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CDRECORD(1)		    Schily´s USER COMMANDS		   CDRECORD(1)

NAME
       cdrecord	 -  record  audio  or  data Compact Disks or Digital Versatile
       Disks from a master

SYNOPSIS
       cdrecord	 [  general  options  ][  dev=device  ][   track   options   ]
       track1...trackn

DESCRIPTION
       Cdrecord	 is  used  to  record data or audio Compact Discs on an Orange
       Book CD-Recorder or to write DVD media on a DVD-Recorder.

       The device refers to scsibus/target/lun of the CD/DVD-Recorder.	Commu‐
       nication	 on  SunOS  is	done  with the SCSI general driver scg.	 Other
       operating systems are using a library simulation of this driver.	  Pos‐
       sible  syntax  is:  dev= scsibus,target,lun or dev= target,lun.	In the
       latter case, the CD/DVD-Recorder has to be  connected  to  the  default
       SCSI  bus of the machine.  Scsibus, target and lun are integer numbers.
       Some operating systems or SCSI transport implementations may require to
       specify	a  filename  in addition.  In this case the correct syntax for
       the device  is:	dev=  devicename:scsibus,target,lun  or	 dev=  device‐
       name:target,lun.	  If  the name of the device node that has been speci‐
       fied on such a system refers to exactly one SCSI device, a shorthand in
       the form dev= devicename:@ or dev= devicename:@,lun may be used instead
       of dev= devicename:scsibus,target,lun.

       To access remote SCSI devices, you need to prepend the SCSI device name
       by  a  remote  device  indicator. The remote device indicator is either
       REMOTE:user@host: or  REMOTE:host:
       A valid remote SCSI device name	may  be:  REMOTE:user@host:  to	 allow
       remote  SCSI  bus scanning or REMOTE:user@host:1,0,0 to access the SCSI
       device at host connected to SCSI bus # 1,target 0 lun 0.

       Cdrecord is completely based on SCSI commands but this is no problem as
       all  CD/DVD  writers ever made use SCSI commands for the communication.
       Even ATAPI drives are just SCSI drives  that  inherently	 use  the  ATA
       packet  interface  as  SCSI  command transport layer build into the IDE
       (ATA) transport.	 You may need to specify an alternate transport	 layer
       on  the	command	 line if your OS does not implement a fully integrated
       kernel driver subsystem that allows to access any drive using SCSI com‐
       mands via a single unique user interface.

       To  access  SCSI	 devices  via  alternate transport layers, you need to
       prepend the SCSI device name  by	 a  transport  layer  indicator.   The
       transport  layer	 indicator may be something like USCSI: or ATAPI:.  To
       get a list of supported transport layers for your  platform,  use  dev=
       HELP:

       To  make cdrecord portable to all UNIX platforms, the syntax dev= devi‐
       cename:scsibus,target,lun is preferred as it hides OS  specific	knowl‐
       edge about device names from the user.  A specific OS may not necessar‐
       ily support a way to specify a real device file name nor a way to spec‐
       ify scsibus,target,lun.

       Scsibus	0  is the default SCSI bus on the machine. Watch the boot mes‐
       sages for more information or  look  into  /var/adm/messages  for  more
       information  about the SCSI configuration of your machine.  If you have
       problems to figure out what values  for	scsibus,target,lun  should  be
       used, try the -scanbus option of cdrecord described below.

       If  a  file  /etc/default/cdrecord  exists,  the	 parameter to the dev=
       option may also be a drive name label in said file (see FILES section).

       On SVr4 compliant systems, cdrecord uses the real time class to get the
       highest	scheduling  priority  that is possible (higher than all kernel
       processes).  On systems with POSIX real time scheduling	cdrecord  uses
       real  time  scheduling too, but may not be able to gain a priority that
       is higher than all kernel processes.

       In order to be able to use the SCSI transport subsystem of the OS,  run
       at  highest priority and lock itself into core cdrecord either needs to
       be run as root, needs to be installed suid root or must be  called  via
       RBACs pfexec mechanism.

       In  Track  At  Once  mode, each track corresponds to a single file that
       contains the prepared data for that track.  If  the  argument  is  `-',
       standard	 input	is  used  for that track.  Only one track may be taken
       from stdin.  In the other write modes, the direct file to  track	 rela‐
       tion  may  not  be implemented.	In -clone mode, a single file contains
       all data for the whole disk.  To allow DVD writing on platforms that do
       not  implement large file support, cdrecord concatenates all file argu‐
       ments to a single track when writing to DVD media.

GENERAL OPTIONS
       General options must be before any track file name or track option.

       -version
	      Print version information and exit.

       -v     Increment the level of general verbosity by one.	This  is  used
	      e.g. to display the progress of the writing process.

       -V     Increment the verbose level in respect of SCSI command transport
	      by one.	This  helps  to	 debug	problems  during  the  writing
	      process,	that  occur in the CD/DVD-Recorder.  If you get incom‐
	      prehensible error messages you should use this flag to get  more
	      detailed output.	-VV will show data buffer content in addition.
	      Using -V or -VV slows down the process and may be the reason for
	      a buffer underrun.

       debug=#, -d
	      Set  the	misc  debug value to # (with debug=#) or increment the
	      misc debug level by one (with -d).  If  you  specify  -dd,  this
	      equals to debug=2.  This may help to find problems while opening
	      a driver for libscg as well as  with  sector  sizes  and	sector
	      types.   Using -debug slows down the process and may be the rea‐
	      son for a buffer underrun.

       kdebug=#, kd=#
	      Tell the scg-driver to modify the kernel debug value while  SCSI
	      commands are running.

       -silent, -s
	      Do not print out a status report for failed SCSI commands.

       -force Force  to	 continue  on  some errors. Be careful when using this
	      option.  Cdrecord implements several  checks  that  prevent  you
	      from doing unwanted things like damaging CD-RW media by improper
	      drives. Many of the sanity checks are disabled when  the	-force
	      option is used.

	      This  option  also implements some tricks that will allow you to
	      blank bad CD-RW disks.

       -immed Tell cdrecord to set the SCSI IMMED  flag	 in  certain  commands
	      (load/eject/blank/close_track/close_session).   This can be use‐
	      ful on broken systems with ATAPI harddisk and CD/DVD  writer  on
	      the  same	 bus  or  with	SCSI  systems  that  don't use discon‐
	      nect/reconnect.  These systems will  freeze  while  blanking  or
	      fixating	a CD/DVD or while a DVD writer is filling up a session
	      to the minimum amount (approx. 800 MB).  Setting the -immed flag
	      will  request the command to return immediately while the opera‐
	      tion proceeds in background, making the bus usable for the other
	      devices and avoiding the system freeze.  This is an experimental
	      feature which may work or not, depending on  the	model  of  the
	      CD/DVD  writer.  A correct solution would be to set up a correct
	      cabling but there seem to be notebooks around that have been set
	      up  the  wrong  way by the manufacturer.	As it is impossible to
	      fix this problem in notebooks, the -immed option has been added.

	      A second experimental feature of the  -immed  flag  is  to  tell
	      cdrecord	to try to wait short times while writing to the media.
	      This is expected to free the IDE bus if the  CD/DVD  writer  and
	      the  data	 source	 are  connected to the same IDE cable. In this
	      case, the CD/DVD writer would otherwise usually  block  the  IDE
	      bus  for	nearly all the time making it impossible to fetch data
	      from the source drive. See also minbuf= and -v option.

	      Use both features at your own risk.  If it  turns	 out  that  it
	      would make sense to have a separate option for the wait feature,
	      write to the author and convince him.

       minbuf=value
	      The # minbuf= option allows to define the minimum	 drive	buffer
	      fill ratio for the experimental ATAPI wait mode that is intended
	      to free the IDE bus to allow hard disk and CD/DVD writer	to  be
	      on  the  same  IDE cable.	 As the wait mode currently only works
	      when the verbose option -v has been specified, cdrecord  implies
	      the  verbose  option  in	case the -immed or minbuf= option have
	      been specified.  Valid values for minbuf= are between 25 and  95
	      for 25%...95% minimum drive buffer fill ratio.

       -dummy The  CD/DVD-Recorder  will go through all steps of the recording
	      process, but the laser is turned off during this procedure.   It
	      is recommended to run several tests before actually writing to a
	      Compact Disk or Digital Versatile Disk, if the timing  and  load
	      response of the system is not known.

       -clone Tells  cdrecord  to handle images created by readcd -clone.  The
	      -clone may only be used in conjunction with with the -raw96r  or
	      with  the	 -raw16 option.	 Using -clone together with -raw96r is
	      preferred as it allows to write all subchannel data.  The option
	      -raw16  should  only  be used with drives that do not support to
	      write in -raw96r mode.

       -dao

       -sao   Set SAO (Session At Once) mode which is usually called  Disk  At
	      Once  mode.  This currently only works with MMC drives that sup‐
	      port Session At Once mode.  Note that cdrecord needs to know the
	      size  of	each  track  in advance for this mode (see the mkisofs
	      -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section  for	more  informa‐
	      tion).

       -tao   Set TAO (Track At Once) writing mode.  This is the default write
	      mode in previous cdrecord	 versions.   With  most	 drives,  this
	      write mode is required for multi session recording.

