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crash(8)							      crash(8)

Name
       crash - examine system images

Syntax
       /usr/bin/crash [ system ] [ namelist ]

Description
       The  utility  is	 an interactive program that lets you examine the core
       image of the operating system.  This utility has facilities for	inter‐
       preting and formatting the various control structures in the system and
       certain miscellaneous functions that are useful when perusing a dump.

       The arguments to the utility are the file name where the	 system	 image
       can be found and a namelist file to be used for symbol values.

       The  default  values are and hence, the utility specified without argu‐
       ments can be used to examine an active system.  If a system image  file
       is  given,  it  is  assumed  to	be  a system core dump and the default
       process is set to be that of the process running at  the	 time  of  the
       crash.  This is determined by a value stored in a fixed location by the
       dump mechanism.

   Commands
       Use the following input to the utility:

       command [ options ] [ structures ]

       If used, options modify the format of  the  printout.   If  a  specific
       structure  element  is  not specified, all valid entries are used.  For
       example, proc 12 15 3 prints only process table slots 12,  15,  and  3,
       but proc prints the entire process table in standard format.

       In general, those commands that perform I/O with addresses assume hexa‐
       decimal on 32-bit machines and octal on 16-bit machines.

       The commands include the following:

       user [ -a ] [ process table entry ] [ *proc address ] [ #pid ]
	      Aliases:
	      Prints the user structure of the named process as determined  by
	      the  information	contained  in  the process table entry.	 If an
	      entry number is not given, the information from the last execut‐
	      ing process is printed.  Swapped processes produce an error mes‐
	      sage since their uareas are swapped.  If the -a option is speci‐
	      fied,  the entire user structure is printed in a vertical format
	      with the structure field selector names printed first,  followed
	      by  their	 value.	 The -a format prints many fields that are not
	      printed when -a is not specified.

       ufile [ process table entry ] [ *proc address ] [ #pid ]
	      Prints the open file table for the given process.

       trace  [ - ] [ process table entry ] [ *proc address ] [ #pid ]	[%cpu-
       number ]
	      Aliases:
	      Generates	 a  kernel  stack  trace of a process.	The process is
	      either a process slot number, an address of process slot, or the
	      running  process.	  If  the  process  is	not running, the trace
	      begins at the If an entry number is not given,  the  information
	      from the last executing process will be printed.	It is not pos‐
	      sible to trace the executing process on a running system.	 Using
	      the  -  flag  allows  the registers and variables for each stack
	      frame to be dumped.  When %cpu-number is specified, a  trace  of
	      the  running  process  on	 the  specified CPU is performed.  The
	      %cpu-number cannot be specified in the same trace command as the
	      process  slot  number, the process slot address, or the process-
	      id.

       stack [ -v ] [ process table entry ] [ *proc address ] [ #pid ]
	      Aliases :
	      Generates a kernel stack dump of a process.  This is  an	unfor‐
	      matted  display of the kernel stack.  If -v is specified, a for‐
	      matted display of the VAX kernel stack is given, including saved
	      registers,  arguments,  and  kernel backtrace.  For RISC proces‐
	      sors, the -v option is accepted but has no effect.

       proc [ -a] [ -r] [ process table entry ] [ *proc address ] [ #pid ]
	      Aliases:
	      Formats the process table.  The -a  option  causes  all  of  the
	      fields of the process table to be printed in a vertical with the
	      structure field selector names first printed, followed by	 their
	      value.   The  -a	option prints many fields that are not printed
	      when -a is not specified.	 The -r option	causes	only  runnable
	      processes to be printed.

       proclock [ -r] [ process table entry ] [ *proc address ] [ #pid ]
	      Shows  the  SMP sleep locks held by a non-running process.  Same
	      optional arguments as proc.

       pcb [ process table entry ] [ *proc address ] [ #pid ]
	      Prints the process control block of the  current	process.   The
	      process  control	block is a part of the user area (VAXen only).
	      If no entry number is given, the information from the last  exe‐
	      cuting process will be printed.

       ps [ process table entry ] [ *proc address ] [ #pid ]
	      Prints  the  process  slots, process id's, and process names for
	      all processes.

       pcb [ process table entry ] [ *proc address ] [ #pid ]
	      Prints the process control block for the given process.

       ppte [ process table entry ] [ *proc address ] [ #pid ]
	      Prints the pte's associated with the given process.

       spt    Dumps the system page table.

       cmap -A
	      Prints all of the cmap entries.

       cmap <page frame number>
	      Prints the memory freelist or the cmap for the given PFN.

       cmap -i index
	      Prints the core map for the given coremap index.

       cmap -h index
	      Prints the core maps for the given hash starting at index.

       cmap -b block
	      Prints the core maps hashed on the given block.

       cmap -a at
	      Prints the core map at the given address.

       cpu [ -a ]
		   Prints the cpudata table.  If -a is specified, all  of  the
		   fields in the table are printed in vertical format.

