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CVS(1)									CVS(1)

import.

NAME
       cvs - Concurrent Versions System

SYNOPSIS
       cvs [ cvs_options ]
	      cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

NOTE
       This  manpage is a summary of some of the features of cvs but it may no
       longer be kept up-to-date.  For more current  and  in-depth  documenta‐
       tion, please consult the Cederqvist manual (via the info cvs command or
       otherwise, as described in the SEE ALSO section of this manpage).

DESCRIPTION
       CVS is a version control system, which allows you to keep old  versions
       of  files  (usually  source  code),  keep  a  log of who, when, and why
       changes occurred, etc., like RCS or SCCS.  Unlike the simpler  systems,
       CVS  does  not just operate on one file at a time or one directory at a
       time, but operates on hierarchical collections of directories  consist‐
       ing  of	version controlled files.  CVS helps to manage releases and to
       control the concurrent editing of source files among multiple  authors.
       CVS  allows triggers to enable/log/control various operations and works
       well over a wide area network.

       cvs keeps a single copy of the master sources.  This copy is called the
       source  ``repository'';	it  contains  all  the	information  to permit
       extracting previous software releases at any time  based	 on  either  a
       symbolic revision tag, or a date in the past.

ESSENTIAL COMMANDS
       cvs  provides a rich variety of commands (cvs_command in the Synopsis),
       each of which often has a wealth of options, to satisfy the many	 needs
       of  source  management in distributed environments.  However, you don't
       have to master every detail to do useful work with cvs; in  fact,  five
       commands	 are  sufficient to use (and contribute to) the source reposi‐
       tory.

       cvs checkout modules...
	      A necessary preliminary for most cvs work: creates your  private
	      copy of the source for modules (named collections of source; you
	      can also use a path relative to  the  source  repository	here).
	      You  can	work  with  this copy without interfering with others'
	      work.  At least one subdirectory level is always created.

       cvs update
	      Execute this command from within your private  source  directory
	      when you wish to update your copies of source files from changes
	      that other developers have made to the source in the repository.

       cvs add file...
	      Use this command to enroll new files  in	cvs  records  of  your
	      working  directory.   The	 files will be added to the repository
	      the next time you run `cvs commit'.  Note: You  should  use  the
	      `cvs  import'  command  to bootstrap new sources into the source
	      repository.  `cvs add' is only used for new files to an  already
	      checked-out module.

       cvs remove file...
	      Use  this	 command  (after  erasing any files listed) to declare
	      that you wish to	eliminate  files  from	the  repository.   The
	      removal does not affect others until you run `cvs commit'.

       cvs commit file...
	      Use  this	 command  when you wish to ``publish'' your changes to
	      other developers, by incorporating them in  the  source  reposi‐
	      tory.

OPTIONS
       The  cvs command line can include cvs_options, which apply to the over‐
       all cvs program; a cvs_command, which specifies a particular action  on
       the  source  repository;	 and  command_options and command_arguments to
       fully specify what the cvs_command will do.

       Warning: you must be careful of precisely where you place options rela‐
       tive  to	 the  cvs_command.   The same option can mean different things
       depending on whether it is in the cvs_options position (to the left  of
       a  cvs  command)	 or in the command_options position (to the right of a
       cvs command).

       There are only two situations where you may omit cvs_command: `cvs  -H'
       or  `cvs	 --help' elicits a list of available commands, and `cvs -v' or
       `cvs --version' displays version information on cvs itself.

CVS OPTIONS
       As of release 1.6, cvs supports GNU style long options as well as short
       options.	  Only	a  few long options are currently supported, these are
       listed in brackets after the short options whose functions they	dupli‐
       cate.

       Use these options to control the overall cvs program:

       -H [ --help ]
	      Display  usage  information about the specified cvs_command (but
	      do not actually execute the command).  If you  don't  specify  a
	      command  name,  `cvs  -H' displays a summary of all the commands
	      available.

       -Q     Causes the command to be really quiet; the command will generate
	      output only for serious problems.

       -q     Causes the command to be somewhat quiet; informational messages,
	      such as reports of recursion through  subdirectories,  are  sup‐
	      pressed.

       -b bindir
	      Use  bindir as the directory where RCS programs are located (CVS
	      1.9 and older).  Overrides the setting of the RCSBIN environment
	      variable.	  This	value should be specified as an absolute path‐
	      name.