       -raw   Set  RAW	writing	 mode.	Using this option defaults to -raw96r.
	      Note that cdrecord needs to know	the  size  of  each  track  in
	      advance  for  this  mode (see the mkisofs -print-size option and
	      the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96r
	      Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes
	      of  raw  P-W  subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2448
	      bytes.  This is the preferred raw writing mode as it gives  best
	      control  over  the CD writing process.  If you find any problems
	      with the layout of a disk or  with  sub  channel	content	 (e.g.
	      wrong  times  on the display when playing the CD) and your drive
	      supports to write in -raw96r or -raw16 mode, you should give  it
	      a	 try.  There  are  several  CD	writers with bad firmware that
	      result in broken disks when writing in TAO or SAO mode.  Writing
	      data  disks  in  raw mode needs significantly more CPU time than
	      other write modes. If your CPU is too slow, this may  result  in
	      buffer  underruns.  Note that cdrecord needs to know the size of
	      each track in advance for this mode (see the mkisofs -print-size
	      option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96p
	      Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes
	      of packed P-W subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2448
	      bytes.   This  is	 the less preferred raw writing mode as only a
	      few recorders support it and some of these recorders  have  bugs
	      in  the  firmware	 implementation.   Don't use this mode if your
	      recorder supports -raw96r or -raw16.  Writing data disks in  raw
	      mode  needs  significantly more CPU time than other write modes.
	      If your CPU is too slow, this may result	in  buffer  underruns.
	      Note  that  cdrecord  needs  to  know  the size of each track in
	      advance for this mode (see the mkisofs  -print-size  option  and
	      the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw16 Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 16 bytes
	      of P-Q subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2368 bytes.
	      If  a  recorder  does not support -raw96r, this is the preferred
	      raw writing mode.	  It  does  not	 allow	to  write  CD-Text  or
	      CD+Graphics  but	it  is	the  only raw writing mode in cheap CD
	      writers.	As these cheap writers in most cases  do  not  support
	      -dao  mode.   Don't  use	this  mode  if	your recorder supports
	      -raw96r.	Writing data disks in  raw  mode  needs	 significantly
	      more  CPU	 time than other write modes. If your CPU is too slow,
	      this may result in buffer underruns.  Note that  cdrecord	 needs
	      to know the size of each track in advance for this mode (see the
	      mkisofs -print-size option and the  EXAMPLES  section  for  more
	      information).

       -multi Allow  multi  session  CDs  to  be  made.	 This flag needs to be
	      present on all sessions of a multi session disk, except you want
	      to  create a session that will be the last session on the media.
	      The fixation will be done in  a  way  that  allows  the  CD/DVD-
	      Recorder	to  append  additional sessions later. This is done by
	      generation a TOC with a link to the next program	area.  The  so
	      generated	 media	is  not	 100%  compatible  to manufactured CDs
	      (except for CDplus).  Use only for recording  of	multi  session
	      CDs.   If	 this option is present, the default track type is CD-
	      ROM XA mode 2 form 1 and the sector size is 2048 bytes.  The  XA
	      sector subheaders will be created by the drive.  The Sony drives
	      have no hardware support for CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1.  You  have
	      to  specify  the	-data  option in order to create multi session
	      disks on these drives.  As long as  cdrecord  does  not  have  a
	      coder  for converting data sectors to audio sectors, you need to
	      force CD-ROM sectors by including the -data option if  you  like
	      to record a multisession disk in SAO mode.  Not all drives allow
	      multisession CDs in SAO mode.

       -media-info

       -minfo Retrieve and print information about the state  of  the  medium.
	      This option currently only works for MMC compliant drives.

       -msinfo
	      Retrieve	multi session info in a form suitable for mkisofs-1.10
	      or later.

	      This option makes only sense with a CD that  contains  at	 least
	      one  closed  session and is appendable (not finally closed yet).
	      Some drives create error messages if you try to  get  the	 multi
	      session info for a disk that is not suitable for this operation.

       -toc   Retrieve	and  print  out	 the  table of content or PMA of a CD.
	      With this option, cdrecord will work with CD-R drives  and  with
	      CD-ROM drives.

       -atip  Retrieve	and  print  out the ATIP (absolute Time in Pre-groove)
	      info of a CD/DVD recordable or CD/DVD re-writable	 media.	  With
	      this option, cdrecord will try to retrieve the ATIP info. If the
	      actual drive does not support to read the ATIP info, it  may  be
	      that  only  a reduced set of information records or even nothing
	      is displayed. Only a limited number of MMC compliant drives sup‐
	      port to read the ATIP info.

	      If  cdrecord  is able to retrieve the lead-in start time for the
	      first session, it will try to decode and print the  manufacturer
	      info  from  the media.  DVD media does not have ATIP information
	      but there is equivalent prerecorded information that is read out
	      and printed.

       -fix   The  disk	 will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC for a CD-Reader will
	      be written).  This may be used, if for some reason the disk  has
	      been  written  but  not  fixated. This option currently does not
	      work with old TEAC drives (CD-R50S and CD-R55S).

       -nofix Do not fixate the disk after writing the	tracks.	 This  may  be
	      used  to	create	an audio disk in steps. An un-fixated disk can
	      usually not be used on a non CD-writer type drive but there  are
	      audio CD players that will be able to play such a disk.

       -waiti Wait for input to become available on standard input before try‐
	      ing to open the SCSI driver. This allows cdrecord	 to  read  its
	      input  from  a  pipe  even when writing additional sessions to a
	      multi session disk.  When writing another	 session  to  a	 multi
	      session  disk,  mkisofs  needs  to read the old session from the
	      device before writing output.  This cannot be done  if  cdrecord
	      opens the SCSI driver at the same time.

       -load  Load  the	 media	and  exit. This only works with a tray loading
	      mechanism but seems to be	 useful	 when  using  the  Kodak  disk
	      transporter.

       -lock  Load  the	 media, lock the door and exit. This only works with a
	      tray loading mechanism but seems to be  useful  when  using  the
	      Kodak disk transporter.

       -eject Eject  disk  after  doing the work.  Some devices (e.g. Philips)
	      need to eject the medium before creating a  new  disk.  Doing  a
	      -dummy  test and immediately creating a real disk would not work
	      on these devices.

       speed=#
	      Set the speed factor of the writing process to #.	 # is an inte‐
	      ger,  representing a multiple of the audio speed.	 This is about
	      150 KB/s for CD-ROM,  about  172 KB/s  for  CD-Audio  and	 about
	      1385 kB/s	 for  DVD  media.   If	no  speed  option  is present,
	      cdrecord will try to get a drive specific speed value  from  the
	      file  /etc/default/cdrecord  and	if it cannot find one, it will
	      try to get the speed value from the  CDR_SPEED  environment  and
	      later from the CDR_SPEED= entry in /etc/default/cdrecord.	 If no
	      speed value could be  found,  cdrecord  uses  a  drive  specific
	      default  speed.	The default for all new (MMC compliant) drives
	      is to use the maximum  supported	by  the	 drive.	  If  you  use
	      speed=0  with a MMC compliant drive, cdrecord will switch to the
	      lowest possible speed for drive and medium.  If you are using an
	      old  (non	 MMC) drive that has problems with speed=2 or speed=4,
	      you should try speed=0.

       blank=type
	      Blank a CD-RW and exit or blank  a  CD-RW	 before	 writing.  The
	      blanking type may be one of:

	      help	  Display a list of possible blanking types.

	      all	  Blank the entire disk. This may take a long time.

	      fast	  Minimally  blank  the	 disk. This results in erasing
			  the PMA, the TOC and the pregap.

	      track	  Blank a track.

	      unreserve	  Unreserve a reserved track.

	      trtail	  Blank the tail of a track.

	      unclose	  Unclose last session.

	      session	  Blank the last session.
       Not all drives support all blanking types. It may be necessary  to  use
       blank=all  if a drive reports a specified command as being invalid.  If
       used together with the -force flag, this option may be  used  to	 blank
       CD-RW disks that otherwise cannot be blanked. Note that you may need to
       specify blank=all because some drives will not  continue	 with  certain
       types  of bad CD-RW disks. Note also that cdrecord does its best if the
       -force flag is used but it finally  depends  on	the  drive's  firmware
       whether the blanking operation will succeed or not.

       -format
	      Format a CD-RW/DVD-RW/DVD+RW disc.  Formatting is currently only
	      implemented for DVD+RW media.  A 'maiden' DVD+RW media needs  to
	      be  formatted  before you may write to it.  However, as cdrecord
	      autodetects the need for formatting in this case and  auto  for‐
	      mats  the medium before it starts writing, the -format option is
	      only needed if you like to forcibly reformat a DVD+RW medium.

       fs=#   Set the FIFO (ring buffer) size to #.  You may use the same syn‐
	      tax as in dd(1), sdd(1) or star(1).  The number representing the
	      size is taken in bytes unless otherwise specified.  If a	number
	      is  followed  directly  by the letter `b', `k', `m', `s' or `f',
	      the size is multiplied by 512, 1024, 1024*1024,  2048  or	 2352.
	      If  the size consists of numbers separated by `x' or `*', multi‐
	      plication of the two numbers is performed.  Thus fs=10x63k  will
	      specify a FIFO size of 630 kBytes.

