cdrecord man page on AIX

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       cdrecord - record audio or data Compact Discs from a master

       cdrecord	  [   general	options	  ]   dev=device  [  track  options  ]

       Cdrecord is used to record data or audio Compact	 Discs	on  an	Orange
       Book CD-Recorder.

       The  device refers to scsibus/target/lun of the CD-Recorder. Communica‐
       tion on SunOS is done with the SCSI general driver scg.	Other  operat‐
       ing  systems  are  using a library simulation of this driver.  Possible
       syntax is: dev= scsibus,target,lun or dev= target,lun.  In  the	latter
       case,  the  CD-Recorder	has to be connected to the default SCSI bus of
       the machine.  Scsibus, target and lun are integer numbers.  Some	 oper‐
       ating  systems or SCSI transport implementations may require to specify
       a filename in addition.	In this case the corect syntax for the	device
       is:  dev=  devicename:scsibus,target,lun or dev= devicename:target,lun.
       If the name of the device node that has been specified on such a system
       referres to exactly one SCSI device, a shorthand in the form dev= devi‐
       cename:@ or dev= devicename:@,lun may be used instead of	 dev=  device‐

       To  make cdrecord portable to all UNIX platforms, the syntax dev= devi‐
       cename:scsibus,target,lun is preferred as is hides OS  specific	knowl‐
       edge  about  device names from the user.	 A specific OS must not neces‐
       sarily support a way to specify a real device file name nor  a  way  to
       specify scsibus,target,lun.

       Scsibus	0  is the default SCSI bus on the machine. Watch the boot mes‐
       sages for more information or  look  into  /var/adm/messages  for  more
       information  about the SCSI configuration of your machine.  If you have
       problems to figure out what values  for	scsibus,target,lun  should  be
       used, try the -scanbus option of cdrecord described below.

       If  a  file  /etc/default/cdrecord  exists,  the	 parameter to the dev=
       option may also be a drive name label in said file (see FILES section).

       On SVr4 compliant systems, cdrecord uses the the real time class to get
       the  highest scheduling priotity that is possible (higher than all ker‐
       nel processes).	On systems with POSIX real  time  scheduling  cdrecord
       uses  real  time scheduling too, but may not be able to gain a priority
       that is higher than all kernel processes.

       In Track At Once mode, each track corresponds to	 a  single  file  that
       contains	 the  prepared	data  for that track.  If the argument is `-',
       standard input is used for that track.  Only one	 track	may  be	 taken
       from stdin.

       General options must be before any track file name or track option.

	      Print version information and exit.

       -v     Increment	 the  level of general verbosity by one.  This is used
	      e.g. to display the progress of the writing process.

       -V     Increment the verbose level in respect of SCSI command transport
	      by  one.	 This  helps  to  debug	 problems  during  the writing
	      process, that occur in the CD-Recorder.  If you get incomprehen‐
	      sible  error  messages  you  should  use	this  flag to get more
	      detailed output.	-VV will show data buffer content in addition.
	      Using -V or -VV slows down the process and may be the reason for
	      a buffer underrun.  Using

       -debug Print additional debug messages. This may help to find out prob‐
	      lems  with  sector  sizes	 and sector types.  Using -debug slows
	      down the process and may be the reason for a buffer underrun.

       -force Force to continue on some errors.	 This option currently	imple‐
	      ments some tricks that will allow you to blank bad CD-RW disks.

       -dummy The  CD-Recorder	will  go  through  all	steps of the recording
	      process, but the laser is turned off during this procedure.   It
	      is recommended to run several tests before actually writing to a
	      Compact Disk, if the timing and load response of the  system  is
	      not known.

       -dao   Set  Disk	 At  Once  mode.   This	 currently only works with MMC
	      drives that support non raw Session At Once mode.

       -multi Allow multi session CD's to be  made.  This  flag	 needs	to  be
	      present on all sessions of a multi session disk, except you want
	      to create a session that will be the last session on the	media.
	      The  fixation  will be done in a way that allows the CD-Recorder
	      to append additional sessions later. This is done by  generation
	      a	 TOC  with  a  link to the next program area. The so generated
	      media is not 100% compatible to manufactured  CD's  (except  for
	      CDplus).	Use only for recording of multi session CD's.  If this
	      option is present, the default track type is CD-ROM XA  mode  2.
	      The  Sony	 drives have no hardware support for CD-ROM XA mode 2.
	      You have to specify the -data option in order  to	 create	 multi
	      session  disks  on  these	 drives.  As long as cdrecord does not
	      have a coder for converting data sectors to audio	 sectors,  you
	      need  to	force  CD-ROM sectors by including the -data option if
	      you like to record a multisession disk in DAO/SAO mode.  Not all
	      drives allow multisession CD's in DAO/SAO mode.

