied, the shell passes name
	      as the zeroth argument to the executed command.  If command can‐
	      not  be executed for some reason, a non-interactive shell exits,
	      unless the execfail shell option is enabled.  In that  case,  it
	      returns  failure.	  An  interactive shell returns failure if the
	      file cannot be executed.	If command is not specified, any redi‐
	      rections take effect in the current shell, and the return status
	      is 0.  If there is a redirection error, the return status is 1.

       exit [n]
	      Cause the shell to exit with a status of n.  If  n  is  omitted,
	      the exit status is that of the last command executed.  A trap on
	      EXIT is executed before the shell terminates.

       export [-fn] [name[=word]] ...
       export -p
	      The supplied names are marked for automatic export to the	 envi‐
	      ronment  of subsequently executed commands.  If the -f option is
	      given, the names refer to functions.  If no names are given,  or
	      if  the  -p  option is supplied, a list of names of all exported
	      variables is printed.  The -n option causes the export  property
	      to be removed from each name.  If a variable name is followed by
	      =word, the value of the variable is set to word.	export returns
	      an exit status of 0 unless an invalid option is encountered, one
	      of the names is not a valid shell variable name, or -f  is  sup‐
	      plied with a name that is not a function.

       fc [-e ename] [-lnr] [first] [last]
       fc -s [pat=rep] [cmd]
	      The  first  form	selects a range of commands from first to last
	      from the history list and	 displays  or  edits  and  re-executes
	      them.   First  and  last may be specified as a string (to locate
	      the last command beginning with that string) or as a number  (an
	      index  into the history list, where a negative number is used as
	      an offset from the current command  number).   If	 last  is  not
	      specified	 it is set to the current command for listing (so that
	      ``fc -l -10'' prints the last 10 commands) and to	 first	other‐
	      wise.   If first is not specified it is set to the previous com‐
	      mand for editing and -16 for listing.

	      The -n option suppresses the command numbers when listing.   The
	      -r  option reverses the order of the commands.  If the -l option
	      is given, the commands are listed on  standard  output.	Other‐
	      wise,  the editor given by ename is invoked on a file containing
	      those commands.  If ename is not given, the value of the	FCEDIT
	      variable	is used, and the value of EDITOR if FCEDIT is not set.
	      If neither variable is set, is used.  When editing is  complete,
	      the edited commands are echoed and executed.

	      In  the  second form, command is re-executed after each instance
	      of pat is replaced by rep.  Command is intepreted	 the  same  as
	      first  above.  A useful alias to use with this is ``r="fc -s"'',
	      so that typing ``r cc'' runs the	last  command  beginning  with
	      ``cc'' and typing ``r'' re-executes the last command.

	      If  the  first  form  is	used,  the return value is 0 unless an
	      invalid option is encountered or first or last  specify  history
	      lines  out  of  range.  If the -e option is supplied, the return
	      value is the value of the last command executed or failure if an
	      error occurs with the temporary file of commands.	 If the second
	      form is used, the return status is that of the  command  re-exe‐
	      cuted,  unless  cmd  does	 not  specify a valid history line, in
	      which case fc returns failure.

       fg [jobspec]
	      Resume jobspec in the foreground, and make it the	 current  job.
	      If jobspec is not present, the shell's notion of the current job
	      is used.	The return value is that of the	 command  placed  into
	      the  foreground,	or failure if run when job control is disabled
	      or, when run with job control enabled, if jobspec does not spec‐
	      ify  a  valid  job  or  jobspec specifies a job that was started
	      without job control.

       getopts optstring name [args]
	      getopts is used by shell procedures to parse positional  parame‐
	      ters.   optstring	 contains  the	option characters to be recog‐
	      nized; if a character is followed by  a  colon,  the  option  is
	      expected	to have an argument, which should be separated from it
	      by white space.  The colon and question mark characters may  not
	      be  used as option characters.  Each time it is invoked, getopts
	      places the next option in the shell variable name,  initializing
	      name if it does not exist, and the index of the next argument to
	      be processed into the variable OPTIND.  OPTIND is initialized to
	      1	 each  time  the  shell or a shell script is invoked.  When an
	      option requires an argument, getopts places that	argument  into
	      the  variable OPTARG.  The shell does not reset OPTIND automati‐
	      cally; it must be	 manually  reset  between  multiple  calls  to
	      getopts within the same shell invocation if a new set of parame‐
	      ters is to be used.

	      When the end of options is encountered,  getopts	exits  with  a
	      return  value  greater than zero.	 OPTIND is set to the index of
	      the first non-option argument, and name is set to ?.

	      getopts normally parses the positional parameters, but  if  more
	      arguments are given in args, getopts parses those instead.

	      getopts  can  report errors in two ways.	If the first character
	      of optstring is a colon, silent error  reporting	is  used.   In
	      normal  operation,  diagnostic messages are printed when invalid
	      options or missing option arguments  are	encountered.   If  the
	      variable	OPTERR	is  set	 to  0, no error messages will be dis‐
	      played, even if the first character of optstring is not a colon.

	      If an invalid option is seen, getopts places ? into name and, if
	      not  silent,  prints  an	error  message	and unsets OPTARG.  If
	      getopts is silent, the  option  character	 found	is  placed  in
	      OPTARG and no diagnostic message is printed.

	      If  a required argument is not found, and getopts is not silent,
	      a question mark (?) is placed in name, OPTARG is	unset,	and  a
	      diagnostic  message  is  printed.	  If getopts is silent, then a
	      colon (:) is placed in name and OPTARG  is  set  to  the	option
	      character found.

	      getopts  returns true if an option, specified or unspecified, is
	      found.  It returns false if the end of options is encountered or
	      an error occurs.

       hash [-lr] [-p filename] [-dt] [name]
	      Each time hash is invoked, the full pathname of the command name
	      is determined by searching the directories in $PATH  and	remem‐
	      bered.  Any previously-remembered pathname is discarded.	If the
	      -p option is supplied, no path search is performed, and filename
	      is  used	as  the	 full  filename of the command.	 The -r option
	      causes the shell to forget all  remembered  locations.   The  -d
	      option  causes  the  shell  to forget the remembered location of
	      each name.  If the -t option is supplied, the full  pathname  to
	      which  each name corresponds is printed.	If multiple name argu‐
	      ments are supplied with -t,  the	name  is  printed  before  the
	      hashed  full  pathname.	The -l option causes output to be dis‐
	      played in a format that may be reused as input.  If no arguments
	      are  given,  or if only -l is supplied, information about remem‐
	      bered commands is printed.  The return status is true  unless  a
	      name is not found or an invalid option is supplied.

       help [-dms] [pattern]
	      Display  helpful information about builtin commands.  If pattern
	      is specified, help gives detailed help on all commands  matching
	      pattern;	otherwise  help for all the builtins and shell control
	      structures is printed.
	      -d     Display a short description of each pattern
	      -m     Display the description of each pattern in a manpage-like
		     format
	      -s     Display only a short usage synopsis for each pattern

