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VERIFY(1)			    OpenSSL			     VERIFY(1)

NAME
       verify - Utility to verify certificates.

SYNOPSIS
       openssl verify [-CApath directory] [-CAfile file] [-purpose purpose]
       [-untrusted file] [-help] [-issuer_checks] [-verbose] [-] [certifi‐
       cates]

DESCRIPTION
       The verify command verifies certificate chains.

COMMAND OPTIONS
       -CApath directory
	   A directory of trusted certificates. The certificates should have
	   names of the form: hash.0 or have symbolic links to them of this
	   form ("hash" is the hashed certificate subject name: see the -hash
	   option of the x509 utility). Under Unix the c_rehash script will
	   automatically create symbolic links to a directory of certificates.

       -CAfile file
	   A file of trusted certificates. The file should contain multiple
	   certificates in PEM format concatenated together.

       -untrusted file
	   A file of untrusted certificates. The file should contain multiple
	   certificates

       -purpose purpose
	   the intended use for the certificate. Without this option no chain
	   verification will be done. Currently accepted uses are sslclient,
	   sslserver, nssslserver, smimesign, smimeencrypt. See the VERIFY
	   OPERATION section for more information.

       -help
	   prints out a usage message.

       -verbose
	   print extra information about the operations being performed.

       -issuer_checks
	   print out diagnostics relating to searches for the issuer certifi‐
	   cate of the current certificate. This shows why each candidate
	   issuer certificate was rejected. However the presence of rejection
	   messages does not itself imply that anything is wrong: during the
	   normal verify process several rejections may take place.

       -   marks the last option. All arguments following this are assumed to
	   be certificate files. This is useful if the first certificate file‐
	   name begins with a -.

       certificates
	   one or more certificates to verify. If no certificate filenames are
	   included then an attempt is made to read a certificate from stan‐
	   dard input. They should all be in PEM format.

VERIFY OPERATION
       The verify program uses the same functions as the internal SSL and
       S/MIME verification, therefore this description applies to these verify
       operations too.

       There is one crucial difference between the verify operations performed
       by the verify program: wherever possible an attempt is made to continue
       after an error whereas normally the verify operation would halt on the
       first error. This allows all the problems with a certificate chain to
       be determined.

       The verify operation consists of a number of separate steps.

       Firstly a certificate chain is built up starting from the supplied cer‐
       tificate and ending in the root CA. It is an error if the whole chain
       cannot be built up. The chain is built up by looking up the issuers
       certificate of the current certificate. If a certificate is found which
       is its own issuer it is assumed to be the root CA.

       The process of 'looking up the issuers certificate' itself involves a
       number of steps. In versions of OpenSSL before 0.9.5a the first cer‐
       tificate whose subject name matched the issuer of the current certifi‐
       cate was assumed to be the issuers certificate. In OpenSSL 0.9.6 and
       later all certificates whose subject name matches the issuer name of
       the current certificate are subject to further tests. The relevant
       authority key identifier components of the current certificate (if
       present) must match the subject key identifier (if present) and issuer
       and serial number of the candidate issuer, in addition the keyUsage
       extension of the candidate issuer (if present) must permit certificate
       signing.

       The lookup first looks in the list of untrusted certificates and if no
       match is found the remaining lookups are from the trusted certificates.
       The root CA is always looked up in the trusted certificate list: if the
       certificate to verify is a root certificate then an exact match must be
       found in the trusted list.

       The second operation is to check every untrusted certificate's exten‐
       sions for consistency with the supplied purpose. If the -purpose option
       is not included then no checks are done. The supplied or "leaf" cer‐
       tificate must have extensions compatible with the supplied purpose and
       all other certificates must also be valid CA certificates. The precise
       extensions required are described in more detail in the CERTIFICATE
       EXTENSIONS section of the x509 utility.

       The third operation is to check the trust settings on the root CA. The
       root CA should be trusted for the supplied purpose. For compatibility
       with previous versions of SSLeay and OpenSSL a certificate with no
       trust settings is considered to be valid for all purposes.

       The final operation is to check the validity of the certificate chain.
       The validity period is checked against the current system time and the
       notBefore and notAfter dates in the certificate. The certificate signa‐
       tures are also checked at this point.

       If all operations complete successfully then certificate is considered
       valid. If any operation fails then the certificate is not valid.

DIAGNOSTICS
       When a verify operation fails the output messages can be somewhat cryp‐
       tic. The general form of the error message is:

	server.pem: /C=AU/ST=Queensland/O=CryptSoft Pty Ltd/CN=Test CA (1024 bit)
	error 24 at 1 depth lookup:invalid CA certificate

       The first line contains the name of the certificate being verified fol‐
       lowed by the subject name of the certificate. The second line contains
       the error number and the depth. The depth is number of the certificate
       being verified when a problem was detected starting with zero for the
       certificate being verified itself then 1 for the CA that signed the
       certificate and so on. Finally a text version of the error number is
       presented.

       An exhaustive list of the error codes and messages is shown below, this
       also includes the name of the error code as defined in the header file
       x509_vfy.h Some of the error codes are defined but never returned:
       these are described as "unused".

       0 X509_V_OK: ok
	   the operation was successful.

       2 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT: unable to get issuer certifi‐
       cate
	   the issuer certificate could not be found: this occurs if the
	   issuer certificate of an untrusted certificate cannot be found.

       3 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_CRL unable to get certificate CRL
	   the CRL of a certificate could not be found. Unused.