	      Retrieve	multi session info in a form suitable for mkisofs-1.10
	      or later.

	      This option makes only sense with a CD that  contains  at	 least
	      one  closed  session and is appendable (not finally closed yet).
	      Some drives create error messages if you try to  get  the	 multi
	      session info for a disk that is not suitable for this operation.

       -toc   Retrieve	and  print  out	 the  table of content or PMA of a CD.
	      With this option, cdrecord will work with CD-R drives  and  with
	      CD-ROM drives.

       -atip  Retrieve	and  print  out	 the ATIP (absolute Time in Pregroove)
	      info of a CD recordable  or  CD  rewritable  media.   With  this
	      option,  cdrecord	 will  try  to	retrieve the ATIP info. If the
	      actual drive does not support to read the ATIP info, it  may  be
	      that  only  a reduced set of information records or even nothing
	      is displayed. Only a limited number of MMC compliant drives sup‐
	      port to read the ATIP info.

	      If  cdrecord  is able to retrieve the lead-in start time for the
	      first session, it will try to decode and print the  manufacturer
	      info from the media.

       -fix   The  disk	 will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC for a CD-Reader will
	      be written).  This may be used, if for some reason the disk  has
	      been  written  but  not  fixated. This option currently does not
	      work with old TEAC drives (CD-R50S and CD-R55S).

       -nofix Do not fixate the disk after writing the	tracks.	 This  may  be
	      used  to	create	an audio disk in steps. An un-fixated disk can
	      usually not be used on a non CD-writer type drive but there  are
	      audio CD players that will be able to play such a disk.

       -waiti Wait for input to become available on standard input before try‐
	      ing to open the SCSI driver. This allows cdrecord to  read  it's
	      input  from  a  pipe  even when writing additional sessions to a
	      multi session disk.  When writing another	 session  to  a	 multi
	      session  disk,  mkisofs  needs  to read the old session from the
	      device before writing output.  This cannot be done  if  cdrecord
	      opens the SCSI driver at the same time.

       -load  Load  the	 media	and  exit. This only works with a tray loading
	      mechanism but seems to be	 useful	 when  using  the  Kodak  disk

       -eject Eject  disk  after  doing the work.  Some Devices (e.g. Philips)
	      need to eject the medium before creating a  new  disk.  Doing  a
	      -dummy  test and immediately creating a real disk would not work
	      on these devices.

	      Set the speed factor of the writing process to #.	 # is an inte‐
	      ger,  representing a multiple of the audio speed.	 This is about
	      150 KB/s for CD-ROM and about 172	 KB/s  for  CD-Audio.	If  no
	      speed  option  is	 present,  cdrecord  will try to get the speed
	      value from the CDR_SPEED environment.  If your drive  has	 prob‐
	      lems with speed=2 or speed=4, you should try speed=0.

	      Blank  a	CD-RW  and  exit  or blank a CD-RW before writing. The
	      blanking type may be one of:

	      help	  Display a list of possible blanking types.

	      all	  Blank the entire disk. This may take a long time.

	      fast	  Minimally blank the disk. This  results  in  erasing
			  the PMA, the TOC and the pregap.

	      track	  Blank a track.

	      unreserve	  Unreserve a reserved track.

	      trtail	  Blank the tail of a track.

	      unclose	  Unclose last session.

	      session	  Blank the last session.
       If used together with the -force flag, this option may be used to blank
       CD-RW disks that otherwise cannot be blanked. Note that you may need to
       specify	blank=all  because  some drives will not continue with certain
       types of bad CD-RW disks. Note also that cdecord does it's best if  the
       -force  flag  is	 used  but  it finally depends on the drive's firmware
       whether the blanking operation will succeed or not.

       fs=#   Set the fifo (ring buffer) size to #.   You  may	use  the  same
	      method  as in dd(1), sdd(1) or star(1).  The number representing
	      the size is taken in bytes unless	 otherwise  specified.	 If  a
	      number  is followed directly by the letter `b', `k', `m', `s' of
	      `f', the size is multiplied by 512,  1024,  1024*1024,  2048  or
	      2352.   If the size consists of numbers separated by `x' or `*',
	      multiplication of the two numbers is performed.  Thus  fs=10x63k
	      will specify a fifo size of 630 kBytes.