	      The  size specified by the fs= argument includes the shared mem‐
	      ory that is needed for administration. This is at least one page
	      of  memory.   If	no fs= option is present, cdrecord will try to
	      get the FIFO size value from the CDR_FIFOSIZE environment.   The
	      default FIFO size is currently 4 MB.

	      The FIFO is used to increase buffering for the real time writing
	      process.	It allows to run a pipe	 from  mkisofs	directly  into
	      cdrecord.	  If  the  FIFO is active and a pipe from mkisofs into
	      cdrecord is used to create a CD, cdrecord will abort prior to do
	      any  modifications  on the disk if mkisofs dies before it starts
	      writing.	The recommended FIFO size is between 4 and 128 MBytes.
	      As  a  rule  of thumb, the FIFO size should be at least equal to
	      the size of the internal buffer of the  CD/DVD-Recorder  and  no
	      more  than  half	of the physical amount of RAM available in the
	      machine.	If the FIFO size is big enough,	 the  FIFO  statistics
	      will  print  a FIFO empty count of zero and the FIFO min fill is
	      not below 20%.  It is not wise to use too	 much  space  for  the
	      FIFO.  If	 you need more than 8 MB to write a CD at a speed less
	      than 20x from an image  on  a  local  file  system  on  an  idle
	      machine, your machine is either underpowered, has hardware prob‐
	      lems or is mis-configured.  If you like  to  write  DVDs	or  to
	      write  CDs at higher speed, it makes sense to use at least 16 MB
	      for the FIFO.

	      On old and small machines, you need to be more careful with  the
	      FIFO  size.   If	your  machine has less than 256 MB of physical
	      RAM, you should not set up a FIFO size that is more than	32 MB.
	      The sun4c architecture (e.g. a Sparcstation-2) has only MMU page
	      table  entries  for  16 MBytes  per  process.  Using  more  than
	      14 MBytes	 for  the  FIFO may cause the operating system in this
	      case to spend much time to constantly  reload  the  MMU  tables.
	      Newer machines from Sun do not have this MMU hardware problem. I
	      have no information on PC-hardware reflecting this problem.

	      Old Linux systems for non x86 platforms have broken  definitions
	      for the shared memory size. You need to fix them and rebuild the
	      kernel or manually tell cdrecord to use a smaller FIFO.

	      If you have buffer underruns or similar problems	(like  a  con‐
	      stantly empty drive buffer) and observe a zero fifo empty count,
	      you have hardware problems that prevents the data	 from  flowing
	      fast  enough  from the kernel memory to the drive. The FIFO size
	      in this case is sufficient, but you should check for  a  working
	      DMA setup.

       ts=#   Set  the	maximum	 transfer size for a single SCSI command to #.
	      The syntax for the ts= option is the same as for	cdrecord  fs=#
	      or sdd bs=#.

	      If  no  ts=  option  has	been specified, cdrecord defaults to a
	      transfer size of 63 kB. If libscg gets  lower  values  from  the
	      operating system, the value is reduced to the maximum value that
	      is possible with the current operating  system.	Sometimes,  it
	      may  help	 to further reduce the transfer size or to enhance it,
	      but note that it may take a long time to find a better value  by
	      experimenting with the ts= option.

       dev=target
	      Sets  the	 SCSI target for the CD/DVD-Recorder, see notes above.
	      A typical device specification is dev=6,0 .  If a filename  must
	      be  provided  together  with the numerical target specification,
	      the filename is implementation specific.	The  correct  filename
	      in  this case can be found in the system specific manuals of the
	      target operating system.	On a FreeBSD system without  CAM  sup‐
	      port,  you need to use the control device (e.g.  /dev/rcd0.ctl).
	      A	 correct  device   specification   in	this   case   may   be
	      dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@ .

	      On Linux, drives connected to a parallel port adapter are mapped
	      to a virtual SCSI bus. Different adapters are mapped to  differ‐
	      ent targets on this virtual SCSI bus.

	      If no dev option is present, cdrecord will try to get the device
	      from the CDR_DEVICE environment.

	      If the argument to the dev= option does not contain the  charac‐
	      ters  ',',  '/',	'@' or ':', it is interpreted as an label name
	      that may be found in the file /etc/default/cdrecord  (see	 FILES
	      section).

	      If  no  dev=  option is present, or if the dev= option only con‐
	      tains a transport specifyer but no address,  cdrecord  tries  to
	      scan  the	 SCSI address space for CD-ROM drives.	If exactly one
	      is found, this is used by default.

       gracetime=#
	      Set the grace time before starting to write to # seconds.	  Val‐
	      ues below 3 seconds are not allowed in order to prevent the vol‐
	      ume management from interrupting the write process.

       timeout=#
	      Set the default SCSI command timeout value to  #	seconds.   The
	      default  SCSI  command  timeout  is the minimum timeout used for
	      sending SCSI commands.  If a SCSI command fails due to  a	 time‐
	      out, you may try to raise the default SCSI command timeout above
	      the timeout value of the failed command.	If  the	 command  runs
	      correctly	 with a raised command timeout, please report the bet‐
	      ter timeout value and the corresponding command to the author of
	      the program.  If no timeout option is present, a default timeout
	      of 40 seconds is used.

       driver=name
	      Allows the user to manually select a driver for the device.  The
	      reason  for  the existence of the driver=name option is to allow
	      users to use cdrecord with drives that are similar to  supported
	      drives  but  not	known  directly	 by cdrecord.  All drives made
	      after 1997 should be MMC standard compliant and  thus  supported
	      by one of the MMC drivers.  It is most unlikely that cdrecord is
	      unable to find the right driver automatically.  Use this	option
	      with  extreme  care. If a wrong driver is used for a device, the
	      possibility of creating corrupted disks is  high.	  The  minimum
	      problem  related	to a wrong driver is that the -speed or -dummy
	      will not work.

	      The following driver names are supported:

	      help   To get a list of possible drivers together with  a	 short
		     description.

	      mmc_cd The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  CD-ROM  driver is auto-selected
		     whenever cdrecord finds a MMC compliant drive  that  does
		     not  identify  itself  to support writing at all, or that
		     only identifies to	 support  media	 or  write  modes  not
		     implemented in cdrecord.

	      mmc_cd_dvd
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  CD/DVD  driver is auto-selected
		     whenever cdrecord finds a MMC-2 or MMC-3 compliant	 drive
		     that  seems  to support more than one medium type and the
		     tray is open or no medium could be found  to  select  the
		     right  driver.   This  driver  tries  to  close the tray,
		     checks the medium found in the tray and then branches  to
		     the driver that matches the current medium.

	      mmc_cdr
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
		     whenever cdrecord find a MMC compliant  drive  that  only
		     supports  to  write CDs or a multi system drive that con‐
		     tains a CD as the current medium.

	      mmc_cdr_sony
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
		     whenever  cdrecord	 would	otherwise  select  the mmc_cdr
		     driver but the device seems to  be	 made  by  Sony.   The
		     mmc_cdr_sony is definitely needed for the Sony CDU 928 as
		     this drive does not completely implement the MMC standard
		     and  some of the MMC SCSI commands have to be replaced by
		     Sony proprietary commands. It seems that all Sony	drives
		     (even  newer  ones)  still implement the Sony proprietary
		     SCSI commands so it has not yet become a problem  to  use
		     this driver for all Sony drives. If you find a newer Sony
		     drive that does not work with this driver, please report.

	      mmc_dvd
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-2  DVD-R/DVD-RW  driver  is	 auto-
		     selected whenever cdrecord finds a MMC-2 or MMC-3 compli‐
		     ant drive that supports to write DVDs and an  appropriate
		     medium is loaded.	There is no Track At Once mode for DVD
		     writers.

	      mmc_dvdplus
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3  DVD+R/DVD+RW  driver  is	 auto-
		     selected  whenever	 one  of the DVD+ media types that are
		     incompatible to each other is found.  It checks media and
		     then  branches  to	 the  driver  that matches the current
		     medium.

	      mmc_dvdplusr
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+R  driver  is	 auto-selected
		     whenever  a  DVD+R	 medium	 is  found  in	an appropriate
		     writer.  Note  that  for  unknown	reason,	 the  DVD-Plus
		     alliance  does  not  like that there is a simulation mode
		     for DVD+R media.  The author of cdrecord  tries  to  con‐
		     vince  manufacturers  to  implement a simulation mode for
		     DVD+R and implement support.   DVD+R  only	 supports  one
		     write  mode  that	is somewhere between Track At Once and
		     Packet writing; this mode is selected in cdrecord	via  a
		     the -dao/-sao option.

	      mmc_dvdplusrw
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+RW driver is auto-selected
		     whenever a DVD+RW	medium	is  found  in  an  appropriate
		     writer.  As DVD+RW media needs to be formatted before its
		     first use, cdrecord auto-detects  this  media  state  and
		     performs  a  format before it starts to write.  Note that
		     for unknown reason, the DVD-Plus alliance does  not  like
		     that there is a simulation mode nor a way to erase DVD+RW
		     media.  DVD+RW only supports one write mode that is close
		     to	 Packet writing; this mode is selected in cdrecord via
		     a the -dao/-sao option.

