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cu(1)									 cu(1)

       cu - call another (UNIX) system; terminal emulator

       speed] line] level] [telno|systemname

   UNIX Standard Syntax
       speed] line] [telno|systemname

       calls  up another system, which is usually a UNIX operating system, but
       can be a terminal or a non-UNIX operating system.  manages all interac‐
       tion between systems, including possible transfers of ASCII files.

       recognizes the following options and command-line arguments:

	      Specify the transmission speed
			     (110,  150,  300,	600,  1200,  2400, 3600, 4800,
			     7200, 9600, 19200).  The default value is 300.

	      Specify a device name to use as the communication line.
			     This can be used to override  searching  for  the
			     first  available  line  having  the  right speed.
			     When the option is used without the  option,  the
			     speed  of	a  line is obtained from file When the
			     and options are used simultaneously, searches  to
			     determine	whether	 the  requested	 speed for the
			     requested line is available.  If so, the  connec‐
			     tion  is  made at the requested speed; otherwise,
			     an error message is printed and the call  is  not
			     made.  The specified device is usually a directly
			     connected asynchronous  line  (such  as  In  this
			     case, a telephone number is not required, but the
			     string can be used to specify that	 a  dialer  is
			     not required.  If the specified device is associ‐
			     ated with an auto-dialer, a telephone number must
			     be provided.

	      Emulate local echo,
			     supporting	 calls	to other computer systems that
			     expect terminals to be set to half-duplex mode.

	      Use ENQ/ACK handshake (remote system sends ENQ,
			     sends ACK.)

	      Used when dialing an ASCII terminal that has been set  to	 auto-
	      answer.	Appropriate  mapping  of  carriage-return to carriage-
	      return-line-feed pairs is set.

	      Print diagnostic traces.
			     level is a number from 0-9, where	higher	levels
			     produce more detail in the diagnostic messages.

	      (UNIX Standard only, see
			     standards(5).)    Print  diagnostic  traces.  The
			     level is always 9.

	      Generate even (odd) parity for data sent to the remote.

	      Specify a direct line that has modem controls.
			     Modem controls are ignored by

	      Cause the telephone number that
			     dials to be requested interactively from the user
			     rather than taking it from the command line.

	      telno	     When  using  an  automatic	 dialer,  telno is the
			     telephone number, with equal signs for  secondary
			     dial tone or minus signs for delays appropriately
			     placed in the telno string.

	      systemname     A UUCP system name can be used instead of a tele‐
			     phone number (see uucp(1)); in this case, obtains
			     an appropriate direct line	 or  telephone	number
			     from  (including  appropriate  baud rate).	 dials
			     each telephone number or direct line for  system‐
			     name  in  the  file until a connection is made or
			     all the entries are tried.

	      Using	     ensures that  uses	 the  line  specified  by  the

       After making the connection, runs as two processes:

	      ·	 transmit  process  reads  data	 from  the standard input and,
		 except for lines beginning with passes it to the remote  sys‐

	      ·	 receive  process  accepts  data  from	the remote system and,
		 except for lines beginning with passes	 it  to	 the  standard

       Normally,  an  automatic DC3/DC1 protocol is used to control input from
       the remote to ensure that the buffer is not overrun.  "Prompt handshak‐
       ing"  can  be  used  to control transfer of ASCII files to systems that
       have no type-ahead capability but require data to be sent only after  a
       prompt  is  given.  This is described in detail below.  Lines beginning
       with have special meanings.

   Transmit Process Commands
       The transmit process interprets the following commands:

	      Terminate the conversation.
			     On hard-wired lines, sends several EOF characters
			     to	 log  out  the session, whereas suppresses the
			     EOF sequence.  In general the  remote  hard-wired
			     machine  is unaware of the disconnect if is used.
			     On dial-up connections, and do not differ.

	      Escape to an interactive shell on the local system.

	      Run	     cmd on the local system (via

	      Similar to     but kill the receive process, restarting it  upon
			     return from the shell.  This is useful for invok‐
			     ing sub-processes that read from  the  communica‐
			     tion  line where the receive process would other‐
			     wise compete for input.

	      Run	     cmd on the local system (via and kill the receive
			     process, restarting it later.

	      Pipe  incoming  data from the remote system through the standard
	      input to
			     cmd on the local  system.	 To  terminate,	 reset
			     with either a or command.

	      Resets the receive process following a

	      Run	     cmd  locally  and	send  its output to the remote

	      Change the directory on the local system.
			     Note: causes the command to  be  run  by  a  sub-
			     shell,  causing a return to the current directory
			     upon completion.

	      Copy file	     remote_source_file from the remote system to file
			     local_destination_file  on	 the local system.  If
			     local_destination_file  is	 not  specified,   the
			     remote_source_file	  argument  is	used  in  both

	      Copy file	     local_source_file	on  local   system   to	  file
			     remote_destination_file  on  remote  system.   If
			     remote_destination_file  is  not  specified,  the
			     local_source_file	 argument   is	used  in  both

	      Send the line  to the remote system.  If you use on  the	remote
			     system  to	 access a third remote system, send to
			     cause the second remote to exit.