	      The  size specified by the fs= argument includes the shared mem‐
	      ory that is needed for administration. This is at least one page
	      of  memory.   If	no fs= option is present, cdrecord will try to
	      get the fifo size value from the CDR_FIFOSIZE environment.   The
	      default fifo size is currently 4 MB.

	      The fifo is used to increase buffering for the real time writing
	      process.	It allows to run a pipe	 from  mkisofs	directly  into
	      cdrecord.	  If  the  fifo is active and a pipe from mkisofs into
	      cdrecord is used to create a CD, cdrecord will abort prior to do
	      any  modifications  on the disk if mkisofs dies before it starts
	      writing.	The recommended fifo size is between 4 and 32  MBytes.
	      As  a  rule  of thumb, the fifo size should be at least equal to
	      the size of the internal buffer of the CD-Recorder and  no  more
	      than  half  of  the  physical  amount  of	 RAM  available in the
	      machine.	If the fifo size is big enough,	 the  fifo  statistics
	      will  print  a fifo empty count of zero and the fifo min fill is
	      not below 20%.  It is not wise to use too	 much  space  for  the
	      fifo.  If	 you  need  more  than	8  MB to write a CD on an idle
	      machine, your machine is either underpowered, has hardware prob‐
	      lems  or	is  mis-configured.   The  sun4c  architecture (e.g. a
	      Sparcstation-2) has only MMU page table entries  for  16	MBytes
	      per  process.  Using  more than 14 MBytes for the fifo may cause
	      the operating system in this case to spend  much	time  to  con‐
	      stantly  reload  the  MMU tables. Newer machines from Sun do not
	      have this MMU hardware problem. I have  no  information  on  PC-
	      hardware reflecting this problem.

	      If  you  have buffer underruns or similar problems and observe a
	      zero fifo empty count, you have hardware problems. The fifo size
	      in this case is sufficient.

	      Sets  the	 SCSI  target for the CD-Recorder, see notes above.  A
	      typical device specification is dev=6,0 .	 If a filename must be
	      provided	together  with the numerical target specification, the
	      filename is implementation specific.  The	 correct  filename  in
	      this  case  can  be  found in the system specific manuals of the
	      target operating system.	On a FreeBSD system without  CAM  sup‐
	      port,  you need to use the control device (e.g.  /dev/rcd0.ctl).
	      A	 correct  device   specification   in	this   case   may   be
	      dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@ .

	      On Linux, drives connected to a parallel port adapter are mapped
	      to a virtual SCSI bus. Different adapters are mapped to  differ‐
	      ent targets on this virtual SCSI bus.

	      If no dev option is present, cdrecord will try to get the device
	      from the CDR_DEVICE environment.

	      If the argument to the dev= option does not contain the  charac‐
	      ters  ',',  '/',	'@' or ':', it is interpreted as an label name
	      that may be found in the file /etc/default/cdrecord  (see	 FILES

	      Set  the	default	 SCSI command timeout value to #.  The default
	      SCSI command timeout is the minimum  timeout  used  for  sending
	      SCSI  commands.	If  a SCSI command fails due to a timeout, you
	      may try to raise the default  SCSI  command  timeout  above  the
	      timeout  value  of the failed command.  If the command runs cor‐
	      rectly with a raised command timeout, please report  the	better
	      timeout value and the corresponding command to the author of the
	      program.	If no timeout option is present, a default timeout  of
	      40 seconds is used.

	      Allows  to  use  a user supplied driver name for the device.  To
	      get a list of possible drivers use driver=help.  The reason  for
	      the  existence  of this option is to allow users to use cdrecord
	      with drives that are similar to supported drives but  not	 known
	      directly	by  cdrecord.  Use this option with extreme care. If a
	      wrong driver is used for a device, the possibility  of  creating
	      corrupted disks is high.	The minimum problem related to a wrong
	      driver is that the -speed or -dummy will not work.

	      There are two special driver entries in the list: cdr_simul  and
	      dvd_simul.   These  driver  entries  are designed to make timing
	      tests at any speed or timing tests for drives that do  not  sup‐
	      port  the	 -dummy	 option.   The	simulation drivers implement a
	      drive with a buffer size of 1MB that  can	 be  changed  via  the
	      CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE	 environment  variable.	 The simultaion driver
	      correctly simulates even a buffer underrun  condition.   If  the
	      -dummy  option is present, the simultaion is not aborted in case
	      of a buffer underrun.

       driveropts=option list
	      Set driver specific options. The options are specified  a	 comma
	      separated	  list.	   To	get   a	 list  of  valid  options  use
	      driveropts=help together with the -checkdrive option.  Currently
	      only  the	 burnproof  option  is	implemented  to support Buffer
	      Underrun Proof writing with drives that use the Sanyo BURN-Proof

	      Checks  if  a  driver for the current drive is present and exit.
	      If the drive is a known drive, cdrecord uses exit code 0.