       smem   Prints  shared memory table information.	Shared memory configu‐
	      ration information is printed, along with the  contents  of  the
	      shared  memory  table, for all allocated shared memory segments.
	      Then, for each allocated shared memory segment,  information  is
	      printed  about  processes associated with the shared memory seg‐
	      ment, and consistency checks are performed to  verify  that  the
	      various data structures linking processes are correct.

       shmem shmaddr
	      Prints  information  on  the  shared  memory segment at location
	      shmaddr .

       prshmem [ process table entry ] [ *proc address ] [ #pid ]
	      Prints information on all shared memory segments associated with
	      the process.

       gnode [ - ] [ gnode table entries ] [ *gnode address ]
	      Aliases:
	      Formats the gnode table.

       gnode -maj <major number>
	      Formats all gnodes with the given major number.

       gnode -min <minor number>
	      Formats all gnodes with the given minor number.

       gnode -fs <mount slot number>
	      Formats all gnodes for a given file system slot.

       gnode -gno <gnode number>
	      Formats all gnodes with the given gnode number.

       gnode -uid <user id>
	      Formats all gnodes owned by the given uid.

       gnode -gid <group id>
	      Formats all gnodes owned by the given gid.

       gnode -lmod <file permissions>
	      Formats all gnodes with the given protection.  The command gnode
	      -lmod 777 finds all gnodes that allow read/write/execute permis‐
	      sion to every one.

       gnode -hmod <file type>
	      Formats all gnodes with the given file type.  gnode -hmod 2 find
	      all gnodes that are character special files.

       gnode -amod <file modesfR>
	      Formats all gnodes that match the given modes exactly.  The com‐
	      mand  gnode  -amod  20777 finds all gnodes for character devices
	      that allow read/write/execute permission to every one.

       gnode -all
	      Displays a more extensive list of the gnodes contents.

       gnode -lock
	      Shows the SMP lock contained in the gnode.

       gfree  Prints the list of all inactive gnodes.

       block [ - ] [ gnode table entries ] [ *gnode address ]
	      Prints the gnode data block addresses.

       rnode [ gnode table entries ] [ *gnode address ]
	      Alias:
	      Prints the associated rnode values for gnodes  that  are	remote
	      (via NFS).

       file [ file table entries ] [ *file address ]
	      Alias:
	      Formats the file table.

       cred address
	      Prints the credentials at the given address.

       crred address
	      Verifies the references of a credential at the given address.

       crcheck
	      Verifies all references to all credentials.

       mount [ -s ] [ mount table entries ] [ *mount address ]
	      Aliases:
	      Formats  the  mount table.  The option gives an abbreviated for‐
	      mat.

       fsdata [ mount table entries ] [ *mount address ]
	      Alias:
	      Prints the fsdata structure associated with a mount entry.

       mntinfo [ mount table entries ] [ *mount address ]
	      Alias:
	      Prints the mntinfo data structure associate  with	 an  NFS  file
	      system.

       buf [ - ] [ buffer headers ] [ *buffer header address ]
	      Aliases:
	      Formats  the  system buffer headers.  By using the - option, all
	      buffer headers (including ones marked invalid) are printed.

       bufgp [ gnode slots ] [ *gnode address ]
	      Alias:
	      Prints the buffer headers associated with the given gnode.

       buflock
	      Prints the buffer headers on the locked list.

       buflru Prints the buffer headers on the lru list.

       bufage Prints the buffer headers on the aged list.

       bufempty
	      Prints the buffer headers on the empty list.

       buffer [ format ] [ list of buffers ]
	      Alias:
	      Prints the data in a system buffer according to format.  If for‐
	      mat  is  omitted,	 the  previous	format is used.	 Valid formats
	      include and The last creates a file  in  the  current  directory
	      (see the Files section) containing the buffer data.

       text [ text table entries ] [ *text address ]
	      Aliases:
	      Formats the text table.

       ftext  Alias:
	      Prints the list of free texts.

       callout
	      Aliases:
	      Prints all entries in the callout table.

       arp [ - ] [ address ]
	      Prints the arp table.  The - option prints the entire table.

       socket [ file slot ] [ *file address ]
	      Prints the socket structure associated with the given file slot.

       tty [ - ] [ process slot ] [ *proc address ] [ #pid ]
	      Alias:
	      Prints  the  terminal  structure	attached  to a process.	 The -
	      option allows for the raw, cannonical, and output clists.

       tty -clist
	      Includes clists in display of the tty struct.

       tty -addr address
	      Prints the contents of a tty structure at the specified address.

       map [ map names ]
	      Formats the named system map structures.

       nm [ symbols ]
	      Prints the symbol value and type as found in the namelist file.

       ts [ text addresses ]
	      Finds the closest text symbols to the given addresses.

       ds [ data addresses ]
	      Finds the closest data symbols to the given addresses.

       od [ symbol name or address ] [ count ] [ format ]
	      Aliases:
	      Dumps count data values starting at the symbol value or  address
	      given according to format.  Allowable formats are or

       dis address [ address ]
	      Disassembles  starting at the first address and continuing until
	      the second address.  These addresses may be symbolic  (that  is,
	      syscall+33).

