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CSCOPE(1)							     CSCOPE(1)

       cscope - interactively examine a C program

       cscope  [  -bCcdehkLlqRTUuV  ]  [-Fsymfile] [-freffile] [-Iincdir] [-inamefile]
       [-numpattern] [-pn] [-sdir]

       cscope is an interactive, screen-oriented tool that allows the user  to	browse
       through C source files for specified elements of code.

       By  default,  cscope examines the C (.c and .h), lex (.l), and yacc (.y) source
       files in the current directory.	cscope may also be invoked  for	 source	 files
       named  on the command line. In either case, cscope searches the standard direc‐
       tories for #include files that it does  not  find  in  the  current  directory.
       cscope  uses  a	symbol cross-reference, cscope.out by default, to locate func‐
       tions, function calls, macros,  variables,  and	preprocessor  symbols  in  the

       cscope  builds  the  symbol  cross-reference  the  first time it is used on the
       source files for the program being browsed. On a subsequent invocation,	cscope
       rebuilds	 the  cross-reference only if a source file has changed or the list of
       source files is different. When the cross-reference is rebuilt,	the  data  for
       the  unchanged  files  are  copied  from	 the  old cross-reference, which makes
       rebuilding faster than the initial build.

       The following options can appear in any combination:

       -b     Build the cross-reference only.

       -C     Ignore letter case when searching.

       -c     Use only ASCII characters in the cross-reference file, that is,  do  not
	      compress the data.

       -d     Do not update the cross-reference.

       -e     Suppress the <Ctrl>-e command prompt between files.

       -F symfile
	      Read  symbol  reference  lines from symfile. (A symbol reference file is
	      created by > and >>, and can also be read using the < command, described
	      under ``Issuing Subsequent Requests,'' below.)

       -f reffile
	      Use  reffile  as	the  cross-reference  file name instead of the default

       -h     View the long usage help display.

       -I incdir
	      Look in incdir (before looking in INCDIR, the standard place for	header
	      files,  normally /usr/include) for any #include files whose names do not
	      begin with ``/'' and that are not specified on the command  line	or  in
	      namefile	below. (The #include files may be specified with either double
	      quotes or angle brackets.)  The incdir directory is searched in addition
	      to the current directory (which is searched first) and the standard list
	      (which is searched last). If more than one occurrence of -I appears, the
	      directories are searched in the order they appear on the command line.

       -i namefile
	      Browse through all source files whose names are listed in namefile (file
	      names separated by spaces, tabs, or new-lines) instead  of  the  default
	      (cscope.files).  If  this	 option is specified, cscope ignores any files
	      appearing on the command line. The argument namefile can be set to ``-''
	      to accept a list of files from stdio.

       -k     ``Kernel	Mode'',	 turns off the use of the default include dir (usually
	      /usr/include) when building the database, since kernel source trees gen‐
	      erally do not use it.

       -L     Do  a  single  search  with line-oriented output when used with the -num
	      pattern option.

       -l     Line-oriented interface (see ``Line-Oriented Interface'' below).

       -num pattern
	      Go to input field num (counting from 0) and find pattern.

       -P path
	      Prepend path to relative file names in a pre-built cross-reference  file
	      so  you do not have to change to the directory where the cross-reference
	      file was built. This option is only valid with the -d option.

       -p n   Display the last n file path components instead of the default (1).  Use
	      0 to not display the file name at all.

       -q     Enable  fast  symbol  lookup  via	 an inverted index. This option causes
	      cscope to create 2  more	files  (default	 names	``''  and
	      ``cscope.po.out'')  in  addition	to  the normal database. This allows a
	      faster symbol search algorithm that provides  noticeably	faster	lookup
	      performance for large projects.

       -R     Recurse subdirectories for source files.

       -s dir Look  in	dir  for  additional  source  files. This option is ignored if
	      source files are given on the command line.

       -T     Use only the first eight characters to match against C symbols.  A regu‐
	      lar  expression  containing  special  characters other than a period (.)
	      will not match any symbol if its minimum length is  greater  than	 eight

       -U     Check  file  time	 stamps. This option will update the time stamp on the
	      database even if no files have changed.

       -u     Unconditionally build the cross-reference file (assume  that  all	 files
	      have changed).

       -V     Print on the first line of screen the version number of cscope.

       The -I, -c, -k, -p, -q, and -T options can also be in the cscope.files file.