       -prcap Print the drive capabilities for SCSI-3/mmc compliant drives  as
	      obtained	from  mode  page  0x2A. Values marked with kB use 1000
	      bytes as kilo-byte, values marked with  KB  use  1024  bytes  as

       -inq   Do an inquiry for the drive, print the inquiry info and exit.

	      Scan  all	 SCSI devices on all SCSI busses and print the inquiry
	      strings. This option may be used to find SCSI address of the CD-
	      Recorder	on  a  system.	 The numbers printed out as labels are
	      computed by: bus * 100 + target

       -reset Try to reset the SCSI bus where the CD recorder is located. This
	      works not on all operating systems.

	      Ignore the known size of the medium. This options should be used
	      with extreme care, it exists only for debugging  purposes	 don't
	      use  it for other reasons.  It is not needed to write disks with
	      more than the nominal capacity.

	      Use *.inf files to overwrite audio options.  If this  option  is
	      used,  the  pregap  size information is read from the *.inf file
	      that is associated with the file that contains  the  audio  data
	      for a track.

	      Set  the default pre-gap size for all tracks except track number
	      1.  This option currently only makes sense with the  TEAC	 drive
	      when  creating  track-at-once disks without the 2 second silence
	      before each track.
	      This option may go away in future.

	      Set Packet writing mode.	This is an experimental interface.

	      Set the paket size to #, forces fixed packet mode.  This	is  an
	      experimental interface.

	      Do not close the current track, useful only when in packet writ‐
	      ing mode.	 This is an experimental interface.

	      Set the Media Catalog Number of the CD to med_cat_nr.

       Track options may be mixed with track file names.

	      Set the International Standard Recording	Number	for  the  next
	      track to ISRC_number.

	      Sets an index list for the next track.  In index list is a comma
	      separated list of numbers that are counting from	index  1.  The
	      first entry in this list must contain a 0, the following numbers
	      must be an ascending list of numbers (counting in 1/75  seconds)
	      that  represent  the  start of the indices. An index list in the
	      form: 0,7500,15000 sets index 1 to the start of the track, index
	      2	 100  seconds from the start of the track and index 3 200 sec‐
	      onds from the start of the track.

       -audio If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-DA  (similar  to  Red Book) audio format.  The file with data
	      for this tracks should contain stereo, 16-bit digital audio with
	      44100  samples/s.	  The  byte order should be the following: MSB
	      left, LSB left, MSB right, LSB right, MSB left and  so  on.  The
	      track  should be a multiple of 2352 bytes. It is not possible to
	      put the master image of an audio track on	 a  raw	 disk  because
	      data will be read in multiple of 2352 bytes during the recording

	      If a filename ends in .au or .wav the file is considered to be a
	      structured  audio	 data file.  Cdrecord assumes that the file in
	      this case is a Sun audio file  or	 a  Microsoft  .WAV  file  and
	      extracts the audio data from the files by skipping over the non-
	      audio header information.	 In all	 other	cases,	cdrecord  will
	      only  work  correctly if the audio data stream does not have any
	      header.  Because many structured audio  files  do	 not  have  an
	      integral number of blocks (1/75th second) in length, it is often
	      necessary to specify the -pad option as well.   cdrecord	recog‐
	      nizes that audio data in a .WAV file is stored in Intel (little-
	      endian) byte order, and will automatically byte-swap the data if
	      the  CD recorder requires big-endian data.  Cdrecord will reject
	      any audio file that does not match the Red Book requirements  of
	      16-bit stereo samples in PCM coding at 44100 samples/second.

	      Using  other  structured audio data formats as input to cdrecord
	      will usually work if the structure of the data is the  structure
	      described	 above	(raw pcm data in big-endian byte order).  How‐
	      ever, if the data format includes a  header,  you	 will  hear  a
	      click at the start of a track.

	      If  neither  -data  nor  -audio  have  been  specified, cdrecord
	      defaults to -audio for all filenames that end in .au or .wav and
	      to -data for all other files.

