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cpp(1)				   GNU Tools				cpp(1)

       cccp, cpp - The GNU C-Compatible Compiler Preprocessor.

       cccp   [-$] [-Apredicate[(value)]] [-C] [-Dname[=definition]] [-dD]
	      [-dM] [-I directory] [-H] [-I-] [-imacros file] [-include file]
	      [-idirafter dir] [-iprefix prefix] [-iwithprefix dir] [-lang-c]
	      [-lang-c++] [-lang-objc] [-lang-objc++] [-lint] [-M [-MG]]
	      [-MM [-MG]] [-MD file ] [-MMD file ] [-nostdinc] [-nostdinc++]
	      [-P] [-pedantic] [-pedantic-errors] [-traditional] [-trigraphs]
	      [-Uname] [-undef] [-Wtrigraphs] [-Wcomment] [-Wall]
	      [infile|-] [outfile|-]

       The C preprocessor is a macro processor that is used  automatically  by
       the C compiler to transform your program before actual compilation.  It
       is called a macro processor because it allows  you  to  define  macros,
       which are brief abbreviations for longer constructs.

       The  C  preprocessor provides four separate facilities that you can use
       as you see fit:

       ·      Inclusion of header files.  These are files of declarations that
	      can be substituted into your program.

       ·      Macro expansion.	You can define macros, which are abbreviations
	      for arbitrary fragments of C code, and then the  C  preprocessor
	      will  replace  the  macros with their definitions throughout the

       ·      Conditional compilation.	 Using	special	 preprocessing	direc‐
	      tives, you can include or exclude parts of the program according
	      to various conditions.

       ·      Line control.  If you use a  program  to	combine	 or  rearrange
	      source  files  into an intermediate file which is then compiled,
	      you can use line control to inform the compiler  of  where  each
	      source line originally came from.

       C  preprocessors	 vary  in some details.	 For a full explanation of the
       GNU C preprocessor, see the info file `', or the manual	The  C
       Preprocessor.   Both  of	 these	are  built from the same documentation
       source file, `cpp.texinfo'.  The GNU C preprocessor provides a superset
       of the features of ANSI Standard C.

       ANSI Standard C requires the rejection of many harmless constructs com‐
       monly used by today's C programs.  Such incompatibility would be incon‐
       venient	for  users,  so the GNU C preprocessor is configured to accept
       these constructs by default.  Strictly speaking, to get	ANSI  Standard
       C, you must use the options `-trigraphs', `-undef' and `-pedantic', but
       in practice the consequences of having strict ANSI Standard C  make  it
       undesirable to do this.

       Most  often when you use the C preprocessor you will not have to invoke
       it explicitly: the C compiler will do so automatically.	 However,  the
       preprocessor is sometimes useful individually.

       When  you call the preprocessor individually, either name (cpp or cccp)
       will do—they are completely synonymous.

       The C preprocessor expects two file names as arguments, infile and out‐
       file.   The  preprocessor reads infile together with any other files it
       specifies with `#include'.  All the output generated  by	 the  combined
       input files is written in outfile.

       Either infile or outfile may be `-', which as infile means to read from
       standard input and as outfile means to write to standard output.	 Also,
       if  outfile  or	both  file  names are omitted, the standard output and
       standard input are used for the omitted file names.

       Here is a table of command options  accepted  by	 the  C	 preprocessor.
       These  options  can  also be given when compiling a C program; they are
       passed along automatically to the preprocessor when it  is  invoked  by
       the compiler.

       -P     Inhibit  generation of `#'-lines with line-number information in
	      the output from the preprocessor.	 This  might  be  useful  when
	      running  the  preprocessor  on  something that is not C code and
	      will be sent to  a  program  which  might	 be  confused  by  the

       -C     Do  not  discard comments: pass them through to the output file.
	      Comments appearing in arguments of a macro call will  be	copied
	      to the output before the expansion of the macro call.

	      Try  to  imitate	the behavior of old-fashioned C, as opposed to
	      ANSI C.