	      cw_7501
		     The driver	 for  Matsushita/Panasonic  CW-7501  is	 auto-
		     selected  when  cdrecord  finds  this  old pre MMC drive.
		     Cdrecord supports all write modes for this drive type.

	      kodak_pcd_600
		     The  driver  for  Kodak  PCD-600  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord  finds this old pre MMC drive which has been the
		     first high speed (6x) CD writer for  a  long  time.  This
		     drive behaves similar to the Philips CDD-521 drive.

	      philips_cdd521
		     The  driver  for  Philips	CDD-521	 is auto-selected when
		     cdrecord finds a Philips  CDD-521	drive  (which  is  the
		     first  CD	writer	ever  made) or one of the other drives
		     that are known to behave  similar	to  this  drive.   All
		     Philips  CDD-521  or similar drives (see other drivers in
		     this list) do not support Session At Once recording.

	      philips_cdd521_old
		     The driver for Philips old CDD-521 is auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord  finds  a Philips CDD-521 with very old firmware
		     which has some known limitations.

	      philips_cdd522
		     The driver for  Philips  CDD-522  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord  finds  a Philips CDD-522 which is the successor
		     of the 521 or one	of  its	 variants  with	 Kodak	label.
		     Cdrecord  does not support Session At Once recording with
		     these drives.

	      philips_dumb
		     The driver for Philips CDD-521 with  pessimistic  assump‐
		     tions  is	never  auto-selected.	It may be used by hand
		     with drives that behave similar to the Philips CDD-521.

	      pioneer_dws114x
		     The driver for Pioneer  DW-S114X  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord  finds  one  of  the old non MMC CD writers from
		     Pioneer.

	      plasmon_rf4100
		     The driver for Plasmon  RF	 4100  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord  finds  this  specific  variant  of  the Philips
		     CDD-521.

	      ricoh_ro1060c
		     The driver	 for  Ricoh  RO-1060C  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord  finds  this drive. There is no real support for
		     this drive yet.

	      ricoh_ro1420c
		     The driver	 for  Ricoh  RO-1420C  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord  finds a drive with this specific variant of the
		     Philips CDD-521 command set.

	      scsi2_cd
		     The generic SCSI-2 CD-ROM driver is  auto-selected	 when‐
		     ever cdrecord finds a pre MMC drive that does not support
		     writing or a pre MMC writer  that	is  not	 supported  by
		     cdrecord.

	      sony_cdu924
		     The  driver  for  Sony CDU-924 / CDU-948 is auto-selected
		     whenever cdrecord finds one of the old pre MMC CD writers
		     from Sony.

	      teac_cdr50
		     The  driver for Teac CD-R50S, Teac CD-R55S, JVC XR-W2010,
		     Pinnacle RCD-5020 is auto-selected whenever  one  of  the
		     drives  is found that is known to the non MMC command set
		     used by TEAC and JVC.  Note that  many  drives  from  JVC
		     will not work because they do not correctly implement the
		     documented command set and JVC has been unwilling to  fix
		     or	 document  the bugs.  There is no support for the Ses‐
		     sion At Once write mode yet.

	      tyuden_ew50
		     The driver for Taiyo Yuden EW-50  is  auto-selected  when
		     cdrecord  finds a drive with this specific variant of the
		     Philips CDD-521 command set.

	      yamaha_cdr100
		     The driver for Yamaha CDR-100 / CDR-102 is	 auto-selected
		     when  cdrecord  finds  one	 of the old pre MMC CD writers
		     from Yamaha.  There is no support for the Session At Once
		     write mode yet.

	      cdr_simul
		     The simulation CD-R driver allows to run timing and speed
		     tests with parameters that match the behavior of CD writ‐
		     ers.

	      dvd_simul
		     The  simulation  DVD-R  driver  allows  to run timing and
		     speed tests with parameters that match  the  behavior  of
		     DVD writers.

	      There  are two special driver entries in the list: cdr_simul and
	      dvd_simul.  These driver entries are  designed  to  make	timing
	      tests  at	 any speed or timing tests for drives that do not sup‐
	      port the -dummy option.	The  simulation	 drivers  implement  a
	      drive  with  a  buffer  size of 1 MB that can be changed via the
	      CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE environment variable.  The  simulation	driver
	      correctly	 simulates  even  a buffer underrun condition.	If the
	      -dummy option is present, the simulation is not aborted in  case
	      of a buffer underrun.

       driveropts=option list
	      Set  driver  specific options. The options are specified a comma
	      separated	 list.	 To  get  a  list   of	 valid	 options   use
	      driveropts=help  together	 with  the -checkdrive option.	If you
	      like to set driver options without running  a  typical  cdrecord
	      task,  you need to use the -setdropts option in addition, other‐
	      wise the command line parser in cdrecord	will  complain.	  Cur‐
	      rently implemented driver options are:

	      burnfree
		     Turn  the	support	 for  Buffer Underrun Free writing on.
		     This only works for drives that support  Buffer  Underrun
		     Free  technology.	 This may be called: Sanyo BURN-Proof,
		     Ricoh Just-Link, Yamaha Lossless-Link or similar.

		     The default is to turn BURN-Free off, regardless  of  the
		     defaults of the drive.

	      noburnfree
		     Turn the support for Buffer Underrun Free writing off.

	      varirec=value
		     Turn  on  the Plextor VariRec writing mode. The mandatory
		     parameter value is the laser power offset	and  currently
		     may  be  selected from -2, -1, 0, 1, 2.  In addition, you
		     need to set the write  speed  to  4  in  order  to	 allow
		     VariRec to work.

	      gigarec=value
		     Manage  the  Plextor  GigaRec writing mode. The mandatory
		     parameter value is the disk capacity  ratio  compared  to
		     normal  recording and currently may be selected from 0.6,
		     0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1,1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4.  If values <  1.0
		     are  used, then the effect is similar to the Yamaha Audio
		     Master Q. R.  feature. If values > 1.0 are used, then the
		     disk capacity is increased.

		     Not  all drives support all GigaRec values.  When a drive
		     uses the GigaRec feature, the write speed is  limited  to
		     8x.

	      audiomaster
		     Turn on the Yamaha Audio Master Q. R.  feature which usu‐
		     ally should result in high quality	 CDs  that  have  less
		     reading  problems	in  Hi-Fi  players.  As this is imple‐
		     mented as a variant of the Session at Once write mode, it
		     will  only work if you select SAO write mode and there is
		     no need to turn it off.  The Audio Master mode will  work
		     with  a limited speed but may also be used with data CDs.
		     In Audio Master mode, the pits on the CD will be  written
		     larger  then  usual  so  the  capacity  of	 the medium is
		     reduced when turning this feature on.   A	74  minute  CD
		     will  only	 have a capacity of 63 minutes if Audio Master
		     is active and the capacity of a  80  minute  CD  will  be
		     reduced to 68 minutes, the capacity in will be reduced to
		     85% of the original capacity.  On newer  Plextor  drives,
		     this  feature  is	also  present but the capacity will be
		     redued to 86.66% of the original capacity. For other fac‐
		     tors on Plextor drives, see the gigarec option above.

	      forcespeed
		     Normally,	modern	drives know the highest possible speed
		     for different media and may reduce the speed in order  to
		     grant best write quality.	This technology may be called:
		     Plextor PowerRec, Ricoh Just-Speed, Yamaha Optimum	 Write
		     Speed  Control  or	 similar.   Some drives (e.g. Plextor,
		     Ricoh and Yamaha) allow to force the  drive  to  use  the
		     selected  speed  even  if	the  medium is so bad that the
		     write quality would be poor. This	option	tells  such  a
		     drive  to	force  to use the selected speed regardless of
		     the medium quality.

		     Use this option with extreme care and note that the drive
		     should  know better which medium will work at full speed.
		     The default is to turn forcespeed off, regardless of  the
		     defaults of the drive.

	      noforcespeed
		     Turn off the force speed feature.

	      speedread
		     Some  ultra  high	speed  drives  such  as 48x and faster
		     drives from Plextor limit	the  read  speed  for  unknown
		     media  to	e.g.  40x  in order to avoid damaged disks and
		     drives.  Using this option tells the drive	 to  read  any
		     media  as	fast as possible.  Be very careful as this may
		     cause the media to break  in  the	drive  while  reading,
		     resulting in a damaged media and drive!

	      nospeedread
		     Turn off unlimited read speed.

	      singlesession
		     Turn  the	drive  into a single session only drive.  This
		     allows to read defective or non-compliant (illegal) media
		     with  extremely  non-standard additional (broken/illegal)
		     TOC entries in the TOC from the second or higher session.
		     Some of these disks become usable if only the information
		     from the first session is used.  You need to enable  Sin‐
		     gle Session mode before you insert the defective disk!

	      nosinglesession
		     Turn off single session mode. The drive will again behave
		     as usual.

	      hidecdr
		     Hide the fact that a medium might be a recordable medium.
		     This  allows to make CD-Rs look like CD-ROMs and applica‐
		     tions believe that the media in the drive is not a CD-R.

	      nohidecdr
		     Turn off hiding CD-R media.

	      tattooinfo
		     Use this option together with -checkdrive to retrieve the
		     image  size  information  for the Yamaha DiskT@2 feature.
		     The images always have a line length of 3744 pixel.  Line
		     number  0 (radius 0) is mapped to the center of the disk.
		     If you know the inner and outer radius you will  be  able
		     to	 create	 a  pre	 distorted image that later may appear
		     undistorted on the disk.

	      tattoofile=name
		     Use this option together with  -checkdrive	 to  write  an
		     image  prepared  for  the	Yamaha	DiskT@2 feature to the
		     medium.  The file must be a file with raw image B&W  data
		     (one byte per pixel) in a size as retrieved by a previous
		     call to tattoofile=name .	 If  the  size	of  the	 image
		     equals  the  maximum  possible  size  (3744 x 320 pixel),
		     cdrecord will use the first part of the file. This	 first
		     part  then	 will  be written to the leftover space on the
		     CD.