	      The return status is 0 unless no command matches pattern.

       history [n]
       history -c
       history -d offset
       history -anrw [filename]
       history -p arg [arg ...]
       history -s arg [arg ...]
	      With no options, display the command history list with line num‐
	      bers.  Lines listed with a * have been modified.	An argument of
	      n	 lists only the last n lines.  If the shell variable HISTTIME‐
	      FORMAT is set and not null, it is used as a  format  string  for
	      strftime(3)  to display the time stamp associated with each dis‐
	      played history entry.  No intervening blank is  printed  between
	      the  formatted  time stamp and the history line.	If filename is
	      supplied, it is used as the name of the history  file;  if  not,
	      the  value  of HISTFILE is used.	Options, if supplied, have the
	      following meanings:
	      -c     Clear the history list by deleting all the entries.
	      -d offset
		     Delete the history entry at position offset.
	      -a     Append the ``new'' history lines (history	lines  entered
		     since  the	 beginning of the current bash session) to the
		     history file.
	      -n     Read the history lines not already read from the  history
		     file  into	 the  current  history	list.  These are lines
		     appended to the history file since the beginning  of  the
		     current bash session.
	      -r     Read  the contents of the history file and append them to
		     the current history list.
	      -w     Write the current history list to the history file, over‐
		     writing the history file's contents.
	      -p     Perform  history  substitution  on the following args and
		     display the result on  the	 standard  output.   Does  not
		     store  the results in the history list.  Each arg must be
		     quoted to disable normal history expansion.
	      -s     Store the args in the history list	 as  a	single	entry.
		     The  last	command	 in the history list is removed before
		     the args are added.

	      If the HISTTIMEFORMAT variable is set, the time  stamp  informa‐
	      tion  associated	with each history entry is written to the his‐
	      tory file, marked with the history comment character.  When  the
	      history  file  is read, lines beginning with the history comment
	      character followed immediately by a  digit  are  interpreted  as
	      timestamps for the previous history line.	 The return value is 0
	      unless an invalid option is encountered, an error	 occurs	 while
	      reading  or  writing the history file, an invalid offset is sup‐
	      plied as an argument to -d, or the history expansion supplied as
	      an argument to -p fails.

       jobs [-lnprs] [ jobspec ... ]
       jobs -x command [ args ... ]
	      The first form lists the active jobs.  The options have the fol‐
	      lowing meanings:
	      -l     List process IDs in addition to the normal information.
	      -n     Display information only about  jobs  that	 have  changed
		     status since the user was last notified of their status.
	      -p     List  only	 the  process  ID  of  the job's process group
		     leader.
	      -r     Display only running jobs.
	      -s     Display only stopped jobs.

	      If jobspec is given, output is restricted to  information	 about
	      that  job.   The	return status is 0 unless an invalid option is
	      encountered or an invalid jobspec is supplied.

	      If the -x option is supplied, jobs replaces any jobspec found in
	      command  or  args	 with  the corresponding process group ID, and
	      executes command passing it args, returning its exit status.

       kill [-s sigspec | -n signum | -sigspec] [pid | jobspec] ...
       kill -l [sigspec | exit_status]
	      Send the signal named by sigspec	or  signum  to	the  processes
	      named  by	 pid or jobspec.  sigspec is either a case-insensitive
	      signal name such as SIGKILL (with or without the SIG prefix)  or
	      a	 signal	 number; signum is a signal number.  If sigspec is not
	      present, then SIGTERM is assumed.	 An argument of -l  lists  the
	      signal  names.   If any arguments are supplied when -l is given,
	      the names of the signals	corresponding  to  the	arguments  are
	      listed, and the return status is 0.  The exit_status argument to
	      -l is a number specifying either a signal	 number	 or  the  exit
	      status  of  a process terminated by a signal.  kill returns true
	      if at least one signal was successfully sent,  or	 false	if  an
	      error occurs or an invalid option is encountered.

       let arg [arg ...]
	      Each arg is an arithmetic expression to be evaluated (see ARITH‐
	      METIC EVALUATION above).	If the last arg evaluates  to  0,  let
	      returns 1; 0 is returned otherwise.

       local [option] [name[=value] ...]
	      For  each	 argument, a local variable named name is created, and
	      assigned value.  The option can be any of the  options  accepted
	      by declare.  When local is used within a function, it causes the
	      variable name to have a visible scope restricted to  that	 func‐
	      tion and its children.  With no operands, local writes a list of
	      local variables to the standard output.  It is an error  to  use
	      local when not within a function.	 The return status is 0 unless
	      local is used outside a function, an invalid name	 is  supplied,
	      or name is a readonly variable.

       logout Exit a login shell.

       mapfile	[-n  count]  [-O origin] [-s count] [-t] [-u fd] [-C callback]
       [-c quantum] [array]
       readarray [-n count] [-O origin] [-s count] [-t] [-u fd] [-C  callback]
       [-c quantum] [array]
	      Read  lines from the standard input into the indexed array vari‐
	      able array, or from file descriptor fd if the -u option is  sup‐
	      plied.   The variable MAPFILE is the default array.  Options, if
	      supplied, have the following meanings:
	      -n     Copy at most count lines.	If count is 0, all  lines  are
		     copied.
	      -O     Begin  assigning  to  array at index origin.  The default
		     index is 0.
	      -s     Discard the first count lines read.
	      -t     Remove a trailing newline from each line read.
	      -u     Read lines from file descriptor fd instead of  the	 stan‐
		     dard input.
	      -C     Evaluate  callback each time quantum lines are read.  The
		     -c option specifies quantum.
	      -c     Specify the number of lines read  between	each  call  to
		     callback.

	      If  -C  is  specified  without  -c, the default quantum is 5000.
	      When callback is evaluated, it is supplied the index of the next
	      array element to be assigned and the line to be assigned to that
	      element as additional arguments.	callback  is  evaluated	 after
	      the line is read but before the array element is assigned.

	      If  not  supplied	 with  an  explicit origin, mapfile will clear
	      array before assigning to it.

	      mapfile returns successfully unless an invalid option or	option
	      argument	is  supplied,  array is invalid or unassignable, or if
	      array is not an indexed array.

       popd [-n] [+n] [-n]
	      Removes entries from the directory stack.	  With	no  arguments,
	      removes  the  top directory from the stack, and performs a cd to
	      the new top directory.  Arguments, if supplied, have the follow‐
	      ing meanings:
	      -n     Suppresses	 the  normal change of directory when removing
		     directories from the stack, so that  only	the  stack  is
		     manipulated.
	      +n     Removes  the nth entry counting from the left of the list
		     shown by dirs, starting with zero.	 For  example:	``popd
		     +0'' removes the first directory, ``popd +1'' the second.
	      -n     Removes the nth entry counting from the right of the list
		     shown by dirs, starting with zero.	 For  example:	``popd
		     -0''  removes the last directory, ``popd -1'' the next to
		     last.