       -d CVS_root_directory
	      Use CVS_root_directory as the root  directory  pathname  of  the
	      master  source repository.  Overrides the setting of the CVSROOT
	      environment variable.  This value	 should	 be  specified	as  an
	      absolute pathname.

       -e editor
	      Use  editor  to  enter  revision log information.	 Overrides the
	      setting of the CVSEDITOR, VISUAL, and EDITOR  environment	 vari‐
	      ables.

       -f     Do not read the cvs startup file (~/.cvsrc).

       -n     Do  not  change  any files.  Attempt to execute the cvs_command,
	      but only to issue reports; do not remove, update, or  merge  any
	      existing files, or create any new files.

       -t     Trace  program  execution; display messages showing the steps of
	      cvs activity.  Particularly useful with -n to explore the poten‐
	      tial impact of an unfamiliar command.

       -r     Makes  new  working files read-only.  Same effect as if the CVS‐
	      READ environment variable is set.

       -R     Turns on read-only repository mode.  This allows	one  to	 check
	      out  from	 a  read-only  repository,  such  as within an anoncvs
	      server, or from a CDROM repository.  Same effect as if the  CVS‐
	      READONLYFS  environment variable is set.	Using -R can also con‐
	      siderably speed up checkout's over NFS.

       -v [ --version ]
	      Displays version and copyright information for cvs.

       -w     Makes new working files  read-write  (default).	Overrides  the
	      setting of the CVSREAD environment variable.

       -g     Forces group-write perms on working files.  This option is typi‐
	      cally used when you have multiple users sharing a single checked
	      out  source  tree,  allowing them to operate their shells with a
	      less dangerous umask.  To use this feature, create  a  directory
	      to  hold the checked-out source tree, set it to a private group,
	      and set up the  directory	 such  that  files  created  under  it
	      inherit  the  group  id of the directory.	 This occurs automati‐
	      cally with FreeBSD.  With SysV you must typically set  the  SGID
	      bit  on  the  directory.	The users who are to share the checked
	      out tree must be placed in that group.  Note that the sharing of
	      a	 single	 checked-out source tree is very different from giving
	      several users access to a common CVS repository.	 Access	 to  a
	      common CVS repository already maintains shared group-write perms
	      and does not require this option.

	      To use the option transparently, simply place the line 'cvs  -g'
	      in your ~/.cvsrc file.  Doing this is not recommended unless you
	      firewall all your source checkouts within	 a  private  group  or
	      within a private mode 0700 directory.

       -x     Encrypt all communication between the client and the server.  As
	      of this writing, this is only implemented when using a  Kerberos
	      connection.

       -z compression-level
	      When  transferring  files	 across the network use gzip with com‐
	      pression level compression-level	to  compress  and  de-compress
	      data  as	it  is	transferred.  Requires the presence of the GNU
	      gzip program in the current search path  at  both	 ends  of  the
	      link.

USAGE
       Except  when  requesting general help with `cvs -H', you must specify a
       cvs_command to cvs to select a specific	release	 control  function  to
       perform.	  Each	cvs  command accepts its own collection of options and
       arguments.  However, many options are  available	 across	 several  com‐
       mands.	You can display a usage summary for each command by specifying
       the -H option with the command.

CVS STARTUP FILE
       Normally, when CVS starts up, it reads the .cvsrc file  from  the  home
       directory of the user reading it.  This startup procedure can be turned
       off with the -f flag.

       The .cvsrc file lists CVS commands with a list of arguments,  one  com‐
       mand per line.  For example, the following line in .cvsrc:

       diff -c

       will  mean  that	 the  `cvs  diff' command will always be passed the -c
       option in addition to any other options that are specified in the  com‐
       mand  line  (in	this case it will have the effect of producing context
       sensitive diffs for all executions of `cvs diff' ).

       Global options are specified using the cvs keyword.  For	 example,  the
       following:

       cvs -q

       will  mean  that all `cvs' commands will behave as thought he -q global
       option had been supplied.

