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CPIO(1L)							      CPIO(1L)

NAME
       cpio - copy files to and from archives

SYNOPSIS
       cpio  {-o|--create} [-0acvABLV] [-C bytes] [-H format] [-M message] [-O
       [[user@]host:]archive]		 [-F		[[user@]host:]archive]
       [--file=[[user@]host:]archive]	[--format=format]  [--message=message]
       [--null] [--reset-access-time] [--verbose] [--dot] [--append] [--block-
       size=blocks]	 [--dereference]      [--io-size=bytes]	     [--quiet]
       [--force-local] [--rsh-command=command] [--help]	 [--version]  <	 name-
       list [> archive]

       cpio  {-i|--extract} [-bcdfmnrtsuvBSV] [-C bytes] [-E file] [-H format]
       [-M message]  [-R  [user][:.][group]]  [-I  [[user@]host:]archive]  [-F
       [[user@]host:]archive]  [--file=[[user@]host:]archive] [--make-directo‐
       ries]  [--nonmatching]  [--preserve-modification-time]  [--numeric-uid-
       gid] [--rename] [-t|--list] [--swap-bytes] [--swap] [--dot] [--uncondi‐
       tional]	[--verbose]  [--block-size=blocks]  [--swap-halfwords]	[--io-
       size=bytes]	     [--pattern-file=file]	     [--format=format]
       [--owner=[user][:.][group]]  [--no-preserve-owner]  [--message=message]
       [--force-local]	 [--no-absolute-filenames]   [--sparse]	  [--only-ver‐
       ify-crc] [--quiet] [--rsh-command=command] [--help]  [--version]	 [pat‐
       tern...] [< archive]

       cpio  {-p|--pass-through}  [-0adlmuvLV] [-R [user][:.][group]] [--null]
       [--reset-access-time] [--make-directories] [--link]  [--quiet]  [--pre‐
       serve-modification-time]	   [--unconditional]	[--verbose]    [--dot]
       [--dereference]	  [--owner=[user][:.][group]]	 [--no-preserve-owner]
       [--sparse] [--help] [--version] destination-directory < name-list

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual page documents the GNU version of cpio.  cpio copies files
       into or out of a cpio or tar archive, which is  a  file	that  contains
       other  files  plus  information	about  them,  such as their file name,
       owner, timestamps, and access permissions.  The archive can be  another
       file on the disk, a magnetic tape, or a pipe.  cpio has three operating
       modes.

       In copy-out mode, cpio copies files into an archive.  It reads  a  list
       of  filenames,  one per line, on the standard input, and writes the ar‐
       chive onto the standard output.	A typical way to generate the list  of
       filenames  is  with  the	 find command; you should give find the -depth
       option to minimize problems with permissions on	directories  that  are
       unwritable or not searchable.

       In  copy-in  mode, cpio copies files out of an archive or lists the ar‐
       chive contents.	It reads the archive from  the	standard  input.   Any
       non-option  command  line  arguments  are shell globbing patterns; only
       files in the archive whose names match one or more  of  those  patterns
       are  copied from the archive.  Unlike in the shell, an initial `.' in a
       filename does match a wildcard at the start of a pattern, and a `/'  in
       a  filename  can	 match wildcards.  If no patterns are given, all files
       are extracted.

       In copy-pass mode,  cpio	 copies	 files	from  one  directory  tree  to
       another,	 combining  the	 copy-out  and	copy-in steps without actually
       using an archive.  It reads the list of files to copy from the standard
       input;  the  directory  into which it will copy them is given as a non-
       option argument.

       cpio supports the following archive formats:  binary,  old  ASCII,  new
       ASCII, crc, HPUX binary, HPUX old ASCII, old tar, and POSIX.1 tar.  The
       binary format is obsolete because  it  encodes  information  about  the
       files in a way that is not portable between different machine architec‐
       tures.  The old ASCII format  is	 portable  between  different  machine
       architectures,  but  should  not be used on file systems with more than
       65536 i-nodes.  The new ASCII  format  is  portable  between  different
       machine	architectures  and can be used on any size file system, but is
       not supported by all versions of cpio; currently, it is only  supported
       by GNU and Unix System V R4.  The crc format is like the new ASCII for‐
       mat, but also contains a checksum for each file which  cpio  calculates
       when  creating  an archive and verifies when the file is extracted from
       the archive.  The HPUX formats  are  provided  for  compatibility  with
       HPUX's cpio which stores device files differently.