       -swab  If  this	flag  is present, audio data is assumed to be in byte-
	      swapped (little-endian) order.  Some types  of  CD-Writers  e.g.
	      Yamaha, Sony and the new SCSI-3/mmc drives require audio data to
	      be presented in little-endian order, while other writers require
	      audio  data  to  be  presented  in the big-endian (network) byte
	      order normally used by the SCSI protocol.	 Cdrecord knows	 if  a
	      CD-Recorder needs audio data in big- or little-endian order, and
	      corrects the byte order of the data stream to match the needs of
	      the  recorder.  You only need the -swab flag if your data stream
	      is in Intel (little-endian) byte order.

	      Note that the verbose output of cdrecord will show you if	 swap‐
	      ping  is	necessary to make the byte order of the input data fit
	      the required byte order of the recorder.	Cdrecord will not show
	      you if the -swab flag was actually present for a track.

       -data  If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
	      CD-ROM mode 1 (Yellow Book) format. The data is  a  multiple  of
	      2048 bytes.  The file with track data should contain an ISO-9660
	      or Rock Ridge filesystem image (see mkisofs for  more  details).
	      If  the  track  data  is	an ufs filesystem image, fragment size
	      should be set to 2 KB or more to allow CR-drives with 2 KB  sec‐
	      tor size to to be used for reading.

	      -data is the default, if no other flag is present.

	      If  neither  -data  nor  -audio  have  been  specified, cdrecord
	      defaults to -audio for all filenames that end in .au or .wav and
	      to -data for all other files.

       -mode2 If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
	      CD-ROM mode 2 format. The data is a multiple of 2048 bytes.

       -xa1   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-ROM XA mode 1 format. The data is a multiple of 2048 bytes.

       -xa2   If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
	      CD-ROM XA mode 2 format. The data is a multiple of 2048 bytes.

       -cdi   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CDI format. The data is a multiple of 2048 bytes.

	      Use the ISO-9660 file system size as the size of the next track.
	      This option is needed if you want to read the image of  a	 track
	      from  a  raw disk partition or on a master CD. In the first case
	      the option -isosize is needed to limit the size of the CD to the
	      size of the ISO filesystem.  In the second case the option -iso‐
	      size is needed to prevent cdrecord from reading the two run  out
	      blocks  that  are	 appended by each CD-recorder in track at once
	      mode. These two run out blocks cannot be read and would cause  a
	      buffer  under run that would cause a defective copy.  Do not use
	      this option if cdrecord reads the track data from	 stdin.	  This
	      option  currently cannot be used to determine the size of a file
	      system if the multi session option is present.

       -pad   If the track is a data track, 15 sectors of zeroed data will  be
	      added  to	 the  end  of this and each subsequent data track.  In
	      this case, the -pad option is superseded by the padsize= option.
	      It  will	remain however as a shorthand for padsize=15s.	If the
	      -pad option refers to an audio  track,  cdrecord	will  pad  the
	      audio  data to be a multiple of 2352 bytes.  The audio data pad‐
	      ding is done with binary	zeroes	which  is  equal  to  absolute

	      -pad remains valid until disabled by -nopad.

	      Set  the	amount	of  data to be appended as padding to the next
	      track to #.  Opposed to the behavior of  the  -pad  option,  the
	      value for padsize= is reset to zero for each new track.  See fs=
	      option for possible arguments.  Use this option if your CD-drive
	      is  not  able to read the last sectors of a track or if you want
	      to be able to read the CD on a Linux system  with	 the  ISO-9660
	      filesystem  read	ahead bug.  If an empty file is used for track
	      data, this option may be used to create a disk that is  entirely
	      made of padding.

       -nopad Do not pad the following tracks - the default.

	      Allow  all  subsequent  tracks  to  violate  the Read Book track
	      length standard which requires a minimum track length of 4  sec‐
	      onds.   This  option  is only useful when used in DAO mode.  Not
	      all drives support this feature. The drive must  be  accept  the
	      resulting CUE sheet.

	      Re-enforce the Red Book track lenght standard. Tracks must be at
	      least 4 seconds.

	      Set the  pre-gap size for the next track.	 This option currently
	      only makes sense with the TEAC drive when creating track-at-once
	      disks without the 2 second silence before each track.
	      This option may go away in future.

	      If this flag is present, all TOC entries	for  subsequent	 audio
	      tracks  will  indicate that the audio data has been sampled with
	      50/15 �sec preemphasis.  The data, however is not modified  dur‐
	      ing  the process of transferring from file to disk.  This option
	      has no effect on data tracks.

	      If this flag is present, all TOC entries	for  subsequent	 audio
	      tracks  will indicate that the audio data has been mastered with
	      linear data - this is the default.