	      Process ANSI standard trigraph sequences.	 These are three-char‐
	      acter sequences, all starting with `??', that are defined by AN‐
	      SI C to stand for single characters.  For example, `??/'	stands
	      for  `\',	 so  `'??/n''  is  a character constant for a newline.
	      Strictly speaking, the GNU C preprocessor does not  support  all
	      programs	in ANSI Standard C unless `-trigraphs' is used, but if
	      you ever notice the difference it will be with relief.

	      You don't want to know any more about trigraphs.

	      Issue warnings required by the ANSI C standard in certain	 cases
	      such  as when text other than a comment follows `#else' or `#en‐

	      Like `-pedantic', except that errors are	produced  rather  than

	      Warn  if	any  trigraphs	are encountered (assuming they are en‐


	      Warn whenever a comment-start sequence `/*' appears  in  a  com‐
	      ment.  (Both forms have the same effect).

       -Wall  Requests	both  `-Wtrigraphs' and `-Wcomment' (but not `-Wtradi‐

	      Warn about certain constructs that behave differently in	tradi‐
	      tional and ANSI C.

       -I directory
		Add the directory directory to the end of the list of directo‐
	      ries to be searched for header files.  This can be used to over‐
	      ride  a system header file, substituting your own version, since
	      these directories are searched before the system header file di‐
	      rectories.   If  you use more than one `-I' option, the directo‐
	      ries are scanned in left-to-right order; the standard system di‐
	      rectories come after.

       -I-    Any directories specified with `-I' options before the `-I-' op‐
	      tion are searched only for the case of  `#include	 file"';  they
	      are not searched for `#include <file>'.

	      If  additional directories are specified with `-I' options after
	      the `-I-', these directories are searched for all `#include' di‐

	      In  addition,  the  `-I-' option inhibits the use of the current
	      directory as the first search directory  for  `#include  file"'.
	      Therefore,  the  current directory is searched only if it is re‐
	      quested explicitly with `-I.'.  Specifying both `-I-' and	 `-I.'
	      allows  you  to control precisely which directories are searched
	      before the current one and which are searched after.

	      Do not search the standard system directories for header	files.
	      Only  the	 directories you have specified with `-I' options (and
	      the current directory, if appropriate) are searched.

	      Do not search for header files in the C++ specific standard  di‐
	      rectories,  but  do still search the other standard directories.
	      (This option is used when building libg++.)

       -D name
	       Predefine name as a macro, with definition `1'.

       -D name=definition
	       Predefine name as a macro, with definition  definition.	 There
	      are  no  restrictions  on the contents of definition, but if you
	      are invoking the preprocessor from a shell or shell-like program
	      you  may need to use the shell's quoting syntax to protect char‐
	      acters such as spaces that have a meaning in the	shell  syntax.
	      If  you  use more than one `-D' for the same name, the rightmost
	      definition takes effect.

       -U name
	       Do not predefine name.  If both `-U' and `-D' are specified for
	      one  name,  the  `-U'  beats the `-D' and the name is not prede‐

       -undef Do not predefine any nonstandard macros.

       -A name(value)
	      Assert (in the same way as the #assert directive) the  predicate
	      name  with  tokenlist  value.   Remember	to escape or quote the
	      parentheses on shell command lines.

	      You can use `-A-' to disable all predefined assertions; it  also
	      undefines all predefined macros.

       -dM    Instead of outputting the result of preprocessing, output a list
	      of `#define' directives for all the macros  defined  during  the
	      execution	 of  the  preprocessor,	 including  predefined macros.
	      This gives you a way of finding out what is predefined  in  your
	      version  of the preprocessor; assuming you have no file `foo.h',
	      the command

	      touch foo.h; cpp -dM foo.h

	      will show the values of any predefined macros.

       -dD    Like `-dM' except in two respects: it does not include the  pre‐
	      defined macros, and it outputs both the `#define' directives and
	      the result of preprocessing.  Both kinds of  output  go  to  the
	      standard output file.