CVS COMMAND SUMMARY
       Here are brief descriptions of all the cvs commands:

       add    Add a new file or directory to the repository,  pending  a  `cvs
	      commit'  on the same file.  Can only be done from within sources
	      created by a  previous  `cvs  checkout'  invocation.   Use  `cvs
	      import' to place whole new hierarchies of sources under cvs con‐
	      trol.  (Does not directly	 affect	 repository;  changes  working
	      directory.)

       admin  Execute  control	functions  on the source repository.  (Changes
	      repository directly; uses	 working  directory  without  changing
	      it.)

       checkout
	      Make  a working directory of source files for editing.  (Creates
	      or changes working directory.)

       commit Apply to the source repository changes, additions, and deletions
	      from your working directory.  (Changes repository.)

       diff   Show  differences	 between files in working directory and source
	      repository, or  between  two  revisions  in  source  repository.
	      (Does not change either repository or working directory.)

       export Prepare  copies  of a set of source files for shipment off site.
	      Differs from `cvs checkout' in that no cvs administrative direc‐
	      tories  are  created  (and therefore `cvs commit' cannot be exe‐
	      cuted from a directory prepared with `cvs export'), and  a  sym‐
	      bolic  tag must be specified.  (Does not change repository; cre‐
	      ates directory similar to working directories).

       history
	      Show reports on cvs commands that you or others have executed on
	      a	 particular file or directory in the source repository.	 (Does
	      not change repository or working directory.)  History  logs  are
	      kept  only  if enabled by creation of the `$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/his‐
	      tory' file; see cvs(5).

       import Incorporate a set of  updates  from  off-site  into  the	source
	      repository, as a ``vendor branch''.  (Changes repository.)

       init   Initialize  a  repository by adding the CVSROOT subdirectory and
	      some default control files. You must use this  command  or  ini‐
	      tialize the repository in some other way before you can use it.

       log    Display log information.	(Does not change repository or working
	      directory.)

       rdiff  Prepare a collection of  diffs  as  a  patch  file  between  two
	      releases	in  the	 repository.   (Does  not change repository or
	      working directory.)

       release
	      Cancel a `cvs checkout', abandoning any  changes.	  (Can	delete
	      working directory; no effect on repository.)

       remove Remove  files from the source repository, pending a `cvs commit'
	      on the  same  files.   (Does  not	 directly  affect  repository;
	      changes working directory.)

       rtag   Explicitly  specify  a  symbolic tag for particular revisions of
	      files in the source repository.  See also `cvs  tag'.   (Changes
	      repository  directly;  does not require or affect working direc‐
	      tory.)

       status Show current status of files: latest version, version in working
	      directory,  whether working version has been edited and, option‐
	      ally, symbolic tags in the RCS file.  (Does not  change  reposi‐
	      tory or working directory.)

       tag    Specify a symbolic tag for files in the repository.  By default,
	      tags the revisions that were last synchronized with your working
	      directory.    (Changes  repository directly; uses working direc‐
	      tory without changing it.)

       update Bring your working directory up to date with  changes  from  the
	      repository.  Merges are performed automatically when possible; a
	      warning is issued if manual resolution is required for conflict‐
	      ing changes.  (Changes working directory; does not change repos‐
	      itory.)

COMMON COMMAND OPTIONS
       This section describes the command_options that	are  available	across
       several	cvs  commands.	Not all commands support all of these options;
       each option is only supported for commands where it makes sense.	  How‐
       ever, when a command has one of these options you can count on the same
       meaning for the option as in other commands.  (Other  command  options,
       which are listed with the individual commands, may have different mean‐
       ings from one cvs command to another.)  Warning: the history command is
       an  exception;  it  supports many options that conflict even with these
       standard options.

       -D date_spec
	      Use the most recent revision no later than date_spec  (a	single
	      argument,	 date  description  specifying a date in the past).  A
	      wide variety of date formats are supported,  in  particular  ISO
	      ("1972-09-24  20:05")  or	 Internet  ("24 Sep 1972 20:05").  The
	      date_spec is interpreted as being in the local timezone,	unless
	      a	  specific   timezone  is  specified.	The  specification  is
	      ``sticky'' when you use it to make a private copy	 of  a	source
	      file; that is, when you get a working file using -D, cvs records
	      the date you specified, so that  further	updates	 in  the  same
	      directory will use the same date (unless you explicitly override
	      it; see the description of the update command).  -D is available
	      with  the	 checkout,  diff,  history,  export,  rdiff, rtag, and
	      update commands.	Examples of valid date specifications include:
			1 month ago
			2 hours ago
			400000 seconds ago
			last year
			last Monday
			yesterday
			a fortnight ago
			3/31/92 10:00:07 PST
			January 23, 1987 10:05pm
			22:00 GMT

       -f     When you specify a particular date or tag to cvs commands,  they
	      normally	ignore	files  that do not contain the tag (or did not
	      exist on the date) that you specified.  Use the -f option if you
	      want  files retrieved even when there is no match for the tag or
	      date.  (The most recent version is used in this situation.)   -f
	      is available with these commands: checkout, export, rdiff, rtag,
	      and update.