       Requesting the initial search

       After the cross-reference is ready, cscope will display this menu:

       Find this C symbol:
       Find this function definition:
       Find functions called by this function:
       Find functions calling this function:
       Find this text string:
       Change this text string:
       Find this egrep pattern:
       Find this file:
       Find files #including this file:

       Press  the  <Up>	 or <Down> keys repeatedly to move to the desired input field,
       type the text to search for, and then press the <Return> key.

Issuing subsequent requests
       If the search is successful, any of  these  single-character  commands  can  be

	      Edit the file referenced by the given line number.

	      Display next set of matching lines.

       <Tab>  Alternate between the menu and the list of matching lines

       <Up>   Move to the previous menu item (if the cursor is in the menu) or move to
	      the previous matching line (if the cursor is in the matching line list.)

       <Down> Move to the next menu item (if the cursor is in the menu) or move to the
	      next matching line (if the cursor is in the matching line list.)

       +      Display next set of matching lines.

       -      Display previous set of matching lines.

       ^e     Edit displayed files in order.

       >      Write the displayed list of lines to a file.

       >>     Append the displayed list of lines to a file.

       <      Read  lines from a file that is in symbol reference format (created by >
	      or >>), just like the -F option.

       ^      Filter all lines through a  shell	 command  and  display	the  resulting
	      lines, replacing the lines that were already there.

       |      Pipe  all	 lines	to  a  shell command and display them without changing

       At any time these single-character commands can also be used:

	      Move to next input field.

       ^n     Move to next input field.

       ^p     Move to previous input field.

       ^y     Search with the last text typed.

       ^b     Move to previous input field and search pattern.

       ^f     Move to next input field and search pattern.

       ^c     Toggle ignore/use letter case  when  searching.  (When  ignoring	letter
	      case, search for ``FILE'' will match ``File'' and ``file''.)

       ^r     Rebuild the cross-reference.

       !      Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

       ^l     Redraw the screen.

       ?      Give help information about cscope commands.

       ^d     Exit cscope.

       NOTE:  If the first character of the text to be searched for matches one of the
       above commands, escape it by typing a (backslash) first.

       Substituting new text for old text

       After the text to be changed has been typed, cscope will	 prompt	 for  the  new
       text,  and  then	 it will display the lines containing the old text. Select the
       lines to be changed with these single-character commands:

	      Mark or unmark the line to be changed.

       *      Mark or unmark all displayed lines to be changed.

	      Display next set of lines.

       +      Display next set of lines.

       -      Display previous set of lines.

       a      Mark or unmark all lines to be changed.

       ^d     Change the marked lines and exit.

       <Esc>  Exit without changing the marked lines.

       !      Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

       ^l     Redraw the screen.

       ?      Give help information about cscope commands.

       Special keys

       If your terminal has arrow keys that work in vi,	 you  can  use	them  to  move
       around  the  input  fields.  The up-arrow key is useful to move to the previous
       input field instead of using the <Tab> key repeatedly.  If  you	have  <CLEAR>,
       <NEXT>,	or  <PREV>  keys  they	will act as the ^l, +, and - commands, respec‐

       Line-Oriented interface

       The -l option lets you use cscope where a screen-oriented interface  would  not
       be useful, for example, from another screen-oriented program.

       cscope will prompt with >> when it is ready for an input line starting with the
       field number (counting from 0) immediately followed by the search pattern,  for
       example, ``lmain'' finds the definition of the main function.

       If  you just want a single search, instead of the -l option use the -L and -num
       pattern options, and you won't get the >> prompt.

       For -l, cscope outputs the number of reference lines cscope: 2 lines

       For each reference found, cscope outputs a line consisting of  the  file	 name,
       function	 name,	line  number, and line text, separated by spaces, for example,
       main.c main 161 main(argc, argv)

       Note that the editor is not called to display a single  reference,  unlike  the
       screen-oriented interface.

       You  can	 use  the  c  command to toggle ignore/use letter case when searching.
       (When ignoring letter  case,  search  for  ``FILE''  will  match	 ``File''  and

       You can use the r command to rebuild the database.

       cscope will quit when it detects end-of-file, or when the first character of an
       input line is ``^d'' or ``q''.