       The  tar format is provided for compatability with the tar program.  It
       can not be used to archive files with names longer than 100 characters,
       and  can	 not be used to archive "special" (block or character devices)
       files.  The POSIX.1 tar format can not be used to  archive  files  with
       names  longer  than 255 characters (less unless they have a "/" in just
       the right place).

       By default, cpio creates binary format archives, for compatibility with
       older cpio programs.  When extracting from archives, cpio automatically
       recognizes which kind of archive it is reading and  can	read  archives
       created on machines with a different byte-order.

       Some  of the options to cpio apply only to certain operating modes; see
       the SYNOPSIS section for a list of which options are allowed  in	 which
       modes.

   OPTIONS
       -0, --null
	      In copy-out and copy-pass modes, read a list of filenames termi‐
	      nated by a null character instead of a newline,  so  that	 files
	      whose  names  contain newlines can be archived.  GNU find is one
	      way to produce a list of null-terminated filenames.

       -a, --reset-access-time
	      Reset the access times of files after reading them, so  that  it
	      does not look like they have just been read.

       -A, --append
	      Append  to  an  existing	archive.  Only works in copy-out mode.
	      The archive must be a disk file specified	 with  the  -O	or  -F
	      (--file) option.

       -b, --swap
	      In copy-in mode, swap both halfwords of words and bytes of half‐
	      words in the data.  Equivalent to -sS.  Use this option to  con‐
	      vert   32-bit  integers  between	big-endian  and	 little-endian
	      machines.

       -B     Set the I/O block size to 5120 bytes.  Initially the block  size
	      is 512 bytes.

       --block-size=BLOCK-SIZE
	      Set the I/O block size to BLOCK-SIZE * 512 bytes.

       -c     Identical	 to "-H newc", use the new (SVR4) portable format.  If
	      you wish the old portable (ASCII) archive format, use  "-H  odc"
	      instead.

       -C IO-SIZE, --io-size=IO-SIZE
	      Set the I/O block size to IO-SIZE bytes.

       -d, --make-directories
	      Create leading directories where needed.

       -E FILE, --pattern-file=FILE
	      In  copy-in  mode, read additional patterns specifying filenames
	      to extract or list from FILE.  The lines of FILE are treated  as
	      if they had been non-option arguments to cpio.

       -f, --nonmatching
	      Only copy files that do not match any of the given patterns.

       -F, --file=archive
	      Archive filename to use instead of standard input or output.  To
	      use a tape drive on another machine as the archive, use a	 file‐
	      name that starts with `HOSTNAME:'.  The hostname can be preceded
	      by a username and an `@' to access the remote tape drive as that
	      user,  if	 you  have  permission to do so (typically an entry in
	      that user's `~/.rhosts' file).

       --force-local
	      With -F, -I, or -O, take the archive file name  to  be  a	 local
	      file  even  if it contains a colon, which would ordinarily indi‐
	      cate a remote host name.

       -H FORMAT, --format=FORMAT
	      Use archive format FORMAT.  The valid formats are listed	below;
	      the  same names are also recognized in all-caps.	The default in
	      copy-in mode is to automatically detect the archive format,  and
	      in copy-out mode is "bin".

	      bin    The obsolete binary format.

	      odc    The old (POSIX.1) portable format.

	      newc   The  new (SVR4) portable format, which supports file sys‐
		     tems having more than 65536 i-nodes.

	      crc    The new (SVR4) portable format with a checksum added.

	      tar    The old tar format.

	      ustar  The POSIX.1 tar format.   Also  recognizes	 GNU  tar  ar‐
		     chives, which are similar but not identical.

	      hpbin  The  obsolete  binary  format  used by HPUX's cpio (which
		     stores device files differently).

	      hpodc  The portable format used by  HPUX's  cpio	(which	stores
		     device files differently).