		     Note that the image must be mirrored to be readable  from
		     the pick up side of the CD.

	      layerbreak
		     Switch  a	drive  with  DVD-R/DL  medium  into layer jump
		     recording recording mode and use  automatic  layer	 break
		     position set up.

		     By	 default,  DVD-R/DL  media  is	written	 in sequential
		     recording mode that completely fills up both layers.

	      layerbreak=value
		     Set up a  manual  layer  break  value  for	 DVD-R/DL  and
		     DVD+R/DL.	 The  specified	 layer break value must not be
		     set to less than half of the recorded data size and  must
		     not be set to more than the remaining Layer 0 size of the
		     medium.  The manual layer break value needs to be a  mul‐
		     tiple  of	the  ECC  sector size which is 16 logical 2048
		     byte sectors in case of DVD media	and  32	 logical  2048
		     byte sectors in case of HD-DVD or BD media.

		     Cdrecord  does  not  allow to write DL media in case that
		     the total amount of data is less then the Layer 0 size of
		     the  medium  except  when	a  manual layer break has been
		     specified by using the layerbreak=value option.

       -setdropts
	      Set the driveropts  specified  by	 driveropts=option  list,  the
	      speed  of	 the  drive  and the dummy flag and exit.  This allows
	      cdrecord to set drive specific parameters that are not  directly
	      used  by	cdrecord  like e.g.  single session mode, hide cdr and
	      similar.	It is  needed  in  case	 that  driveropts=option  list
	      should  be  called  without  planning  to run a typical cdrecord
	      task.

       -checkdrive
	      Checks if a driver for the current drive is  present  and	 exit.
	      If the drive is a known drive, cdrecord uses exit code 0.

       -prcap Print  the drive capabilities for SCSI-3/mmc compliant drives as
	      obtained from mode page 0x2A. Values marked  with	 kB  use  1000
	      bytes  as	 kilo-byte,  values  marked  with KB use 1024 bytes as
	      Kilo-byte.

       -inq   Do an inquiry for the drive, print the inquiry info and exit.

       -scanbus
	      Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI busses and print  the  inquiry
	      strings.	This  option  may  be used to find SCSI address of the
	      CD/DVD-Recorder on a system.  The numbers printed out as	labels
	      are computed by: bus * 100 + target

       -reset Try to reset the SCSI bus where the CD recorder is located. This
	      works not on all operating systems.

       -abort Try to send an abort sequence to the drive.  If you use cdrecord
	      only,  this should never be needed; but other software may leave
	      a drive in an unusable condition.	 Calling cdrecord  -reset  may
	      be needed if a previous write has been interrupted and the soft‐
	      ware did not tell the drive that it will not continue to write.

       -overburn
	      Allow cdrecord to write more than the official size of a medium.
	      This  feature  is	 usually called overburning and depends on the
	      fact that most blank media may hold more space than the official
	      size.  As	 the official size of the lead-out area on the disk is
	      90 seconds (6750 sectors) and a disk usually works if there  are
	      at least 150 sectors of lead out, all media may be overburned by
	      at least 88 seconds (6600 sectors).  Most CD recorders  only  do
	      overburning  in  SAO  or RAW mode. Known exceptions are TEAC CD-
	      R50S, TEAC CD-R55S and the Panasonic CW-7502.   Some  drives  do
	      not  allow  to  overburn as much as you might like and limit the
	      size of a CD to e.g. 76 minutes. This  problem  may  be  circum‐
	      vented  by writing the CD in RAW mode because this way the drive
	      has no chance to find the size before starting to	 burn.	 There
	      is  no  guarantee	 that  your drive supports overburning at all.
	      Make a test to check if your drive implements the feature.

       -ignsize
	      Ignore the known size of the medium. This option should be  used
	      with  extreme  care, it exists only for debugging purposes don't
	      use it for other reasons.	 It is not needed to write disks  with
	      more than the nominal capacity.  This option implies -overburn.

       -useinfo
	      Use  *.inf  files to overwrite audio options.  If this option is
	      used, the pregap size information is read from  the  *.inf  file
	      that  is	associated  with the file that contains the audio data
	      for a track.

	      If used together with the -audio option, cdrecord may be used to
	      write  audio  CDs from a pipe from cdda2wav if you call cdrecord
	      with the *.inf files as track parameter list  instead  of	 using
	      audio  files.   The  audio data is read from stdin in this case.
	      See EXAMPLES section below.  Cdrecord first verifies that	 stdin
	      is  not  connected to a terminal and runs some heuristic consis‐
	      tency checks on the *.inf files and then sets the track  lengths
	      from the information in the *.inf files.

	      If  you  like  to	 write	from stdin, make sure that cdrecord is
	      called with a large enough FIFO size, reduce the write speed  to
	      a	 value below the read speed of the source drive and switch the
	      burn-free option for the recording drive on.

       defpregap=#
	      Set the default pre-gap size for all tracks except track	number
	      1.   This	 option currently only makes sense with the TEAC drive
	      when creating track-at-once disks without the 2  second  silence
	      before each track.
	      This option may go away in future.

       -packet
	      Set Packet writing mode.	This is an experimental interface.

       pktsize=#
	      Set  the packet size to #, forces fixed packet mode.  This is an
	      experimental interface.

       -noclose
	      Do not close the current track, useful only when in packet writ‐
	      ing mode.	 This is an experimental interface.

       mcn=med_cat_nr
	      Set the Media Catalog Number of the CD to med_cat_nr.

       -text  Write CD-Text information based on information taken from a file
	      that contains ascii information for the text strings.   Cdrecord
	      supports	CD-Text	 information based on the content of the *.inf
	      files created by cdda2wav and CD-Text information based  on  the
	      content  from  a	CUE  sheet file.  If a CUE sheet file contains
	      both (binary CDTEXTFILE and text based SONGWRITER) entries, then
	      the information based on the CDTEXTFILE entry will win.

	      You need to use the -useinfo option in addition in order to tell
	      cdrecord to read the *.inf files or cuefile=filename in order to
	      tell cdrecord to read a CUE sheet file in addition.  If you like
	      to write your own CD-Text information, edit the *.inf  files  or
	      the CUE sheet file with a text editor and change the fields that
	      are relevant for CD-Text.

       textfile=filename
	      Write CD-Text based on information  found	 in  the  binary  file
	      filename.	  This	file must contain information in a data format
	      defined in the SCSI-3 MMC-2 standard and in the  Red  Book.  The
	      four  byte  size	header that is defined in the SCSI standard is
	      optional and allows to make the recognition of correct data less
	      ambiguous.   This	 is the best option to be used to copy CD-Text
	      data from existing CDs that already carry	 CD-Text  information.
	      To  get  data  in a format suitable for this option use cdrecord
	      -vv -toc	to  extract  the  information  from  disk.   If	 both,
	      textfile=filename	 and  CD-Text  information from *.inf or *.cue
	      files are present, textfile=filename will	 overwrite  the	 other
	      information.

       cuefile=filename
	      Take  all	 recording related information from a CDRWIN compliant
	      CUE sheet file.  No track files are allowed when this option  is
	      present and one of the options -dao, -sao, -raw, -raw16, -raw96r
	      is needed in addition.

TRACK OPTIONS
       Track options may be mixed with track file names.

       isrc=ISRC_number
	      Set the International Standard Recording	Number	for  the  next
	      track to ISRC_number.

       index=list
	      Sets an index list for the next track.  In index list is a comma
	      separated list of numbers that are counting from	index  1.  The
	      first entry in this list must contain a 0, the following numbers
	      must be an ascending list of numbers (counting in 1/75  seconds)
	      that  represent  the  start of the indices. An index list in the
	      form: 0,7500,15000 sets index 1 to the start of the track, index
	      2	 100  seconds from the start of the track and index 3 200 sec‐
	      onds from the start of the track.

       -audio If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-DA  (similar  to  Red Book) audio format.  The file with data
	      for this tracks should contain stereo, 16-bit digital audio with
	      44100  samples/s.	  The  byte order should be the following: MSB
	      left, LSB left, MSB right, LSB right, MSB left and  so  on.  The
	      track  should be a multiple of 2352 bytes. It is not possible to
	      put the master image of an audio track on	 a  raw	 disk  because
	      data will be read in multiple of 2352 bytes during the recording
	      process.