	      If the master image for the next track has been stored on a  raw
	      disk,  use  this	option	to specify the valid amount of data on
	      this disk. If the image of the next track is stored in a regular
	      file,  the size of that file is taken to determine the length of
	      this track.  If the track contains an ISO 9660 filesystem	 image
	      use the -isosize option to determine the length of that filesys‐
	      tem image.
	      In Disk at Once mode and with some drives that use the TEAC pro‐
	      gramming	interface,  even in Track at Once mode, cdrecord needs
	      to know the size of each track  before  starting	to  write  the
	      disk.   Cdrecord	now  checks this and aborts before starting to
	      write.  If this happens you will need to run mkisofs -print-size
	      before and use the output as an argument to the tsize= option of
	      See fs= option for possible arguments.

       For all examples below, it will be assumed that the CD-Recorder is con‐
       nected  to  the	primary SCSI bus of the machine. The SCSI target id is
       set to 2.

       To record a pure CD-ROM at double speed, using data from the file cdim‐

	   cdrecord -v speed=2 dev=2,0 cdimage.raw

       To  create  an  image  for a ISO 9660 filesystem with Rock Ridge exten‐

	   mkisofs -R -o cdimage.raw /home/joerg/master/tree

       To check the resulting file before writing to CD on Solaris:

	   mount -r -F fbk -o type=hsfs /dev/fbk0:cdimage.raw /mnt

       On Linux:

	   mount cdimage.raw -r -t iso9660 -o loop /mnt

       Go on with:
	   ls -lR /mnt
	   umount /mnt

       If the overall speed of the system is sufficient and the	 structure  of
       the  filesystem	is not too complex, cdrecord will run without creating
       an image of the ISO 9660 filesystem. Simply run the pipeline:

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree | cdrecord -v fs=6m speed=2 dev=2,0 -

       The recommended minimum fifo  size  for	running	 this  pipeline	 is  4
       MBytes.	As the default fifo size is 4 MB, the fs= option needs only be
       present if you want to use a different fifo size.  If  your  system  is
       loaded,	you  should  run mkisofs in the real time class too.  To raise
       the priority of mkisofs replace the command

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree
	   priocntl -e -c RT -p 59 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on Solaris and by

	   nice --18 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on systems that don't have UNIX International compliant realtime sched‐

       Cdrecord	 runs  at priority 59 on Solaris, you should run mkisofs at no
       more than priority 58. On other systems, you should run mkisofs	at  no
       less than nice --18.

       Creating	 a CD-ROM without file system image on disk has been tested on
       a Sparcstation-2 with a Yamaha CDR-400. It did work up  to  quad	 speed
       when  the machine was not loaded.  A faster machine may be able to han‐
       dle quad speed also in the loaded case.

       To record a pure CD-DA (audio) at single speed, with  each  track  con‐
       tained in a file named track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

	   cdrecord -v speed=1 dev=2,0 -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  check  if  it will be ok to use double speed for the example above.
       Use the dummy write option:

	   cdrecord -v -dummy speed=2 dev=2,0 -audio track*.cdaudio

       To record a mixed-mode CD with an ISO 9660 filesystem from  cdimage.raw
       on  the first track, the other tracks being audio tracks from the files
       track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

	   cdrecord -v -dummy dev=2,0 cdimage.raw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To handle drives that need to know the size of a track before  starting
       to write, first run

	   mkisofs -R -q -print-size /master/tree

       and then run

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree | cdrecord speed=2 dev=2,0 tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by the output of the previous run of mkisofs.

       To copy an audio CD in the most accurate way, first run

	   cdda2wav -v255 -D2,0 -B -Owav

       and then run

	   cdrecord -v dev=2,0 -dao -useinfo  *.wav

	      This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable to the
	      open call of the SCSI transport library or a label in  the  file

	      Sets  the	 default  speed	 value	for  writing  (see also -speed

	      Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

	      Default  values  can  be	set  for  the  following  options   in
	      /etc/default/cdrecord.	 For   example:	  CDR_FIFOSIZE=8m   or

		     This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable
		     to the open call of the SCSI transport library or a label
		     in the file /etc/default/cdrecord that allows to identify
		     a specific drive on the system.

		     Sets the default speed value for writing (see also -speed

		     Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

	      Any other label
		     is an identifier for a  specific  drive  on  the  system.
		     Such  an  identifier  may not contain the characters ',',
		     '/', '@' or ':'.