	      If the popd command is successful, a dirs is performed as	 well,
	      and  the	return	status is 0.  popd returns false if an invalid
	      option is encountered, the directory stack is empty, a non-exis‐
	      tent directory stack entry is specified, or the directory change
	      fails.

       printf [-v var] format [arguments]
	      Write the formatted arguments to the standard output  under  the
	      control  of  the	format.	 The -v option causes the output to be
	      assigned to the variable var rather than being  printed  to  the
	      standard output.

	      The  format  is a character string which contains three types of
	      objects: plain characters, which are simply copied  to  standard
	      output,  character  escape  sequences,  which  are converted and
	      copied to the standard output, and format	 specifications,  each
	      of  which	 causes	 printing of the next successive argument.  In
	      addition to the standard printf(1) format specifications, printf
	      interprets the following extensions:
	      %b     causes printf to expand backslash escape sequences in the
		     corresponding argument (except that \c terminates output,
		     backslashes  in \', \", and \? are not removed, and octal
		     escapes beginning with \0 may contain up to four digits).
	      %q     causes printf to output the corresponding argument	 in  a
		     format that can be reused as shell input.
	      %(datefmt)T
		     causes  printf  to	 output the date-time string resulting
		     from using datefmt as a format  string  for  strftime(3).
		     The corresponding argument is an integer representing the
		     number of seconds since the epoch.	 Two special  argument
		     values  may  be used: -1 represents the current time, and
		     -2 represents the time the	 shell	was  invoked.	If  no
		     argument  is  specified,  conversion behaves as if -1 had
		     been given.  This is an exception	to  the	 usual	printf
		     behavior.

	      Arguments	 to non-string format specifiers are treated as C con‐
	      stants, except that a leading plus or minus sign is allowed, and
	      if  the leading character is a single or double quote, the value
	      is the ASCII value of the following character.

	      The format is reused as necessary to consume all	of  the	 argu‐
	      ments.  If the format requires more arguments than are supplied,
	      the extra format specifications behave as if  a  zero  value  or
	      null  string,  as	 appropriate,  had  been supplied.  The return
	      value is zero on success, non-zero on failure.

       pushd [-n] [+n] [-n]
       pushd [-n] [dir]
	      Adds a directory to the top of the directory stack,  or  rotates
	      the  stack,  making the new top of the stack the current working
	      directory.  With no arguments, exchanges the top two directories
	      and  returns 0, unless the directory stack is empty.  Arguments,
	      if supplied, have the following meanings:
	      -n     Suppresses the normal change  of  directory  when	adding
		     directories  to  the  stack,  so  that  only the stack is
		     manipulated.
	      +n     Rotates the stack so that	the  nth  directory  (counting
		     from  the	left  of the list shown by dirs, starting with
		     zero) is at the top.
	      -n     Rotates the stack so that	the  nth  directory  (counting
		     from  the	right of the list shown by dirs, starting with
		     zero) is at the top.
	      dir    Adds dir to the directory stack at the top, making it the
		     new  current working directory as if it had been supplied
		     as the argument to the cd builtin.

	      If the pushd command is successful, a dirs is performed as well.
	      If  the first form is used, pushd returns 0 unless the cd to dir
	      fails.  With the second form, pushd returns 0 unless the	direc‐
	      tory  stack  is empty, a non-existent directory stack element is
	      specified, or the directory change to the specified new  current
	      directory fails.

       pwd [-LP]
	      Print  the  absolute  pathname of the current working directory.
	      The pathname printed contains no symbolic links if the -P option
	      is supplied or the -o physical option to the set builtin command
	      is enabled.  If the -L option is used, the pathname printed  may
	      contain  symbolic links.	The return status is 0 unless an error
	      occurs while reading the name of the  current  directory	or  an
	      invalid option is supplied.

       read [-ers] [-a aname] [-d delim] [-i text] [-n nchars] [-N nchars] [-p
       prompt] [-t timeout] [-u fd] [name ...]
	      One line is read from the	 standard  input,  or  from  the  file
	      descriptor  fd supplied as an argument to the -u option, and the
	      first word is assigned to the first name, the second word to the
	      second  name, and so on, with leftover words and their interven‐
	      ing separators assigned to the last name.	 If  there  are	 fewer
	      words read from the input stream than names, the remaining names
	      are assigned empty values.  The characters in IFS	 are  used  to
	      split  the  line	into words using the same rules the shell uses
	      for expansion (described above under Word Splitting).  The back‐
	      slash  character	(\)  may be used to remove any special meaning
	      for the next character read and for line continuation.  Options,
	      if supplied, have the following meanings:
	      -a aname
		     The words are assigned to sequential indices of the array
		     variable aname, starting at 0.  aname is unset before any
		     new  values  are  assigned.   Other  name	arguments  are
		     ignored.
	      -d delim
		     The first character of delim is  used  to	terminate  the
		     input line, rather than newline.
	      -e     If the standard input is coming from a terminal, readline
		     (see READLINE above) is used to obtain the	 line.	 Read‐
		     line  uses	 the  current (or default, if line editing was
		     not previously active) editing settings.
	      -i text
		     If readline is being used	to  read  the  line,  text  is
		     placed into the editing buffer before editing begins.
	      -n nchars
		     read  returns after reading nchars characters rather than
		     waiting for a complete line of input, but honor a	delim‐
		     iter  if fewer than nchars characters are read before the
		     delimiter.
	      -N nchars
		     read returns  after  reading  exactly  nchars  characters
		     rather  than waiting for a complete line of input, unless
		     EOF is encountered or read times out.  Delimiter  charac‐
		     ters  encountered	in the input are not treated specially
		     and do not cause read to return until  nchars  characters
		     are read.
	      -p prompt
		     Display prompt on standard error, without a trailing new‐
		     line, before attempting to read any input.	 The prompt is
		     displayed only if input is coming from a terminal.
	      -r     Backslash does not act as an escape character.  The back‐
		     slash is considered to be part of the line.  In  particu‐
		     lar,  a  backslash-newline pair may not be used as a line
		     continuation.
	      -s     Silent mode.  If input is coming from a terminal, charac‐
		     ters are not echoed.
	      -t timeout
		     Cause  read  to time out and return failure if a complete
		     line of input (or a specified number  of  characters)  is
		     not  read within timeout seconds.	timeout may be a deci‐
		     mal number with a fractional portion following the	 deci‐
		     mal  point.   This	 option	 is  only effective if read is
		     reading input from a terminal,  pipe,  or	other  special
		     file;  it	has no effect when reading from regular files.
		     If read times out, read saves any partial input read into
		     the  specified  variable  name.   If  timeout  is 0, read
		     returns immediately, without trying  to  read  any	 data.
		     The  exit status is 0 if input is available on the speci‐
		     fied file descriptor, non-zero otherwise.	The exit  sta‐
		     tus is greater than 128 if the timeout is exceeded.
	      -u fd  Read input from file descriptor fd.