	      If a filename ends in .au or .wav the file is considered to be a
	      structured  audio	 data file.  Cdrecord assumes that the file in
	      this case is a Sun audio file  or	 a  Microsoft  .WAV  file  and
	      extracts the audio data from the files by skipping over the non-
	      audio header information.	 In all	 other	cases,	cdrecord  will
	      only  work  correctly if the audio data stream does not have any
	      header.  Because many structured audio  files  do	 not  have  an
	      integral number of blocks (1/75th second) in length, it is often
	      necessary to specify the -pad option as well.   cdrecord	recog‐
	      nizes that audio data in a .WAV file is stored in Intel (little-
	      endian) byte order, and will automatically byte-swap the data if
	      the  CD recorder requires big-endian data.  Cdrecord will reject
	      any audio file that does not match the Red Book requirements  of
	      16-bit stereo samples in PCM coding at 44100 samples/second.

	      Using  other  structured audio data formats as input to cdrecord
	      will usually work if the structure of the data is the  structure
	      described	 above	(raw pcm data in big-endian byte order).  How‐
	      ever, if the data format includes a  header,  you	 will  hear  a
	      click at the start of a track.

	      If  neither  -data  nor  -audio  have  been  specified, cdrecord
	      defaults to -audio for all filenames that end in .au or .wav and
	      to -data for all other files.

       -swab  If  this	flag  is present, audio data is assumed to be in byte-
	      swapped (little-endian) order.  Some types  of  CD-Writers  e.g.
	      Yamaha, Sony and the new SCSI-3/mmc drives require audio data to
	      be presented in little-endian order, while other writers require
	      audio  data  to  be  presented  in the big-endian (network) byte
	      order normally used by the SCSI protocol.	 Cdrecord knows	 if  a
	      CD-Recorder needs audio data in big- or little-endian order, and
	      corrects the byte order of the data stream to match the needs of
	      the  recorder.  You only need the -swab flag if your data stream
	      is in Intel (little-endian) byte order.

	      Note that the verbose output of cdrecord will show you if	 swap‐
	      ping  is	necessary to make the byte order of the input data fit
	      the required byte order of the recorder.	Cdrecord will not show
	      you if the -swab flag was actually present for a track.

       -data  If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
	      CD-ROM mode 1 (Yellow Book) format. The data size is a  multiple
	      of  2048	bytes.	 The  file  with  track data should contain an
	      ISO-9660 or Rock Ridge filesystem image (see  mkisofs  for  more
	      details). If the track data is an ufs filesystem image, fragment
	      size should be set to 2 KB or more to allow CD-drives with  2 KB
	      sector size to be used for reading.

	      -data  is	 the default, if no other flag is present and the file
	      does not appear to be of one of the well known audio file types.

	      If neither  -data	 nor  -audio  have  been  specified,  cdrecord
	      defaults to -audio for all filenames that end in .au or .wav and
	      to -data for all other files.

       -mode2 If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
	      CD-ROM mode 2 format. The data size is a multiple of 2336 bytes.

       -xa    If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
	      CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1 format. The data size is a  multiple  of
	      2048  bytes.   The  XA sector sub headers will be created by the
	      drive.  With this option, the write mode is the same as with the
	      -multi option.

       -xa1   If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
	      CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1 format. The data size is a  multiple  of
	      2056 bytes.  The XA sector sub headers are part of the user data
	      and have to be supplied by the  application  that	 prepares  the
	      data to be written.

       -xa2   If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
	      CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 2 format. The data is a multiple  of  2324
	      bytes.  The XA sector sub headers will be created by the drive.

       -xamix If  this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in a
	      way that allows a mix of CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1/2  format.  The
	      data  size is a multiple of 2332 bytes.  The XA sector sub head‐
	      ers are part of the user data and have to	 be  supplied  by  the
	      application  that	 prepares the data to be written.  The CRC and
	      the P/Q parity ECC/EDC  information  (depending  on  the	sector
	      type)  have  to be supplied by the application that prepares the
	      data to be written.

       -cdi   If this flag is present, the TOC type for the  disk  is  set  to
	      CDI.  This only makes sense with XA disks.

       -isosize
	      Use the ISO-9660 file system size as the size of the next track.
	      This option is needed if you want cdrecord to directly read  the
	      image  of a track from a raw disk partition or from a TAO master
	      CD. In the first case the option -isosize is needed to limit the
	      size of the CD to the size of the ISO filesystem.	 In the second
	      case the option -isosize is  needed  to  prevent	cdrecord  from
	      reading  the  two	 run  out blocks that are appended by each CD-
	      recorder in track at once mode. These two run out blocks	cannot
	      be  read	and  would  cause a buffer underrun that would cause a
	      defective copy.  Do not use this	option	on  files  created  by
	      mkisofs  and  in	case cdrecord reads the track data from stdin.
	      In the first case, you would prevent cdrecord from  writing  the
	      amount  of  padding that has been appended by mkisofs and in the
	      latter case, it will not work because stdin is not seekable.

	      If -isosize is used for a track, cdrecord will automatically add
	      padding  for  this track as if the -pad option has been used but
	      the amount of padding may be less than the  padding  written  by
	      mkisofs.	Note that if you use -isosize on a track that contains
	      Sparc boot information, the boot information will be lost.

	      Note also that this option cannot be used to determine the  size
	      of a file system if the multi session option is present.

       -pad   If  the track is a data track, 15 sectors of zeroed data will be
	      added to the end of this and each	 subsequent  data  track.   In
	      this case, the -pad option is superseded by the padsize= option.
	      It will remain however as a shorthand for padsize=15s.   If  the
	      -pad  option  refers  to	an  audio track, cdrecord will pad the
	      audio data to be a multiple of 2352 bytes.  The audio data  pad‐
	      ding  is	done  with  binary  zeroes  which is equal to absolute
	      silence.

	      -pad remains valid until disabled by -nopad.

       padsize=#
	      Set the amount of data to be appended as	padding	 to  the  next
	      track  to	 #.   Opposed  to the behavior of the -pad option, the
	      value for	 padsize=  is  reset  to  zero	for  each  new	track.
	      Cdrecord	assumes	 a  sector size of 2048 bytes for the padsize=
	      option, independent from the real sector	size  and  independent
	      from  the	 write	mode.	The megabytes mentioned in the verbose
	      mode output however are counting the output sector size which is
	      e.g.  2448 bytes when writing in RAW/RAW96 mode.	See fs= option
	      for possible arguments.  To pad the equivalent of 20 minutes  on
	      a	 CD, you may write padsize=20x60x75s.  Use this option if your
	      CD-drive is not able to read the last sectors of a track	or  if
	      you  want	 to  be able to read the CD on a Linux system with the
	      ISO-9660 filesystem read ahead bug.  If an empty	file  is  used
	      for track data, this option may be used to create a disk that is
	      entirely made of padding.	 This may e.g. be used to find out how
	      much overburning is possible with a specific media.

       -nopad Do not pad the following tracks - the default.

       -shorttrack
	      Allow all subsequent tracks to violate the Red Book track length
	      standard which requires a minimum track  length  of  4  seconds.
	      This  option  is	only useful when used in SAO or RAW mode.  Not
	      all drives support this  feature.	 The  drive  must  accept  the
	      resulting CUE sheet or support RAW writing.

       -noshorttrack
	      Re-enforce the Red Book track length standard. Tracks must be at
	      least 4 seconds.

       pregap=#
	      Set the  pre-gap size for the next track.	 This option currently
	      only makes sense with the TEAC drive when creating track-at-once
	      disks without the 2 second silence before each track.
	      This option may go away in future.

       -preemp
	      If this flag is present, all TOC entries	for  subsequent	 audio
	      tracks  will  indicate that the audio data has been sampled with
	      50/15 microsec pre-emphasis.  The data, however is not  modified
	      during  the  process  of	transferring  from file to disk.  This
	      option has no effect on data tracks.

       -nopreemp
	      If this flag is present, all TOC entries	for  subsequent	 audio
	      tracks  will indicate that the audio data has been mastered with
	      linear data - this is the default.

       -copy  If this flag is present, all TOC entries	for  subsequent	 audio
	      tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
	      permission to be copied  without	limit.	 This  option  has  no
	      effect on data tracks.

       -nocopy
	      If  this	flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
	      tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
	      permission to be copied only once for personal use - this is the
	      default.

       -scms  If this flag is present, all TOC entries	for  subsequent	 audio
	      tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
	      no permission to be copied anymore.

       tsize=#
	      If the master image for the next track has been stored on a  raw
	      disk,  use  this	option	to specify the valid amount of data on
	      this disk. If the image of the next track is stored in a regular
	      file,  the size of that file is taken to determine the length of
	      this track.  If the track contains an ISO 9660 filesystem	 image
	      use the -isosize option to determine the length of that filesys‐
	      tem image.
	      In Disk at Once mode and with some drives that use the TEAC pro‐
	      gramming	interface,  even in Track at Once mode, cdrecord needs
	      to know the size of each track  before  starting	to  write  the
	      disk.   Cdrecord	now  checks this and aborts before starting to
	      write.  If this happens you will need to run mkisofs -print-size
	      before  and use the output (with `s' appended) as an argument to
	      the tsize= option of cdrecord (e.g. tsize=250000s).
	      See fs= option for possible arguments.