		     Each line that follows a label contains a	TAB  separates
		     list  of  items.	Currently, three items are recognized:
		     the SCSI ID of the drive, the default speed  that	should
		     be	 used  for  this  drive and the default FIFO size that
		     should be used for this drive. The values for  speed  and
		     fifosize  may  be	set  to -1 to tell cdrecord to use the
		     global defaults.  A typical line may look this way:

		     teac1= 0,5,0   4	 8m

		     yamaha= 1,6,0  -1	 -1

		     This tells cdrecord that a drive named teac1 is at	 scsi‐
		     bus  0,  target  5, lun 0 and should be used with speed 4
		     and a FIFO size of 8 MB.  A second drive may be found  at
		     scsibus 1, target 6, lun 0 and uses the default speed and
		     the default FIFO size.

       mkisofs(1), scg(7), fbk(7).

       On Solaris you need to stop the volume management if you	 like  to  use
       the  USCSI  fallback  SCSI  transport  code.  Even things like cdrecord
       -scanbus will not work if the volume management is running.

       Disks made in Track At Once mode are  not  suitable  as	a  master  for
       direct  mass production by CD manufacturers.  You will need the disk at
       once option to record such disks.  Nevertheless the disks made in Track
       At  Once	 will  normally	 be  read in all CD players. Some old audio CD
       players however may produce  a  two  second  click  between  two	 audio

       The  minimal  size of a track is 4 seconds or 300 sectors. If you write
       smaller tracks, the CD-Recorder will add dummy blocks. This is  not  an
       error, even though the SCSI-error message looks this way.

       Cdrecord	 has  been  tested  on an upgraded Philips CDD-521 recorder at
       single and double speed on a  SparcStation  20/502  with	 no  problems,
       slower  computer	 systems should work also.  The newer Philips/HP/Plas‐
       mon/Grundig drives as well as Yamaha CDR-100 and CDR-102 work also. The
       Plasmon	RF-4100	 work, but has not tested in multi session.  A Philips
       CDD-521 that has not been upgraded will not work.  The Sony CDU-924 has
       been  tested,  but  does	 not  support  XA-mode2 in hardware.  The sony
       therefore cannot create conforming  multi  session  disks.   The	 Ricoh
       RO-1420C	 works, but some people seem to have problems to use them with
       speed=2, try speed=0 in this case.

       The Yamaha CDR-400 and all new SCSI-3/mmc conforming  drives  are  sup‐
       ported in single and multi-session.

       You should run several tests in all supported speeds of your drive with
       the -dummy option turned on if you are using  cdrecord  on  an  unknown
       system.	Writing	 a  CD	is  a  realtime	 process.  NFS will not always
       deliver constantly the needed data rates.  If you want to use  cdrecord
       with  CD-images	that  are located on a NFS mounted filesystem, be sure
       that the fifo size is big enough.  I used  cdrecord  with  with	medium
       load on a SS20/502 and even at quad speed on a Sparcstation-2 which was
       heavily loaded, but it is recommended to leave the  system  as  lightly
       loaded  as  possible while writing a CD.	 If you want to make sure that
       buffer underrungs are not caused by your source disk, you may  use  the

	   cdrecord -dummy dev=2,0 padsize=600m /dev/null

       to  create  a disk that is entirely made of dummy data.	Cdrecord needs
       to run as root to get access to the /dev/scg?  device nodes and	to  be
       able to lock itself into memory.

       If  you	don't  want  to	 allow	users  to  become root on your system,
       cdrecord may safely be installed suid root. This allows all users or  a
       group  of  users	 with no root privileges to use cdrecord.  Cdrecord in
       this case checks, if the real user would have been  able	 to  read  the
       specified files.	 To give all user access to use cdrecord, enter:

	    chown root /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
	    chmod 4711 /usr/local/bin/cdrecord

       To give a restricted group of users access to cdrecord enter:

	    chown root /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
	    chgrp cdburners /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
	    chmod 4710 /usr/local/bin/cdrecord

       and add a group cdburners on your system.

       Never  give  write  permissions	for  non  root	users to the /dev/scg?
       devices unless you would allow anybody to  read/write/format  all  your

       You should not connect old drives that do not support disconnect/recon‐
       nect to either the SCSI bus that is connected to the CD-Recorder or the
       source disk.

       A Compact Disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When  creating  a disc with both audio and data tracks, the data should
       be on track 1 otherwise you should create a  CDplus  disk  which	 is  a
       multi  session  disk with the first session containing the audio tracks
       and the following session containing the data track.

       Many operating systems are not able to read more	 than  a  single  data
       track, or need special software to do so.

       More  information  on  the  SCSI command set of a HP CD-Recorder can be
       found at:

       If you have more information or	SCSI  command  manuals	for  currently
       unsupported CD-Recorders please contact the author.