	      If no names are supplied, the line read is assigned to the vari‐
	      able REPLY.  The return code  is	zero,  unless  end-of-file  is
	      encountered,  read  times	 out (in which case the return code is
	      greater than 128), a variable assignment error (such as  assign‐
	      ing  to a readonly variable) occurs, or an invalid file descrip‐
	      tor is supplied as the argument to -u.

       readonly [-aAf] [-p] [name[=word] ...]
	      The given names are marked readonly; the values of  these	 names
	      may  not	be changed by subsequent assignment.  If the -f option
	      is supplied, the functions corresponding to  the	names  are  so
	      marked.	The  -a	 option	 restricts  the	 variables  to indexed
	      arrays; the -A option restricts  the  variables  to  associative
	      arrays.	If both options are supplied, -A takes precedence.  If
	      no name arguments are given, or if the -p option is supplied,  a
	      list of all readonly names is printed.  The other options may be
	      used to restrict the output to a subset of the set  of  readonly
	      names.   The -p option causes output to be displayed in a format
	      that may be reused as input.  If a variable name is followed  by
	      =word,  the  value  of  the variable is set to word.  The return
	      status is 0 unless an invalid option is encountered, one of  the
	      names is not a valid shell variable name, or -f is supplied with
	      a name that is not a function.

       return [n]
	      Causes a function to stop executing and return the value	speci‐
	      fied  by n to its caller.	 If n is omitted, the return status is
	      that of the last command executed	 in  the  function  body.   If
	      return  is  used	outside	 a function, but during execution of a
	      script by the .  (source) command, it causes the shell  to  stop
	      executing	 that script and return either n or the exit status of
	      the last command executed within the script as the  exit	status
	      of  the script.  If n is supplied, the return value is its least
	      significant 8 bits.  The return status is non-zero if return  is
	      supplied	a  non-numeric argument, or is used outside a function
	      and not during execution of a script by . or source.   Any  com‐
	      mand  associated	with the RETURN trap is executed before execu‐
	      tion resumes after the function or script.

       set [--abefhkmnptuvxBCEHPT] [-o option-name] [arg ...]
       set [+abefhkmnptuvxBCEHPT] [+o option-name] [arg ...]
	      Without options, the name and value of each shell	 variable  are
	      displayed in a format that can be reused as input for setting or
	      resetting the currently-set variables.  Read-only variables can‐
	      not  be  reset.  In posix mode, only shell variables are listed.
	      The output is sorted according  to  the  current	locale.	  When
	      options  are specified, they set or unset shell attributes.  Any
	      arguments remaining after option processing are treated as  val‐
	      ues for the positional parameters and are assigned, in order, to
	      $1, $2, ...  $n.	Options,  if  specified,  have	the  following
	      meanings:
	      -a      Automatically  mark  variables  and  functions which are
		      modified or created for export  to  the  environment  of
		      subsequent commands.
	      -b      Report  the status of terminated background jobs immedi‐
		      ately, rather than before the next primary prompt.  This
		      is effective only when job control is enabled.
	      -e      Exit  immediately	 if a pipeline (which may consist of a
		      single simple command), a list, or  a  compound  command
		      (see  SHELL  GRAMMAR above),  exits with a non-zero sta‐
		      tus.  The shell does not exit if the command that	 fails
		      is  part	of  the	 command  list immediately following a
		      while or until keyword, part of the test	following  the
		      if  or elif reserved words, part of any command executed
		      in a && or || list  except  the  command	following  the
		      final  && or ||, any command in a pipeline but the last,
		      or if the command's return value is being inverted  with
		      !.   If a compound command other than a subshell returns
		      a non-zero status because a command failed while -e  was
		      being  ignored, the shell does not exit.	A trap on ERR,
		      if set, is executed before the shell exits.  This option
		      applies to the shell environment and each subshell envi‐
		      ronment separately (see  COMMAND	EXECUTION  ENVIRONMENT
		      above), and may cause subshells to exit before executing
		      all the commands in the subshell.