	      Overrides the EDITOR and VIEWER variables. Use this if you wish to use a
	      different	 editor	 with cscope than that specified by your EDITOR/VIEWER

	      Format of the line number flag  for  your	 editor.  By  default,	cscope
	      invokes  your  editor  via  the  equivalent of ``editor +N file'', where
	      ``N'' is the line number that the editor should jump to. This format  is
	      used  by	both  emacs  and vi. If your editor needs something different,
	      specify it in this variable, with ``%s'' as a placeholder for  the  line
	      number.  Ex: if your editor needs to be invoked as ``editor -#103 file''
	      to go to line 103, set this variable to ``-#%s''.

	      Set this variable to ``yes'' if your editor needs to be invoked with the
	      line  number  option  after  the	filename to be edited. To continue the
	      example from CSCOPE_LINEFLAG, above: if your editor needs to see	``edi‐
	      tor  file -#number'', set this environment variable. Users of most stan‐
	      dard editors (vi, emacs) do not need to set this variable.

       EDITOR Preferred editor, which defaults to vi.

       HOME   Home directory, which is automatically set at login.

	      Colon-separated list of directories to search for #include files.

       SHELL  Preferred shell, which defaults to sh.

	      Colon-separated list of directories  to  search  for  additional	source

       TERM   Terminal type, which must be a screen terminal.

	      Terminal	information  directory full path name. If your terminal is not
	      in the standard terminfo directory, see curses and terminfo for  how  to
	      make your own terminal description.

       TMPDIR Temporary file directory, which defaults to /var/tmp.

       VIEWER Preferred	 file  display	program (such as less), which overrides EDITOR
	      (see above).

       VPATH  A colon-separated list of directories, each of which has the same direc‐
	      tory  structure  below  it.  If VPATH is set, cscope searches for source
	      files in the directories specified; if it is not	set,  cscope  searches
	      only in the current directory.

	      Default  files  containing  -I,  -p,  -q, and -T options and the list of
	      source files (overridden by the -i option).

	      Symbol cross-reference file (overridden by the -f option), which is  put
	      in the home directory if it cannot be created in the current directory.
	      Default  files  containing  the  inverted	 index	used  for quick symbol
	      searching (-q option). If you use the -f option to rename the cross-ref‐
	      erence file (so it's not cscope.out), the names for these inverted index
	      files will be created by adding
	       .in and .po to the name you supply with -f. For example, if  you	 indi‐
	      cated -f xyz, then these files would be named and xyz.po.

       INCDIR Standard directory for #include files (usually /usr/include).

       cscope recognizes function definitions of the form:
       fname blank ( args ) white arg_decs white {

       where: fname is the function name

       blank  is zero or more spaces or tabs, not including newlines

       args   is any string that does not contain a ``"'' or a newline

       white  is zero or more spaces, tabs, or newlines

	      are  zero	 or  more argument declarations (arg_decs may include comments
	      and white space)

       It is not necessary for a function declaration to start at the beginning	 of  a
       line.  The  return type may precede the function name; cscope will still recog‐
       nize the declaration. Function definitions that deviate from this form will not
       be recognized by cscope.

       The ``Function'' column of the search output for the menu option Find functions
       called by this function: input field  will  only	 display  the  first  function
       called in the line, that is, for this function

		return (f() + g());

       the display would be

	  Functions called by this function: e
	  File Function Line
	  a.c f 3 return(f() + g());

       Occasionally,  a	 function  definition or call may not be recognized because of
       braces inside #if statements. Similarly, the use of a variable  may  be	incor‐
       rectly recognized as a definition.

       A  typedef  name	 preceding a preprocessor statement will be incorrectly recog‐
       nized as a global definition, for example,

	#if AR16WR

       Preprocessor statements can also prevent the recognition of  a  global  defini‐
       tion, for example,

	char flag
	     = -1

       A  function  declaration inside a function is incorrectly recognized as a func‐
       tion call, for example,

		void g();

       is incorrectly recognized as a call to g.

       cscope recognizes C++ classes by looking for the	 class	keyword,  but  doesn't
       recognize  that a struct is also a class, so it doesn't recognize inline member
       function definitions in a structure. It also doesn't expect the	class  keyword
       in a typedef , so it incorrectly recognizes X as a definition in

	typedef class X	 *  Y;

       It also doesn't recognize operator function definitions

	Bool Feature::operator==(const Feature & other)

       Nor does it recognize function definitions with a function pointer argument

	ParseTable::Recognize(int startState, char *pattern,
	  int finishState, void (*FinalAction)(char *))

The Santa Cruz Operation	 November 2000			     CSCOPE(1)

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