chmod man page on Ultrix

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chmod(1)							      chmod(1)

Name
       chmod - change file mode

Syntax
       chmod [ -fR ] mode file...

Description
       Permissions on files are set according to mode and file parameters.

       For file, you can specify either a full or partial path.	 You can spec‐
       ify multiple files, separated by spaces.

       For mode, you specify one of two variants: absolute  mode  or  symbolic
       mode.

   Absolute Mode
       For mode in absolute form, you specify an octal number constructed from
       the sum of one or more of the following values:

	      4000	set user ID on execution (applies to executable	 files
			only)
	      2000	set group ID on execution (applies to executable files
			only)
	      1000	set sticky bit (see for more information)
	      0400	read by owner
	      0200	write by owner
	      0100	execute, or search if file is a directory, by owner
	      0040	read by group
	      0020	write by group
	      0010	execute, or search if file is a directory, by group
	      0004	read by others
	      0002	write by others
	      0001	execute, or search if file is a directory, by others

       For example, the absolute mode value that  provides  read,  write,  and
       execute	permission to owner, read and execute permission to group, and
       read and execute permission to others is	 755  (400+200+100+40+10+4+1).
       The  absolute mode value that provides read, write, and execute permis‐
       sion  to	 owner	and  no	 permission  to	 group	or   others   is   700
       (400+200+100).

   Symbolic Mode
       To specify mode in symbolic form, use the following format:

	      [who]  op permission [op permission] ...	Spaces are included in
	      the preceding format so that you can read	 the  arguments;  how‐
	      ever, as will be shown in examples that follow, you do not enter
	      spaces between mode arguments.

       Specify who using the letters u (for owner), g (for group) and  o  (for
       others)	either alone or in combination.	 You can also specify the let‐
       ter a (for all), which is is equivalent to the letter combination  ugo.
       If you omit the who parameter, a is assumed.  For more information, see

       For  the	 op  parameter, specify the plus sign (+) to add permission to
       the file's mode, the minus sign	(-)  to	 remove	 permission  from  the
       file's  mode,  or  the  equal  sign (=) to assign permission absolutely
       (denying or revoking any permission not explicitly specified  following
       the  equal  sign).  The first command in the following example provides
       group with execute permission for in addition to any other  permissions
       group  currently	 has for The second command limits the permission that
       group has for to execute alone:
       chmod g+x filea
       chmod g=x fileb

       For the permission parameter, specify any combination of the letters  r
       (read),	w (write), x (execute), s (set owner or group id), and t (save
       text - sticky).	Alternatively, you can specify the letter u, g,	 or  o
       to  set	permission for the who parameter to be the same as the permis‐
       sion currently granted to the user category indicated  by  the  letter.
       In  the	following example, the group (g) is given the same permissions
       on as currently granted to owner (u):
       chmod g=u filea

       You can revoke all permissions by specifying the who argument  followed
       by =, and omitting the permission argument.  For example, the following
       command removes all permissions from others for
       chmod o= fileb

       When specifying more than one symbolic  mode  for  file,	 separate  the
       modes  with commas. The mode changes are applied in the sequence speci‐
       fied.  In the following example, write permission is added to the  per‐
       missions	 already granted to the owner of and group is then granted the
       same permissions on as granted the owner:
       chmod u+w,g=u filea

Options
       -f   Inhibits display of errors that are returned if  fails  to	change
	    the mode on a file.

       -R   Causes  to recursively descend any directories subordinate to file
	    and to set the specified mode for each file encountered.  However,
	    when  symbolic  links are encountered, does not change the mode of
	    the link file and does not traverse the path associated  with  the
	    link.   Note that the option is useful only when file identifies a
	    directory that is not empty.

Restrictions
       The permission letter s is used only with who letter u or g.

       Only the owner of a file	 or someone logged on as superuser may	change
       the mode of that file.

Examples
       Using  absolute mode, provide read, write, and search permission to the
       owner, and read and search permission to others for a directory named
       chmod 755 ~harris/public

       Using absolute mode, set the UID for execution to be the UID of of  the
       file  owner rather than the UID of the user running the program as fol‐
       lows:
       chmod 4000 progrmb

       Using symbolic mode, perform the same operation as  described  for  the
       preceding example:
       chmod u=s progrmb

       Using symbolic mode, deny write permission to others for the file
       chmod o-w ourspec

       Using  symbolic mode, give execute permission on file to all user cate‐
       gories:
       chmod +x myprog

       Using symbolic mode, give write permission to all group	members,  deny
       write permission to others, and give search permission to owner on
       chmod g+w,o-r,u+x docdir

       Using  symbolic mode, give read and execute permissions to others for a
       directory named and then recursively descend the paths  subordinate  to
       adding  the   same  permissions for others on all files and directories
       included in the subordinate paths:
       chmod -R o+rx programs
       In the preceding example, if were the name of  a	 file  rather  than  a
       directory, would change the mode only of the file.

See Also
       ls(1), chmod(2), stat(2), umask(2), chown(8)

								      chmod(1)
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