       stat   Displays DNLC and namei cache statistics.

       wg     Displays NFS write gathering and UFS clustering statistics.

       nfsstat
	      Displays NFS server statistics.

       nfsd   Displays NFS server daemon (nfsd) statistics.

       dupreq Displays	the  contents of the duplicate request cache.  This is
	      useful in finding out the recent history of NFS requests made to
	      the server.

       mbuf address
	      Displays the chain starting at the given address.

       inpcb -udp -tcp
	      Displays	the  chain  of the corresponding protocol, or both TCP
	      and UDP if no protocol is specified.

       client Displays the client table, which contains client handles used to
	      initiate rpc requests.

       sync   Resynchronizes  the  proc,  mount, gnode, buffer, file and other
	      internal tables up to the current state of This command is  use‐
	      ful  for	looking at changing values in runing kernels. However,
	      you should not use it when looking at files.

       svcxprt	address
	      Prints the svcxprt structure located at address.

       scs    Traverses data structures in the System Communications  Services
	      (SCS) tree and displays the contents of the data structures.

       scs -cb address
	      Displays	the contents of an SCS connection block data structure
	      at the specified address.

       scs -cib address
	      Displays the contents of an  SCS	connection  information	 block
	      data structure at the specified address.

       scs -pb address
	      Displays the contents of an SCS path block data structure at the
	      specified address.

       scs -pib address
	      Displays the contents of an  SCS	path  information  block  data
	      structure at the specified address.

       scs -sb address
	      Displays	the  contents of an SCS system block data structure at
	      the specified address.

       scs -sib address
	      Displays the contents of an SCS system  information  block  data
	      structure at the specified address.

       scsi   Prints SCSI controller information.

       scsi -target
	      Prints SCSI target information.

       scsi -devtab
	      Prints SCSI devtab information.

       scsi -trans
	      Prints SCSI transfer information.

       scsi -cmd
	      Prints SCSI message or command data.

       scsi -bbr
	      Prints SCSI Bad Block Replacement data.

       scsi -error
	      Prints SCSI error information.

       scsi -sii
	      Prints SCSI SII information.

       scsi -dct
	      Prints SCSI DCT statistics.

       scsi -spin
	      Prints SCSI SPIN statistics.

       scsi -all
	      Prints all SCSIBUS information.

       lock  [-all] address
	      Prints  the SMP lock structure located at address.  The all flag
	      displays all global SMP locks.

       mscp   Traverses both the mscp disk and tape subsystems, and prints the
	      data  structures	for  class  blocks,  connection	 blocks,  unit
	      blocks, and active request blocks.

       mscp -disk
	      Traverses the mscp disk subsystem and prints the data structures
	      for  the	mscp  class  block,  mscp connection blocks, mscp unit
	      blocks, and active request blocks.

       mscp -tape
	      Traverses the tmscp tape subsystem and prints  the  data	struc‐
	      tures  for the tmscp class block, tmscp connection blocks, tmscp
	      unit blocks, and active request blocks.

       mscp -config
	      Traverses both the mscp disk and tape subsystems,	 and  displays
	      the  system  configuration.   This  is  done by printing summary
	      information from the class, connection, and unit blocks.

       mscp -connb address
	      Prints the contents of an mscp connection block at the specified
	      address.

       mscp -classb address
	      Prints  the  contents  of	 an  mscp class block at the specified
	      address.

       mscp -unitb address
	      Prints the contents of an mscp  unitb  block  at	the  specified
	      address.

       mscp -reqb address
	      Prints  the  contents  of an mscp request block at the specified
	      address.

       mscp -dtable
	      Displays all the elements of the mscp disk unit  table.	Unused
	      elements of the array will be specified as NULL.

       mscp -ttable
	      Displays	all the elements of the tmscp tape unit table.	Unused
	      elements of the array will be specified as NULL.

       !      Escapes to the shell.

       #[ history ]
	      Repeats the last command.	 If a number is given (that  is,  #5),
	      that command number is re-executed.

       #h     Alias:
	      Shows the history list.

       q      Exits from

       ?      Prints a synopsis of commands.

   Aliases
       There  are  built-in  aliases  for many of the formats as well as those
       listed for the commands.	 Some of them are:
	      byte	  b.
	      character	  char, c.
	      decimal	  dec, e.
	      directory	  direct, dir, d.
	      hexadecimal hexadec, hex, h, x.
	      gnode	  gno , g.
	      longdec	  ld, D.
	      longoct	  lo, O.
	      octal	  oct, o.
	      write	  w.

Restrictions
       Many of the flags are abbreviated making them difficult	to  interpret.
       A source listing of the system header files would be helpful when using
       the utility.

       Examing the stack of the current process on a running system and	 procs
       running at the time of a crash does not work.

Files
       Header files for table and structure information

       Default system image file

       Default namelist file

       Files created containing buffer data

See Also
       mount(8), nm(1), ps(1), sh(1), stty(1), pstat(8)

				      VAX			      crash(8)
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