       The Philips CDD 521 CD-Recorder (even in the upgraded version) has sev‐
       eral firmware bugs. Some of them will force  you	 to  power  cycle  the
       device or to reboot the machine.

       When  using  cdrecord  with  the broken Linux SCSI generic driver.  You
       should note that cdrecord uses a hack, that tries to emulate the	 func‐
       tionality of the scg driver.  Unfortunately, the sg driver on Linux has
       several severe bugs:

       ·      It cannot see if a SCSI command could not be sent at all.

       ·      It cannot get the SCSI status byte.  Cdrecord  for  that	reason
	      cannot report failing SCSI commands in some situations.

       ·      It  cannot get real DMA count of transfer.  Cdrecord cannot tell
	      you if there is an DMA residual count.

       ·      It cannot	 get  number  of  bytes	 valid	in  auto  sense	 data.
	      Cdrecord	cannot	tell  you if device transfers no sense data at

       ·      It fetches to few data in auto request sense  (CCS/SCSI-2/SCSI-3
	      needs >= 18).

       The fifo percent output is computed just after a block of data has been
       written to the CD-Recorder. For this reason, there will never  be  100%
       fifo fill, while the fifo is in streaming mode.

       You  have 9 seconds to type ^C to abort cdrecord after you see the mes‐

       Starting to write CD at speed %d in %s mode for %s session.

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks like:

	      cdrecord: I/O error. test unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  00 20 00 00 00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0A 00 00 00 00 25 00 00 00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical unit not supported) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid)

       The first line gives information about the transport  of	 the  command.
       The text after the first colon gives the error text for the system call
       from the view of the kernel. It usually	is:  I/O  error	 unless	 other
       problems	 happen.  The  next  words contain a short description for the
       SCSI command that fails. The rest of the line tells you if  there  were
       any problems for the transport of the command over the SCSI bus.	 fatal
       error means that it was not possible to transport the command (i.e.  no
       device present at the requested SCSI address).

       The second line prints the SCSI command descriptor block for the failed

       The third line gives information on the SCSI status  code  returned  by
       the  command,  if the transport of the command succeeds.	 This is error
       information from the SCSI device.

       The fourth line is a hex dump of the auto request sense information for
       the command.

       The  fifth  line is the error text for the sense key if available, fol‐
       lowed by the segment number that is only valid if  the  command	was  a
       copy  command. If the error message is not directly related to the cur‐
       rent command, the text deferred error is appended.

       The sixth line is the error text for the sense code and the sense qual‐
       ifier if available.  If the type of the device is known, the sense data
       is decoded from tables in scsierrs.c .  The text	 is  followed  by  the
       error value for a field replaceable unit.

       The  seventh line prints the block number that is related to the failed
       command and text for several error flags. The block number may  not  be

       The following message is not an error:
	      Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).
	      cdrecord: I/O error. flush cache: scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  35 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27 0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00 00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy data blocks added) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk -2147483609 (valid)

       It  simply notifies, that a track that is smaller than the minimum size
       has been expanded to 300 sectors.

       Cdrecord has even more options than ls.

       Cdrecord currently only warns if the input data will  not  fit  on  the
       disk.   If  you	don't  abort  the  command  you will get unpredictable

       There should be an option to write index numbers for audio tracks.

       There should be a recover option to make disks usable, that  have  been
       written during a power failure.

       Bill Swartz    (
		      For helping me with the TEAC driver support

       Aaron Newsome  (
		      For letting me develop Sony support on his drive

       Eric Youngdale (
		      For supplying mkisofs

       Gadi Oxman     (
		      For tips on the ATAPI standard

       Finn Arne Gangstad  (
		      For the first FIFO implementation.

       Dave Platt     (
		      For  creating  the  experimental packet writing support,
		      the first implementation of CD-RW blanking support,  the
		      first  .wav  file	 decoder  and many nice discussions on

       Chris P. Ross (
		      For the first implementation os a BSDI SCSI rtansport.

       Grant R. Guenther   (
		      For creating the first parallel port transport implemen‐
		      tation for Linux.

       Kenneth D. Merry (
		      for  providing  the  CAM	port for FreeBSD together with
		      Michael Smith (

       If you want to actively take part on the development of	cdrecord,  you
       may join the cdwriting mailing list by sending mail to:

       and  include  the  word subscribe in the body.  The mail address of the
       list is:

       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin

       Additional information can be found on:

       Mail bugs and suggestions to:     or	    or

Joerg Schilling			 Version 1.8.1			   CDRECORD(1)
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