       -M [-MG]
	      Instead of outputting the result of preprocessing, output a rule
	      suitable for make describing the dependencies of the main source
	      file.  The preprocessor outputs one make rule containing the ob‐
	      ject file name for that source file, a colon, and the  names  of
	      all  the	included files.	 If there are many included files then
	      the rule is split into several lines using `\'-newline.

	      `-MG' says to treat missing header files as generated files  and
	      assume  they  live in the same directory as the source file.  It
	      must be specified in addition to `-M'.

	      This feature is used in automatic updating of makefiles.

       -MM [-MG]
	      Like `-M' but mention only the  files  included  with  `#include
	      "file"'.	 System	 header	 files included with `#include <file>'
	      are omitted.

       -MD file
	      Like `-M' but the dependency information is written  to  `file'.
	      This  is	in  addition  to compiling the file as specified—`-MD'
	      does not inhibit ordinary compilation the way `-M' does.

	      When invoking gcc, do not specify the `file' argument.  Gcc will
	      create file names made by replacing `.c' with `.d' at the end of
	      the input file names.

	      In Mach, you can use the utility md to merge multiple files into
	      a single dependency file suitable for using with the `make' com‐

       -MMD file
	      Like `-MD' except mention only user  header  files,  not	system
	      header files.

       -H     Print  the  name	of each header file used, in addition to other
	      normal activities.

       -imacros file
	       Process file as input, discarding the resulting output,	before
	      processing the regular input file.  Because the output generated
	      from file is discarded, the only effect of `-imacros file' is to
	      make  the	 macros	 defined in file available for use in the main
	      input.  The preprocessor evaluates any `-D' and `-U' options  on
	      the command line before processing `-imacros file' .

       -include file
	      Process file as input, and include all the resulting output, be‐
	      fore processing the regular input file.

       -idirafter dir
	       Add the directory dir to the second include path.  The directo‐
	      ries  on the second include path are searched when a header file
	      is not found in any of the directories in the main include  path
	      (the one that `-I' adds to).

       -iprefix prefix
		Specify prefix as the prefix for subsequent `-iwithprefix' op‐

       -iwithprefix dir
	       Add a directory to the second include  path.   The  directory's
	      name  is	made by concatenating prefix and dir, where prefix was
	      specified previously with `-iprefix'.




	      Specify the source language.  `-lang-c++' makes the preprocessor
	      handle  C++  comment  syntax, and includes extra default include
	      directories for C++, and `-lang-objc' enables  the  Objective  C
	      `#import'	 directive.   `-lang-c'	 explicitly  turns off both of
	      these extensions, and `-lang-objc++' enables both.

	      These options are generated by the compiler driver gcc, but  not
	      passed from the `gcc' command line.

       -lint  Look  for	 commands to the program checker lint embedded in com‐
	      ments, and emit them preceded by `#pragma lint'.	 For  example,
	      the   comment   `/*   NOTREACHED	 */'   becomes	`#pragma  lint

	      This option is available only when you call  cpp	directly;  gcc
	      will not pass it from its command line.

       -$     Forbid  the  use	of  `$' in identifiers.	 This was formerly re‐
	      quired for strict conformance to the C Standard before the stan‐
	      dard  was	 corrected.	This option is available only when you
	      call cpp directly; gcc will not pass it from its command line.

       `Cpp' entry in info; The C Preprocessor, Richard M. Stallman.
       gcc(1); `Gcc' entry in info; Using and  Porting	GNU  CC	 (for  version
       2.0), Richard M. Stallman.

       Copyright (c) 1991, 1992, 1993 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission  is  granted	to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
       manual provided the copyright notice and	 this  permission  notice  are
       preserved on all copies.

       Permission  is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
       manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the en‐
       tire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permis‐
       sion notice identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manu‐
       al  into another language, under the above conditions for modified ver‐
       sions, except that this permission notice may be included  in  transla‐
       tions approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of in the origi‐
       nal English.

GNU Tools			   30apr1993				cpp(1)
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