		      If a compound command or shell function  executes	 in  a
		      context  where -e is being ignored, none of the commands
		      executed within the compound command  or	function  body
		      will  be	affected  by the -e setting, even if -e is set
		      and a command returns a failure status.  If  a  compound
		      command  or  shell function sets -e while executing in a
		      context where -e is ignored, that setting will not  have
		      any  effect  until  the  compound command or the command
		      containing the function call completes.
	      -f      Disable pathname expansion.
	      -h      Remember the location of commands as they are looked  up
		      for execution.  This is enabled by default.
	      -k      All  arguments  in the form of assignment statements are
		      placed in the environment for a command, not just	 those
		      that precede the command name.
	      -m      Monitor  mode.   Job control is enabled.	This option is
		      on by default for interactive  shells  on	 systems  that
		      support  it  (see JOB CONTROL above).  All processes run
		      in a separate process group.  When a background job com‐
		      pletes, the shell prints a line containing its exit sta‐
		      tus.
	      -n      Read commands but do not execute them.  This may be used
		      to  check	 a  shell  script  for syntax errors.  This is
		      ignored by interactive shells.
	      -o option-name
		      The option-name can be one of the following:
		      allexport
			      Same as -a.
		      braceexpand
			      Same as -B.
		      emacs   Use an emacs-style command line  editing	inter‐
			      face.  This is enabled by default when the shell
			      is interactive, unless the shell is started with
			      the  --noediting	option.	 This also affects the
			      editing interface used for read -e.
		      errexit Same as -e.
		      errtrace
			      Same as -E.
		      functrace
			      Same as -T.
		      hashall Same as -h.
		      histexpand
			      Same as -H.
		      history Enable command history, as described above under
			      HISTORY.	This option is on by default in inter‐
			      active shells.
		      ignoreeof
			      The  effect  is  as   if	 the   shell   command
			      ``IGNOREEOF=10''	had  been  executed (see Shell
			      Variables above).
		      keyword Same as -k.
		      monitor Same as -m.
		      noclobber
			      Same as -C.
		      noexec  Same as -n.
		      noglob  Same as -f.
		      nolog   Currently ignored.
		      notify  Same as -b.
		      nounset Same as -u.
		      onecmd  Same as -t.
		      physical
			      Same as -P.
		      pipefail
			      If set, the return value of a  pipeline  is  the
			      value  of	 the  last (rightmost) command to exit
			      with a non-zero status, or zero if all  commands
			      in  the pipeline exit successfully.  This option
			      is disabled by default.
		      posix   Change the behavior of bash  where  the  default
			      operation	 differs  from	the  POSIX standard to
			      match the standard (posix mode).	See  SEE  ALSO
			      below for a reference to a document that details
			      how posix mode affects bash's behavior.
		      privileged
			      Same as -p.
		      verbose Same as -v.
		      vi      Use a vi-style command line  editing  interface.
			      This also affects the editing interface used for
			      read -e.
		      xtrace  Same as -x.
		      If -o is supplied with no option-name, the values of the
		      current  options are printed.  If +o is supplied with no
		      option-name, a series of set commands  to	 recreate  the
		      current  option  settings	 is  displayed on the standard
		      output.
	      -p      Turn on privileged mode.	In this	 mode,	the  $ENV  and
		      $BASH_ENV	 files	are not processed, shell functions are
		      not inherited from the environment, and  the  SHELLOPTS,
		      BASHOPTS,	 CDPATH,  and  GLOBIGNORE  variables,  if they
		      appear in the environment, are ignored.  If the shell is
		      started  with the effective user (group) id not equal to
		      the real user (group) id, and the -p option is not  sup‐
		      plied, these actions are taken and the effective user id
		      is set to the real user id.  If the -p  option  is  sup‐
		      plied  at	 startup,  the effective user id is not reset.
		      Turning this option off causes the  effective  user  and
		      group ids to be set to the real user and group ids.
	      -t      Exit after reading and executing one command.
	      -u      Treat unset variables and parameters other than the spe‐
		      cial parameters "@" and "*" as an error when  performing
		      parameter	 expansion.   If  expansion is attempted on an
		      unset variable or parameter, the shell prints  an	 error
		      message,	and, if not interactive, exits with a non-zero
		      status.
	      -v      Print shell input lines as they are read.
	      -x      After expanding each simple command, for	command,  case
		      command, select command, or arithmetic for command, dis‐
		      play the expanded value of PS4, followed by the  command
		      and its expanded arguments or associated word list.
	      -B      The  shell performs brace expansion (see Brace Expansion
		      above).  This is on by default.
	      -C      If set, bash does not overwrite an  existing  file  with
		      the  >,  >&,  and <> redirection operators.  This may be
		      overridden when creating output files by using the redi‐
		      rection operator >| instead of >.
	      -E      If set, any trap on ERR is inherited by shell functions,
		      command substitutions, and commands executed in  a  sub‐
		      shell  environment.  The ERR trap is normally not inher‐
		      ited in such cases.
	      -H      Enable !	style history substitution.  This option is on
		      by default when the shell is interactive.
	      -P      If  set,	the shell does not resolve symbolic links when
		      executing commands such as cd that  change  the  current
		      working  directory.   It	uses  the  physical  directory
		      structure instead.  By default, bash follows the logical
		      chain  of	 directories  when  performing	commands which
		      change the current directory.
	      -T      If set, any traps on DEBUG and RETURN are	 inherited  by
		      shell  functions,	 command  substitutions,  and commands
		      executed in  a  subshell	environment.   The  DEBUG  and
		      RETURN traps are normally not inherited in such cases.
	      --      If  no arguments follow this option, then the positional
		      parameters are unset.  Otherwise, the positional parame‐
		      ters  are	 set  to  the args, even if some of them begin
		      with a -.
	      -	      Signal the end of options, cause all remaining  args  to
		      be assigned to the positional parameters.	 The -x and -v
		      options are turned off.  If there are no args, the posi‐
		      tional parameters remain unchanged.

	      The  options are off by default unless otherwise noted.  Using +
	      rather than - causes  these  options  to	be  turned  off.   The
	      options  can  also be specified as arguments to an invocation of
	      the shell.  The current set of options may be found in $-.   The
	      return status is always true unless an invalid option is encoun‐
	      tered.

       shift [n]
	      The positional parameters from n+1 ... are renamed  to  $1  ....
	      Parameters  represented  by  the	numbers	 $# down to $#-n+1 are
	      unset.  n must be a non-negative number less than	 or  equal  to
	      $#.   If	n is 0, no parameters are changed.  If n is not given,
	      it is assumed to be 1.  If n is greater than $#, the  positional
	      parameters  are  not changed.  The return status is greater than
	      zero if n is greater than $# or less than zero; otherwise 0.

       shopt [-pqsu] [-o] [optname ...]
	      Toggle the values of settings controlling optional shell	behav‐
	      ior.   The settings can be either those listed below, or, if the
	      -o option is used, those available with the -o option to the set
	      builtin command.	With no options, or with the -p option, a list
	      of all settable options is  displayed,  with  an	indication  of
	      whether  or  not each is set.  The -p option causes output to be
	      displayed in a form that may be reused as input.	Other  options
	      have the following meanings:
	      -s     Enable (set) each optname.
	      -u     Disable (unset) each optname.
	      -q     Suppresses	 normal output (quiet mode); the return status
		     indicates whether the optname is set or unset.  If multi‐
		     ple  optname arguments are given with -q, the return sta‐
		     tus is zero if all optnames are enabled; non-zero	other‐
		     wise.
	      -o     Restricts	the  values of optname to be those defined for
		     the -o option to the set builtin.

	      If either -s or -u is used  with	no  optname  arguments,	 shopt
	      shows  only  those options which are set or unset, respectively.
	      Unless otherwise noted, the shopt options are  disabled  (unset)
	      by default.

	      The  return  status when listing options is zero if all optnames
	      are enabled, non-zero  otherwise.	  When	setting	 or  unsetting
	      options,	the  return  status is zero unless an optname is not a
	      valid shell option.

	      The list of shopt options is:

	      autocd  If set, a command name that is the name of  a  directory
		      is  executed  as	if it were the argument to the cd com‐
		      mand.  This option is only used by interactive shells.
	      cdable_vars
		      If set, an argument to the cd builtin  command  that  is
		      not  a directory is assumed to be the name of a variable
		      whose value is the directory to change to.
	      cdspell If set, minor errors in the spelling of a directory com‐
		      ponent  in  a  cd command will be corrected.  The errors
		      checked for are transposed characters, a missing charac‐
		      ter,  and	 one  character	 too many.  If a correction is
		      found, the corrected filename is printed, and  the  com‐
		      mand  proceeds.  This option is only used by interactive
		      shells.
	      checkhash
		      If set, bash checks that a command found in the hash ta‐
		      ble  exists  before  trying  to execute it.  If a hashed
		      command no longer exists, a normal path search  is  per‐
		      formed.
	      checkjobs
		      If set, bash lists the status of any stopped and running
		      jobs before exiting an interactive shell.	 If  any  jobs
		      are running, this causes the exit to be deferred until a
		      second exit is attempted without an intervening  command
		      (see  JOB	 CONTROL  above).   The shell always postpones
		      exiting if any jobs are stopped.
	      checkwinsize
		      If set, bash checks the window size after	 each  command
		      and,  if necessary, updates the values of LINES and COL‐
		      UMNS.
	      cmdhist If set, bash attempts to save all lines of  a  multiple-
		      line  command  in	 the  same history entry.  This allows
		      easy re-editing of multi-line commands.
	      compat31
		      If set, bash changes its behavior to that of version 3.1
		      with  respect  to quoted arguments to the [[ conditional
		      command's =~ operator and locale-specific string compar‐
		      ison  when  using	 the  [[ conditional command's < and >
		      operators.  Bash versions prior to  bash-4.1  use	 ASCII
		      collation and strcmp(3); bash-4.1 and later use the cur‐
		      rent locale's collation sequence and strcoll(3).
	      compat32
		      If set, bash changes its behavior to that of version 3.2
		      with  respect  to locale-specific string comparison when
		      using the [[ conditional command's  <  and  >  operators
		      (see previous item).
	      compat40
		      If set, bash changes its behavior to that of version 4.0
		      with respect to locale-specific string  comparison  when
		      using  the  [[  conditional  command's < and > operators
		      (see description of compat31) and the effect  of	inter‐
		      rupting  a  command  list.   Bash versions 4.0 and later
		      interrupt the list as if the shell received  the	inter‐
		      rupt;  previous  versions continue with the next command
		      in the list.
	      compat41
		      If set, bash, when in posix mode, treats a single	 quote
		      in  a  double-quoted  parameter  expansion  as a special
		      character.  The single quotes must match (an  even  num‐
		      ber)  and	 the  characters between the single quotes are
		      considered quoted.  This is the behavior of  posix  mode
		      through  version 4.1.  The default bash behavior remains
		      as in previous versions.
	      compat42
		      If set, bash does not process the replacement string  in
		      the  pattern  substitution  word	expansion  using quote
		      removal.
	      complete_fullquote
		      If set, bash quotes all shell  metacharacters  in	 file‐
		      names  and  directory  names when performing completion.
		      If not set, bash removes metacharacters such as the dol‐
		      lar  sign from the set of characters that will be quoted
		      in completed filenames when these metacharacters	appear
		      in  shell	 variable references in words to be completed.
		      This means that dollar  signs  in	 variable  names  that
		      expand  to  directories will not be quoted; however, any
		      dollar signs appearing in filenames will not be  quoted,
		      either.	This  is  active only when bash is using back‐
		      slashes to quote completed filenames.  This variable  is
		      set  by  default,	 which is the default bash behavior in
		      versions through 4.2.
	      direxpand
		      If set, bash replaces directory names with  the  results
		      of  word	expansion when performing filename completion.
		      This changes the contents of the readline	 editing  buf‐
		      fer.   If	 not  set,  bash attempts to preserve what the
		      user typed.
	      dirspell
		      If set, bash attempts spelling correction	 on  directory
		      names  during word completion if the directory name ini‐
		      tially supplied does not exist.
	      dotglob If set, bash includes filenames beginning with a `.'  in
		      the results of pathname expansion.
	      execfail
		      If set, a non-interactive shell will not exit if it can‐
		      not execute the file specified as	 an  argument  to  the
		      exec  builtin  command.	An  interactive shell does not
		      exit if exec fails.
	      expand_aliases
		      If set, aliases are expanded as  described  above	 under
		      ALIASES.	This option is enabled by default for interac‐
		      tive shells.
	      extdebug
		      If set,  behavior	 intended  for	use  by	 debuggers  is
		      enabled:
		      1.     The -F option to the declare builtin displays the
			     source file name and line number corresponding to
			     each function name supplied as an argument.
		      2.     If	 the  command  run by the DEBUG trap returns a
			     non-zero value, the next command is  skipped  and
			     not executed.
		      3.     If	 the  command  run by the DEBUG trap returns a
			     value of 2, and the shell is executing in a  sub‐
			     routine  (a shell function or a shell script exe‐
			     cuted by the . or source  builtins),  a  call  to
			     return is simulated.
		      4.     BASH_ARGC	and BASH_ARGV are updated as described
			     in their descriptions above.
		      5.     Function tracing is enabled:   command  substitu‐
			     tion, shell functions, and subshells invoked with
			     ( command ) inherit the DEBUG and RETURN traps.
		      6.     Error tracing is enabled:	command	 substitution,
			     shell  functions,	and  subshells	invoked with (
			     command ) inherit the ERR trap.
	      extglob If set, the extended pattern matching features described
		      above under Pathname Expansion are enabled.
	      extquote
		      If  set,	$'string'  and	$"string" quoting is performed
		      within  ${parameter}  expansions	enclosed   in	double
		      quotes.  This option is enabled by default.
	      failglob
		      If  set,	patterns  which fail to match filenames during
		      pathname expansion result in an expansion error.
	      force_fignore
		      If set, the suffixes  specified  by  the	FIGNORE	 shell
		      variable	cause words to be ignored when performing word
		      completion even if the ignored words are the only possi‐
		      ble  completions.	  See  SHELL  VARIABLES	 above	for  a
		      description of  FIGNORE.	 This  option  is  enabled  by
		      default.
	      globasciiranges
		      If  set,	range  expressions  used  in  pattern matching
		      bracket expressions (see Pattern Matching above)	behave
		      as  if  in the traditional C locale when performing com‐
		      parisons.	  That	is,  the  current  locale's  collating
		      sequence	is  not taken into account, so b will not col‐
		      late between A and  B,  and  upper-case  and  lower-case
		      ASCII characters will collate together.
	      globstar
		      If set, the pattern ** used in a pathname expansion con‐
		      text will match all files and zero or  more  directories
		      and  subdirectories.  If the pattern is followed by a /,
		      only directories and subdirectories match.
	      gnu_errfmt
		      If set, shell error messages are written in the standard
		      GNU error message format.
	      histappend
		      If  set,	the history list is appended to the file named
		      by the value of the HISTFILE  variable  when  the	 shell
		      exits, rather than overwriting the file.
	      histreedit
		      If  set, and readline is being used, a user is given the
		      opportunity to re-edit a failed history substitution.
	      histverify
		      If set, and readline is being used, the results of  his‐
		      tory  substitution  are  not  immediately	 passed to the
		      shell parser.  Instead, the  resulting  line  is	loaded
		      into the readline editing buffer, allowing further modi‐
		      fication.
	      hostcomplete
		      If set, and readline is being used, bash will attempt to
		      perform  hostname	 completion when a word containing a @
		      is  being	 completed  (see  Completing  under   READLINE
		      above).  This is enabled by default.
	      huponexit
		      If set, bash will send SIGHUP to all jobs when an inter‐
		      active login shell exits.
	      interactive_comments
		      If set, allow a word beginning with # to cause that word
		      and  all remaining characters on that line to be ignored
		      in an interactive	 shell	(see  COMMENTS	above).	  This
		      option is enabled by default.
	      lastpipe
		      If  set,	and  job control is not active, the shell runs
		      the last command of a pipeline not executed in the back‐
		      ground in the current shell environment.
	      lithist If  set,	and  the cmdhist option is enabled, multi-line
		      commands are saved to the history with embedded newlines
		      rather than using semicolon separators where possible.
	      login_shell
		      The  shell  sets this option if it is started as a login
		      shell (see INVOCATION above).   The  value  may  not  be
		      changed.
	      mailwarn
		      If  set,	and  a file that bash is checking for mail has
		      been accessed since the last time it  was	 checked,  the
		      message  ``The  mail in mailfile has been read'' is dis‐
		      played.
	      no_empty_cmd_completion
		      If set, and  readline  is	 being	used,  bash  will  not
		      attempt to search the PATH for possible completions when
		      completion is attempted on an empty line.
	      nocaseglob
		      If set, bash matches  filenames  in  a  case-insensitive
		      fashion when performing pathname expansion (see Pathname
		      Expansion above).
	      nocasematch
		      If set, bash  matches  patterns  in  a  case-insensitive
		      fashion when performing matching while executing case or
		      [[ conditional commands.
	      nullglob
		      If set, bash allows patterns which match no  files  (see
		      Pathname	Expansion  above)  to expand to a null string,
		      rather than themselves.
	      progcomp
		      If set, the programmable completion facilities (see Pro‐
		      grammable Completion above) are enabled.	This option is
		      enabled by default.
	      promptvars
		      If set, prompt strings undergo parameter expansion, com‐
		      mand   substitution,  arithmetic	expansion,  and	 quote
		      removal after being expanded as described	 in  PROMPTING
		      above.  This option is enabled by default.
	      restricted_shell
		      The   shell  sets	 this  option  if  it  is  started  in
		      restricted mode (see RESTRICTED SHELL below).  The value
		      may  not be changed.  This is not reset when the startup
		      files are executed, allowing the startup files  to  dis‐
		      cover whether or not a shell is restricted.
	      shift_verbose
		      If  set,	the shift builtin prints an error message when
		      the shift count exceeds the number of positional parame‐
		      ters.
	      sourcepath
		      If set, the source (.) builtin uses the value of PATH to
		      find the directory containing the file  supplied	as  an
		      argument.	 This option is enabled by default.
	      xpg_echo
		      If   set,	 the  echo  builtin  expands  backslash-escape
		      sequences by default.