EXAMPLES
       For all examples below, it will be assumed that the CD/DVD-Recorder  is
       connected to the primary SCSI bus of the machine. The SCSI target id is
       set to 2.

       To record a pure CD-ROM at double speed, using data from the file cdim‐
       age.raw:

	   cdrecord -v speed=2 dev=2,0 cdimage.raw

       To  create  an  image  for a ISO 9660 filesystem with Rock Ridge exten‐
       sions:

	   mkisofs -R -o cdimage.raw /home/joerg/master/tree

       To check the resulting file before writing to CD on Solaris:

	   mount -r -F fbk -o type=hsfs /dev/fbk0:cdimage.raw /mnt

       The fbk driver first appeared in 1988.

       Solaris 9 or newer come with a variant of the original fbk idea	called
       lofi.  The command for the lofi variant is:

	    mount -r -F hsfs ` lofiadm -a /tmp/cdimage.raw ` /mnt

       Note that lofiadm needs absolute path names.

       On Linux:

	   mount cdimage.raw -r -t iso9660 -o loop /mnt

       Go on with:
	   ls -lR /mnt
	   umount /mnt

       If  the	overall speed of the system is sufficient and the structure of
       the filesystem is not too complex, cdrecord will run  without  creating
       an image of the ISO 9660 filesystem. Simply run the pipeline:

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree | cdrecord -v fs=6m speed=2 dev=2,0 -

       The  recommended	 minimum  FIFO	size  for  running  this pipeline is 4
       MBytes.	As the default FIFO size is 4 MB, the fs= option needs only be
       present	if  you	 want to use a different FIFO size.  If your system is
       loaded, you should run mkisofs in the real time class  too.   To	 raise
       the priority of mkisofs replace the command

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree
       by
	   priocntl -e -c RT -p 59 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on Solaris and by

	   nice --18 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on  systems  that  don't	 have  UNIX  International compliant real-time
       scheduling.

       Cdrecord runs at priority 59 on Solaris, you should run mkisofs	at  no
       more  than  priority 58. On other systems, you should run mkisofs at no
       less than nice --18.

       Creating a CD-ROM without file system image on disk has been tested  on
       a  Sparcstation-2  with	a Yamaha CDR-400. It did work up to quad speed
       when the machine was not loaded.	 A faster machine may be able to  han‐
       dle quad speed also in the loaded case.

       To  record  a  pure CD-DA (audio) at single speed, with each track con‐
       tained in a file named track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

	   cdrecord -v speed=1 dev=2,0 -audio track*.cdaudio

       To check if it will be ok to use double speed for  the  example	above.
       Use the dummy write option:

	   cdrecord -v -dummy speed=2 dev=2,0 -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  record a mixed-mode CD with an ISO 9660 filesystem from cdimage.raw
       on the first track, the other tracks being audio tracks from the	 files
       track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

	   cdrecord -v dev=2,0 cdimage.raw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  handle drives that need to know the size of a track before starting
       to write, first run

	   mkisofs -R -quiet -print-size /master/tree

       and then run

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree | cdrecord speed=2 dev=2,0 tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by the output of the previous run of mkisofs.

       To copy an audio CD in the most accurate way, first run

	   cdda2wav dev=2,0 -vall cddb=0 -B -Owav

       and then run

	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -v -dao -useinfo -text  *.wav

       This will try to copy track indices and	to  read  CD-Text  information
       from  disk.   If	 there is no CD-Text information, cdda2wav will try to
       get the information from freedb.org instead.

       To copy an audio CD from a pipe (without intermediate files), first run

	   cdda2wav dev=1,0 -vall cddb=0 -info-only

       and then run

	   cdda2wav dev=1,0 -no-infofile -B -Oraw - | \
	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -v -dao -audio -useinfo -text *.inf

       This will get all information (including	 track	size  info)  from  the
       *.inf files and then read the audio data from stdin.

       If you like to write from stdin, make sure that cdrecord is called with
       a large enough FIFO size (e.g.  fs=128m), reduce the write speed	 to  a
       value  below  the  read speed of the source drive (e.g.	speed=12), and
       switch the burn-free option  for	 the  recording	 drive	on  by	adding
       driveropts=burnfree.

       To  set	drive  options without writing a CD (e.g. to switch a drive to
       single session mode), run

	   cdrecord dev=1,0 -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       If you like to do this when no CD is in the drive, call

	   cdrecord dev=1,0 -force -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       To copy a CD in clone mode, first read the master CD using:

	   readcd dev=b,t,l -clone f=somefile

       or (in case the CD contains many sectors that are unreadable by	inten‐
       tion) by calling:

	   readcd dev=1,0 -clone -nocorr f=somefile

       will  create  the  files	 somefile and somefile.toc.  Then write the CD
       using:

	   cdrecord dev=1,0 -raw96r -clone -v somefile

ENVIRONMENT
       CDR_DEVICE
	      This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable to the
	      open  call  of the SCSI transport library or a label in the file
	      /etc/default/cdrecord.

       CDR_SPEED
	      Sets the default	speed  value  for  writing  (see  also	-speed
	      option).

       CDR_FIFOSIZE
	      Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

       CDR_FORCERAWSPEED
	      If  this environment variable is set, cdrecord will allow you to
	      write at the full RAW encoding  speed  a	single	CPU  supports.
	      This  will  create  high potential of buffer underruns. Use with
	      care.

       CDR_FORCESPEED
	      If this environment variable is set, cdrecord will allow you  to
	      write  at	 the  full DMA speed the system supports.  There is no
	      DMA reserve for reading the data that  is	 to  be	 written  from
	      disk.   This will create high potential of buffer underruns. Use
	      with care.

	      If this environment variable is set to the value	any,  cdrecord
	      allows  to write at any speed even though it may fail later with
	      a buffer underrun.

       RSH    If the RSH environment is present, the  remote  connection  will
	      not be created via rcmd(3) but by calling the program pointed to
	      by RSH.  Use e.g.	 RSH=/usr/bin/ssh to  create  a	 secure	 shell
	      connection.

	      Note  that  this	forces cdrecord to create a pipe to the rsh(1)
	      program and disallows cdrecord to directly  access  the  network
	      socket to the remote server.  This makes it impossible to set up
	      performance parameters and slows down the connection compared to
	      a root initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If the RSCSI environment is present, the remote SCSI server will
	      not  be  the  program  /opt/schily/sbin/rscsi  but  the  program
	      pointed  to  by RSCSI.  Note that the remote SCSI server program
	      name will be ignored if you log in using	an  account  that  has
	      been created with a remote SCSI server program as login shell.

FILES
       /etc/default/cdrecord
	      Default	values	can  be	 set  for  the	following  options  in
	      /etc/default/cdrecord.	For   example:	 CDR_FIFOSIZE=8m    or
	      CDR_SPEED=2

	      CDR_DEVICE
		     This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable
		     to the open call of the SCSI transport library or a label
		     in the file /etc/default/cdrecord that allows to identify
		     a specific drive on the system.

	      CDR_SPEED
		     Sets the default speed value for writing (see also -speed
		     option).

	      CDR_FIFOSIZE
		     Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

	      CDR_MAXFIFOSIZE
		     Sets the maximum size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

	      Any other label
		     is	 an  identifier	 for  a	 specific drive on the system.
		     Such an identifier may not contain	 the  characters  ',',
		     '/', '@' or ':'.

		     Each  line	 that follows a label contains a TAB separated
		     list of items.  Currently, four items are recognized: the
		     SCSI  ID  of  the drive, the default speed that should be
		     used for this drive, the default FIFO size that should be
		     used  for this drive and drive specific options. The val‐
		     ues for speed and fifosize may  be	 set  to  -1  to  tell
		     cdrecord  to  use	the  global  defaults.	 The value for
		     driveropts may be set to "" if no driveropts are used.  A
		     typical line may look this way:

		     teac1= 0,5,0   4	 8m   ""

		     yamaha= 1,6,0  -1	 -1   burnfree

		     This  tells cdrecord that a drive named teac1 is at scsi‐
		     bus 0, target 5, lun 0 and should be used	with  speed  4
		     and  a FIFO size of 8 MB.	A second drive may be found at
		     scsibus 1, target 6, lun 0 and uses the default speed and
		     the default FIFO size.

SEE ALSO
       cdda2wav(1), readcd(1), scg(7), fbk(7), mkisofs(8), rcmd(3), ssh(1).

NOTES
       Not  all options described in this manual may be supported by the Open‐
       Source variant of cdrecord. Cdrecord issues a warning if an attempt  is
       made to use an option that has been disabled in the OpenSource variant.

       On Solaris before Solaris 10 Update 1, you need to stop the volume man‐
       agement if you like to use the USCSI fallback SCSI transport code. Even
       things like cdrecord -scanbus will not work if the volume management is
       running.

