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BFS(1)									BFS(1)

       bfs - big file scanner

       /usr/bin/bfs [-] filename

       The  bfs command is (almost) like ed(1) except that it is read-only and
       processes much larger files. Files can be up to	1024K  bytes  and  32K
       lines, with up to 512 characters, including new-line, per line (255 for
       16-bit machines). bfs is usually more efficient than ed(1) for scanning
       a file, since the file is not copied to a buffer. It is most useful for
       identifying sections of a large file where csplit(1)  can  be  used  to
       divide it into more manageable pieces for editing.

       Normally, the size of the file being scanned is printed, as is the size
       of any file written with the w (write) command.	The  optional  −  sup‐
       presses printing of sizes. Input is prompted with * if P and a carriage
       return are typed, as in ed(1). Prompting can be	turned	off  again  by
       inputting  another  P and carriage return. Note that messages are given
       in response to errors if prompting is turned on.

       All address expressions described under ed(1) are supported.  In	 addi‐
       tion,  regular expressions may be surrounded with two symbols besides /
       and ?:

	    indicates downward search without wrap-around, and

	    indicates upward search without wrap-around.

       There is a slight difference in mark names; that is, only the letters a
       through z may be used, and all 26 marks are remembered.

   bfs Commands
       The  e,	g, v, k, p, q, w, =, !, and null commands operate as described
       under ed(1). Commands such  as  −−−,  +++−,  +++=,  −12,	 and  +4p  are
       accepted. Note that 1,10p and 1,10 will both print the first ten lines.
       The f command only prints the name of the file being scanned; there  is
       no   remembered	file  name.  The   w  command is independent of output
       diversion, truncation, or crunching (see the xo, xt, and	 xc  commands,
       below). The following additional commands are available:

       xf file

	   Further commands are taken from the named file. When an end-of-file
	   is reached, an interrupt signal is received	or  an	error  occurs,
	   reading  resumes  with  the file containing the xf. The xf commands
	   may be nested to a depth of 10.


	   List the marks currently in use (marks are set by the k command).

       xo [file]

	   Further output from the p and null  commands	 is  diverted  to  the
	   named  file, which, if necessary, is created mode 666 (readable and
	   writable by everyone), unless your  umask  setting  (see  umask(1))
	   dictates  otherwise.	 If file is missing, output is diverted to the
	   standard output.  Note that each  diversion	causes	truncation  or
	   creation of the file.

       : label

	   This	 positions  a label in a command file. The label is terminated
	   by new-line, and blanks between the : (colon) and the start of  the
	   label are ignored. This command may also be used to insert comments
	   into a command file, since labels need not be referenced.

       ( . , . )xb/regular expression/label

	   A jump (either upward or downward) is made to label if the  command
	   succeeds. It fails under any of the following conditions:

	       1.     Either address is not between 1 and $.

	       2.     The second address is less than the first.

	       3.     The  regular expression does not match at least one line
		      in the specified range, including	 the  first  and  last
	   On  success,	 . (dot) is set to the line matched and a jump is made
	   to label. This command is the only one that does not issue an error
	   message  on	bad  addresses,	 so  it	 may  be  used to test whether
	   addresses are bad before other commands are executed. Note that the
	   command, xb/^/ label, is an unconditional jump.

	   The	xb  command is allowed only if it is read from someplace other
	   than a terminal. If it is read from a pipe, only a downward jump is

       xt number

	   Output  from the p and null commands is truncated to, at most, num‐
	   ber characters. The initial number is 255.


	   The variable name is the specified digit following the xv. The com‐
	   mands  xv5100 or xv5 100 both assign the value  100 to the variable
	   5. The command xv61,100p assigns the value 1,100p to	 the  variable
	   6.  To reference a variable, put a % in front of the variable name.
	   For example, using the above assignments for variables 5 and 6:


	   will all print the first 100 lines.


	   would globally search for the characters 100 and  print  each  line
	   containing  a  match.  To escape the special meaning of %, a \ must
	   precede it.


	   could be used to match and list %c, %d, or %s formats (for example,
	   "printf"-like  statements)  of  characters,	decimal	 integers,  or
	   strings. Another feature of the xv command is that the  first  line
	   of output from a UNIX system command can be stored into a variable.
	   The only requirement is that the first character of value be an  !.
	   For example:

	     .w junk
	     xv5!cat junk
	     !rm junk
	     !echo "%5"
	     xv6!expr %6 + 1

	   would  put  the current line into variable 35, print it, and incre‐
	   ment the variable 36 by one. To escape the special meaning of !  as
	   the first character of value, precede it with a \.


	   stores the value !date into variable 7.

       xbz label
       xbn label

	   These  two  commands	 will test the last saved return code from the
	   execution of a UNIX system command  (!command)  or  nonzero	value,
	   respectively,  to  the specified label. The two examples below both
	   search for the next five lines containing the string size:

	   Example 1:

			   : l
			   xv5!expr %5 − 1
			   !if 0%5 != 0 exit 2
			   xbn l

	   Example 2:

			   : l
			   xv4!expr %4 − 1
			   !if 0%4 = 0 exit 2
			   xbz l

       xc [switch]

	   If switch is 1, output from the p and null commands is crunched; if
	   switch  is  0,  it is not. Without an argument, xc reverses switch.
	   Initially, switch is set for no  crunching.	 Crunched  output  has
	   strings  of	tabs  and  blanks reduced to one blank and blank lines

       The following operand is supported:

		   Any file up to 1024K bytes and 32K lines, with  up  to  512
		   characters,	including  new-line,  per line (255 for 16-bit
		   machines). filename can be a section of a larger file which
		   has	been divided into more manageable sections for editing
		   by the use of csplit(1).

       The following exit values are returned:

	     Successful completion without any file or command errors.

	     An error occurred.

       csplit(1), ed(1), umask(1), attributes(5)

       Message is ? for errors in commands, if prompting is turned off.	 Self-
       explanatory error messages are displayed when prompting is on.

				 May 20, 1996				BFS(1)

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