       -i, --extract
	      Run in copy-in mode.

       -I archive
	      Archive  filename	 to  use  instead of standard input.  To use a
	      tape drive on another machine as the  archive,  use  a  filename
	      that starts with `HOSTNAME:'.  The hostname can be preceded by a
	      username and an `@' to access the	 remote	 tape  drive  as  that
	      user,  if	 you  have  permission to do so (typically an entry in
	      that user's `~/.rhosts' file).

       -k     Ignored; for compatibility with other versions of cpio.

       -l, --link
	      Link files instead of copying them, when possible.

       -L, --dereference
	      Dereference symbolic links (copy the files that  they  point  to
	      instead of copying the links).

       -m, --preserve-modification-time
	      Retain previous file modification times when creating files.

       -M MESSAGE, --message=MESSAGE
	      Print MESSAGE when the end of a volume of the backup media (such
	      as a tape or a floppy disk) is reached, to prompt	 the  user  to
	      insert a new volume.  If MESSAGE contains the string "%d", it is
	      replaced by the current volume number (starting at 1).

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
	      In the verbose table of contents listing, show numeric  UID  and
	      GID  instead  of translating them into names.  Also extracts tar
	      archives using the numeric UID and GID instead of the user/group
	      names.   (cpio  archives	are always extracted using the numeric
	      UID and GID.)

	--no-absolute-filenames
	      In copy-in mode, create all files relative to the current direc‐
	      tory, even if they have an absolute file name in the archive.

	--no-preserve-owner
	      In  copy-in mode and copy-pass mode, do not change the ownership
	      of the files; leave them owned  by  the  user  extracting	 them.
	      This  is the default for non-root users, so that users on System
	      V don't inadvertantly give away files.

       -o, --create
	      Run in copy-out mode.

       -O archive
	      Archive filename to use instead of standard output.   To	use  a
	      tape  drive  on  another	machine as the archive, use a filename
	      that starts with `HOSTNAME:'.  The hostname can be preceded by a
	      username	and  an	 `@'  to  access the remote tape drive as that
	      user, if you have permission to do so  (typically	 an  entry  in
	      that user's `~/.rhosts' file).

	--only-verify-crc
	      When  reading  a CRC format archive in copy-in mode, only verify
	      the CRC's of each file in the archive,  don't  actually  extract
	      the files.

       -p, --pass-through
	      Run in copy-pass mode.

       --quiet
	      Do not print the number of blocks copied.

       -r, --rename
	      Interactively rename files.

       -R [user][:.][group], --owner [user][:.][group]
	      In  copy-out and copy-pass modes, set the ownership of all files
	      created to the specified user and/or group.  Either the user  or
	      the  group,  or  both, must be present.  If the group is omitted
	      but the ":" or "."  separator is given,  use  the	 given	user's
	      login group.  Only the super-user can change files' ownership.

       --rsh-command=COMMAND
	      Notifies	mt  that  it  should  use  COMMAND to communicate with
	      remote devices instead of /usr/bin/ssh or /usr/bin/rsh.

       --sparse
	      In copy-in and copy-pass modes, write files with large blocks of
	      zeros as sparse files.

       -s, --swap-bytes
	      In copy-in mode, swap the bytes of each halfword (pair of bytes)
	      in the files.

       -S, --swap-halfwords
	      In copy-in mode, swap the halfwords of each word	(4  bytes)  in
	      the files.

       -t, --list
	      Print a table of contents of the input.

       -u, --unconditional
	      Replace  all  files,  without asking whether to replace existing
	      newer files with older files.

       -v, --verbose
	      List the files processed, or with -t, give an `ls -l' style  ta‐
	      ble  of  contents	 listing.  In a verbose table of contents of a
	      ustar archive, user and group names in the archive that  do  not
	      exist  on the local system are replaced by the names that corre‐
	      spond locally to the numeric UID and GID stored in the archive.

       -V --dot
	      Print a "." for each file processed.

       --version
	      Print the cpio program version number and exit.

								      CPIO(1L)
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