       Disks made in Track At Once mode are  not  suitable  as	a  master  for
       direct  mass production by CD manufacturers.  You will need the disk at
       once option to record such disks.  Nevertheless the disks made in Track
       At  Once	 will  normally	 be  read in all CD players. Some old audio CD
       players however may produce  a  two  second  click  between  two	 audio
       tracks.

       The  minimal  size of a track is 4 seconds or 300 sectors. If you write
       smaller tracks, the CD-Recorder will add dummy blocks. This is  not  an
       error, even though the SCSI-error message looks this way.

       Cdrecord	 has  been  tested  on an upgraded Philips CDD-521 recorder at
       single and double speed on a  SparcStation  20/502  with	 no  problems,
       slower  computer	 systems should work also.  The newer Philips/HP/Plas‐
       mon/Grundig drives as well as Yamaha CDR-100 and CDR-102 work also. The
       Plasmon	RF-4100	 work, but has not tested in multi session.  A Philips
       CDD-521 that has not been upgraded will not work.  The Sony CDU-924 has
       been  tested,  but  does	 not  support  XA-mode2 in hardware.  The Sony
       therefore cannot create conforming  multi  session  disks.   The	 Ricoh
       RO-1420C	 works, but some people seem to have problems to use them with
       speed=2, try speed=0 in this case.

       The Yamaha CDR-400 and all new SCSI-3/mmc conforming  drives  are  sup‐
       ported in single and multi-session.

       You should run several tests in all supported speeds of your drive with
       the -dummy option turned on if you are using  cdrecord  on  an  unknown
       system.	Writing	 a  CD	is  a  real-time process.  NFS will not always
       deliver constantly the needed data rates.  If you want to use  cdrecord
       with  CD-images	that  are located on a NFS mounted filesystem, be sure
       that the FIFO size is big enough.  I used cdrecord with medium load  on
       a SS20/502 and even at quad speed on a Sparcstation-2 which was heavily
       loaded, but it is recommended to leave the system as lightly loaded  as
       possible	 while	writing	 a  CD.	  If you want to make sure that buffer
       underruns are not caused by your source disk, you may use the command

	   cdrecord -dummy dev=2,0 padsize=600m /dev/null

       to create a disk that is entirely made of dummy data.   Cdrecord	 needs
       to  run	as root to get access to the /dev/scg?	device nodes and to be
       able to lock itself into memory.

       If you don't want to  allow  users  to  become  root  on	 your  system,
       cdrecord	 may safely be installed suid root. This allows all users or a
       group of users with no root privileges to use  cdrecord.	  Cdrecord  in
       this  case  checks,  if	the real user would have been able to read the
       specified files.	 To give all user access to use cdrecord, enter:

	    chown root /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
	    chmod 4711 /usr/local/bin/cdrecord

       To give a restricted group of users access to cdrecord enter:

	    chown root /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
	    chgrp cdburners /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
	    chmod 4710 /usr/local/bin/cdrecord

       and add a group cdburners on your system.

       Never give write permissions  for  non  root  users  to	the  /dev/scg?
       devices	unless	you  would allow anybody to read/write/format all your
       disks.

       You should not connect old drives that do not support disconnect/recon‐
       nect to either the SCSI bus that is connected to the CD-Recorder or the
       source disk.

       A Compact Disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When creating a disc with both audio and data tracks, the  data	should
       be  on  track  1	 otherwise  you should create a CDplus disk which is a
       multi session disk with the first session containing the	 audio	tracks
       and the following session containing the data track.

       Many  operating	systems	 are  not able to read more than a single data
       track, or need special software to do so.

       More information on the SCSI command set of a  HP  CD-Recorder  can  be
       found at:

	    http://www.hp.com/isgsupport/cdr/index.html

       If  you	have  more  information	 or SCSI command manuals for currently
       unsupported CD/DVD-Recorders please contact the author.

       The Philips CDD 521 CD-Recorder (even in the upgraded version) has sev‐
       eral  firmware  bugs.  Some  of	them will force you to power cycle the
       device or to reboot the machine.

       When using cdrecord with the broken Linux  SCSI	generic	 driver.   You
       should  note that cdrecord uses a hack, that tries to emulate the func‐
       tionality of the scg driver.  Unfortunately, the sg driver on Linux has
       several severe bugs:

       ·      It cannot see if a SCSI command could not be sent at all.

       ·      It  cannot  get  the SCSI status byte.  Cdrecord for that reason
	      cannot report failing SCSI commands in some situations.

       ·      It cannot get real DMA count of transfer.	 Cdrecord cannot  tell
	      you if there is an DMA residual count.

       ·      It  cannot  get  number  of  bytes  valid	 in  auto  sense data.
	      Cdrecord cannot tell you if device transfers no  sense  data  at
	      all.

       ·      It  fetches to few data in auto request sense (CCS/SCSI-2/SCSI-3
	      needs >= 18).

       The FIFO percent output is computed just after a block of data has been
       written	to  the	 CD/DVD-Recorder. For this reason, there will never be
       100% FIFO fill ratio while the FIFO is in streaming mode.

DIAGNOSTICS
       You have 9 seconds to type ^C to abort cdrecord after you see the  mes‐
       sage:

       Starting to write CD at speed %d in %s mode for %s session.

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks like:

	      cdrecord: I/O error. test unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  00 20 00 00 00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0A 00 00 00 00 25 00 00 00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical unit not supported) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid)
	      cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       The  first  line	 gives information about the transport of the command.
       The text after the first colon gives the error text for the system call
       from  the  view	of  the	 kernel. It usually is: I/O error unless other
       problems happen. The next words contain a  short	 description  for  the
       SCSI  command  that fails. The rest of the line tells you if there were
       any problems for the transport of the command over the SCSI bus.	 fatal
       error  means that it was not possible to transport the command (i.e. no
       device present at the requested SCSI address).

       The second line prints the SCSI command descriptor block for the failed
       command.

       The  third  line	 gives information on the SCSI status code returned by
       the command, if the transport of the command succeeds.  This  is	 error
       information from the SCSI device.

       The fourth line is a hex dump of the auto request sense information for
       the command.

       The fifth line is the error text for the sense key if  available,  fol‐
       lowed  by  the  segment	number that is only valid if the command was a
       copy command. If the error message is not directly related to the  cur‐
       rent command, the text deferred error is appended.

       The sixth line is the error text for the sense code and the sense qual‐
       ifier if available.  If the type of the device is known, the sense data
       is  decoded  from  tables  in scsierrs.c .  The text is followed by the
       error value for a field replaceable unit.

       The seventh line prints the block number that is related to the	failed
       command	and  text for several error flags. The block number may not be
       valid.

       The eight line reports the timeout set up for this command and the time
       that the command really needed to complete.

       The following message is not an error:

	      Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).
	      cdrecord: I/O error. flush cache: scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  35 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27 0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00 00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy data blocks added) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk -2147483609 (valid)
	      cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       It  simply notifies, that a track that is smaller than the minimum size
       has been expanded to 300 sectors.

BUGS
       Cdrecord has even more options than ls.

       There should be a recover option to make disks usable, that  have  been
       written during a power failure.

CREDITS
       Bill Swartz    (Bill_Swartz@twolf.com)
		      For helping me with the TEAC driver support

       Aaron Newsome  (aaron.d.newsome@wdc.com)
		      For letting me develop Sony support on his drive

       Eric Youngdale (eric@andante.jic.com)
		      For supplying mkisofs

       Gadi Oxman     (gadio@netvision.net.il)
		      For tips on the ATAPI standard

       Finn Arne Gangstad  (finnag@guardian.no)
		      For the first FIFO implementation.

       Dave Platt     (dplatt@feghoot.ml.org)
		      For  creating  the  experimental packet writing support,
		      the first implementation of CD-RW blanking support,  the
		      first  .wav  file	 decoder  and many nice discussions on
		      cdrecord.

       Chris P. Ross (cross@eng.us.uu.net)
		      For the first implementation of a BSDI SCSI transport.

       Grant R. Guenther   (grant@torque.net)
		      For creating the first parallel port transport implemen‐
		      tation for Linux.

       Kenneth D. Merry (ken@kdm.org)
		      for  providing  the  CAM	port for FreeBSD together with
		      Michael Smith (msmith@freebsd.org)

       Heiko Eiszfeldt (heiko@hexco.de)
		      for making libedc_ecc available  (needed	to  write  RAW
		      data sectors).

MAILING LISTS
       If  you	want to actively take part on the development of cdrecord, you
       may join the developer mailing list via this URL:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers

       The mail address of the list is: cdwrite@other.debian.org

AUTHOR
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

       Additional information can be found on:
       http://www.fokus.fhg.de/usr/schilling/cdrecord.html

       If you have support questions, send them to:

       cdrecord-support@berlios.de
       or cdwrite@other.debian.org

       If you have definitely found a bug, send a mail to:

       cdrecord-developers@berlios.de
       or schilling@fokus.fhg.de

       To subscribe, use:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers
       or http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-support

       The old cdwrite mailing list may be joined by sending mail to:

	    cdwrite-request@other.debian.org

       and including the word subscribe in the body.  The mail address of  the
       list is:

	    cdwrite@other.debian.org

Joerg Schilling			  Version 2.0			   CDRECORD(1)
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