       4 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CERT_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt cer‐
       tificate's signature
	   the certificate signature could not be decrypted. This means that
	   the actual signature value could not be determined rather than it
	   not matching the expected value, this is only meaningful for RSA
	   keys.

       5 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CRL_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt CRL's
       signature
	   the CRL signature could not be decrypted: this means that the
	   actual signature value could not be determined rather than it not
	   matching the expected value. Unused.

       6 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECODE_ISSUER_PUBLIC_KEY: unable to decode
       issuer public key
	   the public key in the certificate SubjectPublicKeyInfo could not be
	   read.

       7 X509_V_ERR_CERT_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: certificate signature failure
	   the signature of the certificate is invalid.

       8 X509_V_ERR_CRL_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: CRL signature failure
	   the signature of the certificate is invalid. Unused.

       9 X509_V_ERR_CERT_NOT_YET_VALID: certificate is not yet valid
	   the certificate is not yet valid: the notBefore date is after the
	   current time.

       10 X509_V_ERR_CERT_HAS_EXPIRED: certificate has expired
	   the certificate has expired: that is the notAfter date is before
	   the current time.

       11 X509_V_ERR_CRL_NOT_YET_VALID: CRL is not yet valid
	   the CRL is not yet valid. Unused.

       12 X509_V_ERR_CRL_HAS_EXPIRED: CRL has expired
	   the CRL has expired. Unused.

       13 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_BEFORE_FIELD: format error in certifi‐
       cate's notBefore field
	   the certificate notBefore field contains an invalid time.

       14 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_AFTER_FIELD: format error in certifi‐
       cate's notAfter field
	   the certificate notAfter field contains an invalid time.

       15 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_LAST_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in CRL's
       lastUpdate field
	   the CRL lastUpdate field contains an invalid time. Unused.

       16 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_NEXT_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in CRL's
       nextUpdate field
	   the CRL nextUpdate field contains an invalid time. Unused.

       17 X509_V_ERR_OUT_OF_MEM: out of memory
	   an error occurred trying to allocate memory. This should never hap‐
	   pen.

       18 X509_V_ERR_DEPTH_ZERO_SELF_SIGNED_CERT: self signed certificate
	   the passed certificate is self signed and the same certificate can‐
	   not be found in the list of trusted certificates.

       19 X509_V_ERR_SELF_SIGNED_CERT_IN_CHAIN: self signed certificate in
       certificate chain
	   the certificate chain could be built up using the untrusted cer‐
	   tificates but the root could not be found locally.

       20 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY: unable to get local
       issuer certificate
	   the issuer certificate of a locally looked up certificate could not
	   be found. This normally means the list of trusted certificates is
	   not complete.

       21 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_VERIFY_LEAF_SIGNATURE: unable to verify the
       first certificate
	   no signatures could be verified because the chain contains only one
	   certificate and it is not self signed.

       22 X509_V_ERR_CERT_CHAIN_TOO_LONG: certificate chain too long
	   the certificate chain length is greater than the supplied maximum
	   depth. Unused.

       23 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REVOKED: certificate revoked
	   the certificate has been revoked. Unused.

       24 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_CA: invalid CA certificate
	   a CA certificate is invalid. Either it is not a CA or its exten‐
	   sions are not consistent with the supplied purpose.

       25 X509_V_ERR_PATH_LENGTH_EXCEEDED: path length constraint exceeded
	   the basicConstraints pathlength parameter has been exceeded.

       26 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_PURPOSE: unsupported certificate purpose
	   the supplied certificate cannot be used for the specified purpose.

       27 X509_V_ERR_CERT_UNTRUSTED: certificate not trusted
	   the root CA is not marked as trusted for the specified purpose.

       28 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REJECTED: certificate rejected
	   the root CA is marked to reject the specified purpose.

       29 X509_V_ERR_SUBJECT_ISSUER_MISMATCH: subject issuer mismatch
	   the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its
	   subject name did not match the issuer name of the current certifi‐
	   cate. Only displayed when the -issuer_checks option is set.

       30 X509_V_ERR_AKID_SKID_MISMATCH: authority and subject key identifier
       mismatch
	   the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its
	   subject key identifier was present and did not match the authority
	   key identifier current certificate. Only displayed when the
	   -issuer_checks option is set.

       31 X509_V_ERR_AKID_ISSUER_SERIAL_MISMATCH: authority and issuer serial
       number mismatch
	   the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its
	   issuer name and serial number was present and did not match the
	   authority key identifier of the current certificate. Only displayed
	   when the -issuer_checks option is set.

       32 X509_V_ERR_KEYUSAGE_NO_CERTSIGN:key usage does not include certifi‐
       cate signing
	   the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its
	   keyUsage extension does not permit certificate signing.

       50 X509_V_ERR_APPLICATION_VERIFICATION: application verification fail‐
       ure
	   an application specific error. Unused.

BUGS
       Although the issuer checks are a considerably improvement over the old
       technique they still suffer from limitations in the underlying
       X509_LOOKUP API. One consequence of this is that trusted certificates
       with matching subject name must either appear in a file (as specified
       by the -CAfile option) or a directory (as specified by -CApath. If they
       occur in both then only the certificates in the file will be recog‐
       nised.

       Previous versions of OpenSSL assume certificates with matching subject
       name are identical and mishandled them.

SEE ALSO
       x509(1)

0.9.7d				  2002-12-01			     VERIFY(1)
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