	      Transmit a BREAK to the remote system.

	      Toggle between DC3/DC1 input control protocol and no input  con‐
	      trol.   This  is	useful	if  the remote system does not respond
	      properly to the DC3 and DC1 characters.

	      Send the contents of the local file to the remote system using
			     prompt handshaking.  The specified file  is  read
			     one  line at a time, and each line is sent to the
			     remote  system  when  the	prompt	 sequence   is
			     received.	 If  no prompt is received by the time
			     the prompt timeout occurs, the line is sent  any‐
			     way.   If	the timeout is set to 0 seconds, or if
			     the first character in the prompt sequence	 is  a
			     null character (^@), the handshake always appears
			     to	 be  satisfied	immediately,   regardless   of
			     whether  or  not  the  remote  system generates a
			     prompt.  This capability is  intended  mainly  to
			     facilitate	 transfer of ASCII files from HP-UX to
			     an HP 3000 system running MPE.  This  is  usually
			     accomplished  by running the MPE utility and giv‐
			     ing the command and then running the input diver‐
			     sion  to send the file to which saves it in dest‐
			     file.  This facility might be useful  with	 other
			     systems also, such as an HP 1000 running RTE.

	      Specify the number of seconds to wait for a prompt before giving
			     The default is 2 seconds.	Specifying  a  timeout
			     of 0 seconds disables handshaking; that is, hand‐
			     shake appears to complete immediately.

	      Set the handshake prompt to the characters
			     xy.  The default is DC1.  The prompt can  be  any
			     one  or  two  characters.	 To  specify a control
			     character for x or y, use the Ctrl-X form where a
			     circumflex	 (ASCII 94) precedes the character, as
			     in A null character can be specified with ^@.  (A
			     null  first  character  in	 the  prompt implies a
			     "null" prompt, which always appears to be	satis‐
			     fied.)  A circumflex is specified by

	      Divert output from the remote system to the specified file until
			     command is given.	When an	 output	 diversion  is
			     active, typing terminates it, whereas anotherfile
			     terminates it and begins a new one.   The	output
			     diversion	remains active through a subshell, but
			     unpredictable results can occur  if  input/output
			     diversions	 are  intermixed  with	or The command
			     appends to the named file.	 Note that these  com‐
			     mands,  which  are	 interpreted  by  the transmit
			     process, are unrelated to the commands  described
			     below,  which  are	 interpreted  by  the  receive

	      Suspend the    session.  susp is the suspend  character  set  in
			     the  terminal  when  was  invoked	(usually — see
			     stty(1)).	As in all other	 lines	starting  with
			     tilde, a line must be terminated by pressing

   Receive Process
       The  receive process normally copies data from the remote system to its
       standard output.	 A line from the remote that begins with initiates  an
       output diversion to a file.  The complete sequence is:

	      zero or more lines to be written to file

       Data  from  the	remote	is diverted (or appended, if is used) to file.
       The trailing terminates the diversion.

       The use of requires stty(1) and cat(1) on the  remote  side.   It  also
       requires	 that the current erase and kill characters on the remote sys‐
       tem be identical to the current ones on the local system.   Backslashes
       are inserted at appropriate places.

       The  use	 of  requires  that the remote system support the and commands
       (see echo(1) and cat(1).	 Also, mode should be set on the remote system
       if  tabs	 are  being  copied  without  expansion.  When connecting to a
       machine that uses the eighth bit as a parity bit, mode should be set on
       the local system.

       When  is	 used on system X to connect to system Y and subsequently used
       on system Y to connect to system Z, commands on system Y	 can  be  exe‐
       cuted  if  is used. For example, using the keyboard on system X, can be
       executed on Z, X, and Y as follows where lines 1, 3, and 5 are keyboard
       commands, and lines 2, 4, and 6 are system responses:

       In  general, causes the command to be executed on the original machine;
       causes the command to be executed on the next machine in the chain.

       For information about the UNIX Standard environment, see standards(5).

   Environment Variables
       determines the language in which messages are displayed.

       If is not specified or is set to the empty string,  a  default  of  "C"
       (see  lang(5))  is used instead of If any internationalization variable
       contains an invalid setting, behaves  as	 if  all  internationalization
       variables are set to "C".  See environ(5).

   International Code Set Support
       Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported.

       Exit code is zero for normal exit; non-zero (various values) otherwise.

       To dial a system whose number is 9 201 555 1212 using 1200 baud:

       If the speed is not specified, 300 is the default value.

       To log in on a system connected by a direct line:

       To dial a system with the specific line and a specific speed:

       To dial a system using a specific line:

       To use a system name

       To connect directly to a modem:

       buffers input internally.

       was developed by AT&T and HP.

       cat(1),	ct(1),	echo(1),  stty(1), uname(1), uucp(1), uuname(1), stan‐


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