       -k kflag
	      Alter the default processing of  keywords.   The	-k  option  is
	      available	 with  the  add, checkout, diff, rdiff, export, and BR
	      update commands.	Your kflag specification  is  ``sticky''  when
	      you  use	it to create a private copy of a source file; that is,
	      when you use this option with the checkout or  update  commands,
	      cvs  associates your selected kflag with the file, and continues
	      to use it with future update commands on the same file until you
	      specify otherwise.

	      Some  of	the  more  useful  kflags  are -ko and -kb (for binary
	      files), and -kv which is useful for an export where you wish  to
	      retain keyword information after an import at some other site.

       -l     Local; run only in current working directory, rather than recur‐
	      ring through subdirectories.   Available with the following com‐
	      mands: checkout, commit, diff, export, remove, rdiff, rtag, sta‐
	      tus, tag, and update.

       -n     Do not run any checkout/commit/tag/update program.   (A  program
	      can be specified to run on each of these activities, in the mod‐
	      ules database; this option bypasses  it.)	  Available  with  the
	      checkout,	 export,  and rtag commands.  Warning: this is not the
	      same as the overall `cvs -n' option, which you  can  specify  to
	      the left of a cvs command!

       -P     Prune  (remove)  directories that are empty after being updated,
	      on checkout, or update.  Normally, an empty directory (one  that
	      is void of revision-controlled files) is left alone.  Specifying
	      -P will cause these directories to be silently removed from your
	      checked-out  sources.   This  does not remove the directory from
	      the repository, only from your checked out copy.	Note that this
	      option  is  implied  by  the  -r	or  -D options of checkout and
	      export.

       -T     Create/Update CVS/Template by copying it from the (local) repos‐
	      itory.  This option is useful for developers maintaining a local
	      cvs repository but committing to a remote repository.  By	 main‐
	      taining  CVS/Template  the  remote commits will still be able to
	      bring up the proper  template  in	 the  commit  editor  session.
	      Available with the checkout and update commands.

       -p     Pipe the files retrieved from the repository to standard output,
	      rather than writing them in the  current	directory.   Available
	      with the checkout and update commands.

       -r tag Use  the	revision  specified by the tag argument instead of the
	      default ``head'' revision.  As well as  arbitrary	 tags  defined
	      with the tag or rtag command, two special tags are always avail‐
	      able: `HEAD' refers to the most recent version available in  the
	      repository,  and	`BASE' refers to the revision you last checked
	      out into the current working directory.

	      The tag specification is ``sticky'' when	you  use  this	option
	      with  `cvs  checkout' or `cvs update' to make your own copy of a
	      file: cvs remembers the tag and continues to use	it  on	future
	      update commands, until you specify otherwise.  tag can be either
	      a symbolic or numeric tag.  When a command  expects  a  specific
	      revision, the name of a branch is interpreted as the most recent
	      revision on that branch.	Specifying the -q global option	 along
	      with  the	 -r  command  option  is often useful, to suppress the
	      warning messages when the RCS file does not contain  the	speci‐
	      fied  tag.  -r is available with the annotate, checkout, commit,
	      diff, history, export, rdiff, rtag, and update commands.	 Warn‐
	      ing:  this is not the same as the overall `cvs -r' option, which
	      you can specify to the left of a cvs command!

CVS COMMANDS
       Here (finally) are details on all the cvs commands and the options each
       accepts.	  The  summary	lines at the top of each command's description
       highlight three kinds of things:

	   Command Options and Arguments
		 Special options are described in detail below; common command
		 options may appear only in the summary line.

	   Working Directory, or Repository?
		 Some  cvs  commands  require  a working directory to operate;
		 some require a repository.  Also, some	 commands  change  the
		 repository,  some  change  the	 working  directory,  and some
		 change nothing.

	   Synonyms
		 Many commands have synonyms, which you	 may  find  easier  to
		 remember (or type) than the principal name.

       add [-k kflag] [-m 'message'] files...
	      Requires: repository, working directory.
	      Changes: working directory.
	      Synonym: new
	      Use  the	add  command  to create a new file or directory in the
	      source repository.  The files or directories specified with  add
	      must  already  exist  in	the current directory (which must have
	      been created with the checkout command).	To  add	 a  whole  new
	      directory hierarchy to the source repository (for example, files
	      received from a third-party vendor), use the `cvs	 import'  com‐
	      mand instead.