       suspend [-f]
	      Suspend the execution of this shell until it receives a  SIGCONT
	      signal.  A login shell cannot be suspended; the -f option can be
	      used to override this and force the suspension.  The return sta‐
	      tus  is  0  unless the shell is a login shell and -f is not sup‐
	      plied, or if job control is not enabled.

       test expr
       [ expr ]
	      Return a status of 0 (true) or 1 (false) depending on the evalu‐
	      ation of the conditional expression expr.	 Each operator and op‐
	      erand must be a separate argument.  Expressions are composed  of
	      the  primaries  described	 above	under CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS.
	      test does not accept any options, nor does it accept and	ignore
	      an argument of -- as signifying the end of options.

	      Expressions  may	be  combined  using  the  following operators,
	      listed  in  decreasing  order  of	 precedence.   The  evaluation
	      depends  on the number of arguments; see below.  Operator prece‐
	      dence is used when there are five or more arguments.
	      ! expr True if expr is false.
	      ( expr )
		     Returns the value of expr.	 This may be used to  override
		     the normal precedence of operators.
	      expr1 -a expr2
		     True if both expr1 and expr2 are true.
	      expr1 -o expr2
		     True if either expr1 or expr2 is true.

	      test and [ evaluate conditional expressions using a set of rules
	      based on the number of arguments.

	      0 arguments
		     The expression is false.
	      1 argument
		     The expression is true if and only if the argument is not
		     null.
	      2 arguments
		     If the first argument is !, the expression is true if and
		     only if the second argument is null.  If the first	 argu‐
		     ment  is  one  of	the unary conditional operators listed
		     above under CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS,  the	expression  is
		     true if the unary test is true.  If the first argument is
		     not a valid unary conditional operator, the expression is
		     false.
	      3 arguments
		     The following conditions are applied in the order listed.
		     If the second argument is one of the  binary  conditional
		     operators listed above under CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS, the
		     result of the expression is the result of the binary test
		     using  the first and third arguments as operands.	The -a
		     and -o operators are  considered  binary  operators  when
		     there  are	 three arguments.  If the first argument is !,
		     the value is the negation of the two-argument test	 using
		     the second and third arguments.  If the first argument is
		     exactly ( and the third argument is exactly ), the result
		     is	 the one-argument test of the second argument.	Other‐
		     wise, the expression is false.
	      4 arguments
		     If the first argument is !, the result is the negation of
		     the  three-argument  expression composed of the remaining
		     arguments.	 Otherwise, the expression is parsed and eval‐
		     uated  according  to  precedence  using  the rules listed
		     above.
	      5 or more arguments
		     The expression  is	 parsed	 and  evaluated	 according  to
		     precedence using the rules listed above.

	      When  used  with	test  or [, the < and > operators sort lexico‐
	      graphically using ASCII ordering.

       times  Print the accumulated user and system times for  the  shell  and
	      for processes run from the shell.	 The return status is 0.

       trap [-lp] [[arg] sigspec ...]
	      The  command  arg	 is  to	 be  read  and executed when the shell
	      receives signal(s) sigspec.  If arg is absent (and  there	 is  a
	      single  sigspec)	or  -,	each  specified signal is reset to its
	      original disposition (the value it  had  upon  entrance  to  the
	      shell).	If arg is the null string the signal specified by each
	      sigspec is ignored by the shell and by the commands it  invokes.
	      If  arg  is  not present and -p has been supplied, then the trap
	      commands associated with each  sigspec  are  displayed.	If  no
	      arguments	 are  supplied or if only -p is given, trap prints the
	      list of commands associated with each  signal.   The  -l	option
	      causes  the shell to print a list of signal names and their cor‐
	      responding numbers.   Each  sigspec  is  either  a  signal  name
	      defined  in  <signal.h>,	or  a signal number.  Signal names are
	      case insensitive and the SIG prefix is optional.

	      If a sigspec is EXIT (0) the command arg	is  executed  on  exit
	      from  the shell.	If a sigspec is DEBUG, the command arg is exe‐
	      cuted before every simple command, for  command,	case  command,
	      select  command,	every  arithmetic  for command, and before the
	      first command executes in a shell function  (see	SHELL  GRAMMAR
	      above).	Refer to the description of the extdebug option to the
	      shopt builtin for details of its effect on the DEBUG trap.  If a
	      sigspec is RETURN, the command arg is executed each time a shell
	      function or a script executed with the . or source builtins fin‐
	      ishes executing.

	      If  a  sigspec  is ERR, the command arg is executed whenever a a
	      pipeline (which may consist of a single simple command), a list,
	      or a compound command returns a non-zero exit status, subject to
	      the following conditions.	 The ERR trap is not executed  if  the
	      failed command is part of the command list immediately following
	      a while or until keyword, part of the test in an	if  statement,
	      part of a command executed in a && or || list except the command
	      following the final && or ||, any command in a pipeline but  the
	      last,  or	 if the command's return value is being inverted using
	      !.  These are the same conditions obeyed	by  the	 errexit  (-e)
	      option.

	      Signals  ignored	upon  entry  to the shell cannot be trapped or
	      reset.  Trapped signals that are not being ignored are reset  to
	      their original values in a subshell or subshell environment when
	      one is created.  The return status is false if  any  sigspec  is
	      invalid; otherwise trap returns true.

       type [-aftpP] name [name ...]
	      With  no options, indicate how each name would be interpreted if
	      used as a command name.  If the -t option is used, type prints a
	      string  which  is	 one  of alias, keyword, function, builtin, or
	      file if  name  is	 an  alias,  shell  reserved  word,  function,
	      builtin,	or disk file, respectively.  If the name is not found,
	      then nothing  is	printed,  and  an  exit	 status	 of  false  is
	      returned.	  If  the  -p  option is used, type either returns the
	      name of the disk file that would be executed if name were speci‐
	      fied as a command name, or nothing if ``type -t name'' would not
	      return file.  The -P option forces a PATH search for each	 name,
	      even if ``type -t name'' would not return file.  If a command is
	      hashed, -p and -P print the hashed value, which is not necessar‐
	      ily  the	file  that appears first in PATH.  If the -a option is
	      used, type prints all of the places that contain	an  executable
	      named name.  This includes aliases and functions, if and only if
	      the -p option is not also used.  The table of hashed commands is
	      not  consulted  when  using  -a.	The -f option suppresses shell
	      function lookup, as with the command builtin.  type returns true
	      if all of the arguments are found, false if any are not found.

       ulimit [-HSTabcdefilmnpqrstuvx [limit]]
	      Provides	control	 over the resources available to the shell and
	      to processes started by it, on systems that allow such  control.
	      The -H and -S options specify that the hard or soft limit is set
	      for the given resource.  A hard limit cannot be increased	 by  a
	      non-root	user  once it is set; a soft limit may be increased up
	      to the value of the hard limit.  If neither -H nor -S is	speci‐
	      fied, both the soft and hard limits are set.  The value of limit
	      can be a number in the unit specified for the resource or one of
	      the special values hard, soft, or unlimited, which stand for the
	      current hard limit,  the	current	 soft  limit,  and  no	limit,
	      respectively.   If  limit	 is  omitted, the current value of the
	      soft limit of the resource is printed, unless the -H  option  is
	      given.  When more than one resource is specified, the limit name
	      and unit are printed before the value.  Other options are inter‐
	      preted as follows:
	      -a     All current limits are reported
	      -b     The maximum socket buffer size
	      -c     The maximum size of core files created
	      -d     The maximum size of a process's data segment
	      -e     The maximum scheduling priority ("nice")
	      -f     The  maximum  size	 of files written by the shell and its
		     children
	      -i     The maximum number of pending signals
	      -l     The maximum size that may be locked into memory
	      -m     The maximum resident set size (many systems do not	 honor
		     this limit)
	      -n     The maximum number of open file descriptors (most systems
		     do not allow this value to be set)
	      -p     The pipe size in 512-byte blocks (this may not be set)
	      -q     The maximum number of bytes in POSIX message queues
	      -r     The maximum real-time scheduling priority
	      -s     The maximum stack size
	      -t     The maximum amount of cpu time in seconds
	      -u     The maximum number of processes  available	 to  a	single
		     user
	      -v     The  maximum  amount  of  virtual memory available to the
		     shell and, on some systems, to its children
	      -x     The maximum number of file locks
	      -T     The maximum number of threads

	      If limit is given, and the -a option is not used, limit  is  the
	      new  value  of  the  specified resource.	If no option is given,
	      then -f is assumed.  Values are in 1024-byte increments,	except
	      for  -t,	which is in seconds; -p, which is in units of 512-byte
	      blocks; and -T, -b, -n, and -u, which are unscaled values.   The
	      return  status is 0 unless an invalid option or argument is sup‐
	      plied, or an error occurs while setting a new limit.

       umask [-p] [-S] [mode]
	      The user file-creation mask is set to mode.  If mode begins with
	      a	 digit,	 it is interpreted as an octal number; otherwise it is
	      interpreted as a symbolic mode mask similar to that accepted  by
	      chmod(1).	  If mode is omitted, the current value of the mask is
	      printed.	The -S option causes the mask to be  printed  in  sym‐
	      bolic  form;  the	 default output is an octal number.  If the -p
	      option is supplied, and mode is omitted, the output is in a form
	      that may be reused as input.  The return status is 0 if the mode
	      was successfully changed or if no mode  argument	was  supplied,
	      and false otherwise.

       unalias [-a] [name ...]
	      Remove  each  name  from	the list of defined aliases.  If -a is
	      supplied, all alias definitions are removed.  The	 return	 value
	      is true unless a supplied name is not a defined alias.

       unset [-fv] [-n] [name ...]
	      For  each	 name,	remove the corresponding variable or function.
	      If the -v option is given, each name refers to a shell variable,
	      and  that	 variable  is removed.	Read-only variables may not be
	      unset.  If -f is specified, each name refers to  a  shell	 func‐
	      tion,  and the function definition is removed.  If the -n option
	      is supplied, and name is a variable with the nameref  attribute,
	      name  will  be unset rather than the variable it references.  -n
	      has no effect if the -f option is supplied.  If no  options  are
	      supplied,	 each  name refers to a variable; if there is no vari‐
	      able by that name, any function with that name is	 unset.	  Each
	      unset  variable  or  function  is	 removed  from the environment
	      passed to subsequent commands.  If any of COMP_WORDBREAKS,  RAN‐
	      DOM, SECONDS, LINENO, HISTCMD, FUNCNAME, GROUPS, or DIRSTACK are
	      unset, they lose their special properties, even if they are sub‐
	      sequently reset.	The exit status is true unless a name is read‐
	      only.

       wait [-n] [n ...]
	      Wait for each specified child process and return its termination
	      status.  Each n may be a process ID or a job specification; if a
	      job spec is given, all processes	in  that  job's	 pipeline  are
	      waited  for.  If n is not given, all currently active child pro‐
	      cesses are waited for, and the return status is zero.  If the -n
	      option  is  supplied,  wait  waits  for any job to terminate and
	      returns its exit status.	If n specifies a non-existent  process
	      or  job, the return status is 127.  Otherwise, the return status
	      is the exit status of the last process or job waited for.

SEE ALSO
       bash(1), sh(1)

GNU Bash-2.05a			2001 October 29		      BASH-BUILTINS(7)
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