	      If  the  argument to `cvs add' refers to an immediate sub-direc‐
	      tory, the directory is created  at  the  correct	place  in  the
	      source  repository,  and	the necessary cvs administration files
	      are created in your working directory.  If the directory already
	      exists  in  the  source  repository, `cvs add' still creates the
	      administration files in your version  of	the  directory.	  This
	      allows  you  to  use  `cvs add' to add a particular directory to
	      your private sources even if someone else created that directory
	      after your checkout of the sources.  You can do the following:

			example% mkdir new_directory
			example% cvs add new_directory
			example% cvs update new_directory

	      An alternate approach using `cvs update' might be:

			example% cvs update -d new_directory

	      (To add any available new directories to your working directory,
	      it's probably simpler to use `cvs checkout' or `cvs update -d'.)

	      The added files are not placed in the  source  repository	 until
	      you use `cvs commit' to make the change permanent.  Doing a `cvs
	      add' on a file that was removed with the	`cvs  remove'  command
	      will resurrect the file, if no `cvs commit' command intervened.

	      You  will	 have the opportunity to specify a logging message, as
	      usual, when you use `cvs commit' to make the new file permanent.
	      If  you'd	 like  to have another logging message associated with
	      just creation of the file (for example, to describe  the	file's
	      purpose), you can specify it with the `-m message' option to the
	      add command.

	      The `-k kflag' option specifies the default way that  this  file
	      will  be checked out.  The `kflag' argument is stored in the RCS
	      file and can be changed with `cvs admin'.	 Specifying  `-ko'  is
	      useful  for  checking  in	 binaries that shouldn't have keywords
	      expanded.

       admin [rcs-options] files...
	      Requires: repository, working directory.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Synonym: rcs
	      This is the cvs interface to assorted administrative facilities,
	      similar  to  rcs(1).  This command works recursively, so extreme
	      care should be used.

       checkout [options] modules...
	      Requires: repository.
	      Changes: working directory.
	      Synonyms: co, get
	      Make a working directory containing copies of the	 source	 files
	      specified	 by  modules.	You must execute `cvs checkout' before
	      using most of the other cvs commands, since most of them operate
	      on your working directory.

	      modules  are  either  symbolic  names (themselves defined as the
	      module `modules' in the source repository; see cvs(5)) for  some
	      collection of source directories and files, or paths to directo‐
	      ries or files in the repository.

	      Depending on the modules you specify, checkout  may  recursively
	      create directories and populate them with the appropriate source
	      files.  You can  then  edit  these  source  files	 at  any  time
	      (regardless  of  whether	other  software developers are editing
	      their own copies of the sources); update	them  to  include  new
	      changes  applied	by  others to the source repository; or commit
	      your work as a permanent change to the repository.

	      Note that checkout is used to create directories.	 The top-level
	      directory	 created is always added to the directory where check‐
	      out is invoked, and usually has the same name as	the  specified
	      module.	In  the case of a module alias, the created sub-direc‐
	      tory may have a different name, but you can be sure that it will
	      be  a  sub-directory,  and  that checkout will show the relative
	      path leading to each file as it is extracted into	 your  private
	      work area (unless you specify the -Q global option).

	      Running  `cvs checkout' on a directory that was already built by
	      a prior checkout is also permitted, and has the same  effect  as
	      specifying the -d option to the update command described below.

	      The  options  permitted with `cvs checkout' include the standard
	      command options -P, -f, -k kflag , -l, -n, -p, -r	 tag,  and  -D
	      date.

	      In  addition to those, you can use these special command options
	      with checkout:

	      Use the -A option	 to  reset  any	 sticky	 tags,	dates,	or  -k
	      options.	(If you get a working file using one of the -r, -D, or
	      -k options, cvs remembers the corresponding tag, date, or	 kflag
	      and  continues  using it on future updates; use the -A option to
	      make cvs forget these specifications, and retrieve the  ``head''
	      version of the file).  Does not reset sticky -k options on modi‐
	      fied files.

	      The -j branch option merges the changes made between the result‐
	      ing  revision and the revision that it is based on (e.g., if the
	      tag refers to a branch, cvs will merge all changes made in  that
	      branch into your working file).

	      With  two	 -j options, cvs will merge in the changes between the
	      two respective revisions.	 This can be used to ``remove'' a cer‐
	      tain delta from your working file.

	      In  addition, each -j option can contain on optional date speci‐
	      fication which, when used with branches, can  limit  the	chosen
	      revision	to  one	 within	 a specific date.  An optional date is
	      specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag.  An example might be
	      what  `cvs  import'  tells you to do when you have just imported
	      sources that have conflicts with local changes:

			example% cvs checkout -jTAG:yesterday -jTAG module

	      Use the -N option with `-d dir' to avoid shortening module paths
	      in  your	working	 directory.   (Normally, cvs shortens paths as
	      much as possible when you specify an explicit target directory.)

	      Use the -c option to copy the module file, sorted, to the	 stan‐
	      dard  output,  instead  of  creating  or	modifying any files or
	      directories in your working directory.

	      Use the -d dir option to create a directory called dir  for  the
	      working  files,  instead	of  using the module name.  Unless you
	      also use -N, the paths created under dir will  be	 as  short  as
	      possible.

	      Use  the	-s  option  to	display	 per-module status information
	      stored with the -s option within the modules file.

       commit [-lR] [-m 'log_message' | -F file] [-r revision] [files...]
	      Requires: working directory, repository.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Synonym: ci
	      Use `cvs commit' when you want to incorporate changes from  your
	      working source files into the general source repository.

	      If  you  don't  specify  particular  files to commit, all of the
	      files in your working current directory are examined.  commit is
	      careful  to  change  in the repository only those files that you
	      have really changed.  By default (or if you  explicitly  specify
	      the  -R  option),	 files in subdirectories are also examined and
	      committed if they have changed; you can use  the	-l  option  to
	      limit  commit  to the current directory only.  Sometimes you may
	      want to  force  a	 file  to  be  committed  even	though	it  is
	      unchanged; this is achieved with the -f flag, which also has the
	      effect of disabling recursion (you can turn it back on  with  -R
	      of course).

	      commit  verifies that the selected files are up to date with the
	      current revisions in the source repository; it will notify  you,
	      and  exit without committing, if any of the specified files must
	      be made current first with `cvs update'.	commit does  not  call
	      the update command for you, but rather leaves that for you to do
	      when the time is right.

	      When all is well, an editor is invoked to allow you to  enter  a
	      log message that will be written to one or more logging programs
	      and placed in the source repository file.	 You can instead spec‐
	      ify the log message on the command line with the -m option, thus
	      suppressing the editor invocation, or use the -F option to spec‐
	      ify that the argument file contains the log message.

	      The  -r option can be used to commit to a particular symbolic or
	      numeric revision.	 For example, to bring all your	 files	up  to
	      the revision ``3.0'' (including those that haven't changed), you
	      might do:

			example% cvs commit -r3.0

	      cvs will only allow you to commit to a revision that is  on  the
	      main  trunk  (a  revision	 with a single dot).  However, you can
	      also commit to a branch revision (one that has an even number of
	      dots) with the -r option.	 To create a branch revision, one typ‐
	      ically use the -b option of the rtag  or	tag  commands.	 Then,
	      either  checkout	or  update can be used to base your sources on
	      the newly created	 branch.   From	 that  point  on,  all	commit
	      changes  made within these working sources will be automatically
	      added to a branch revision,  thereby  not	 perturbing  main-line
	      development  in  any  way.   For example, if you had to create a
	      patch to the 1.2 version of the product,	even  though  the  2.0
	      version is already under development, you might do:

			example% cvs rtag -b -rFCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module
			example% cvs checkout -rFCS1_2_Patch product_module
			example% cd product_module
			[[ hack away ]]
			example% cvs commit

	      Say  you	have been working on some extremely experimental soft‐
	      ware, based on whatever revision you happened to	checkout  last
	      week.   If others in your group would like to work on this soft‐
	      ware with you, but without disturbing main-line development, you
	      could  commit  your  change  to  a  new branch.  Others can then
	      checkout your experimental stuff and utilize the full benefit of
	      cvs conflict resolution.	The scenario might look like:

			example% cvs tag -b EXPR1
			example% cvs update -rEXPR1
			[[ hack away ]]
			example% cvs commit

	      Others would simply do `cvs checkout -rEXPR1 whatever_module' to
	      work with you on the experimental change.

       diff [-kl] [format_options] [[-r rev1 | -D date1 | -j  rev1:date1]  [-r
       rev2 | -D date2 | -j rev2:date2]] [files...]
	      Requires: working directory, repository.
	      Changes: nothing.
	      You  can compare your working files with revisions in the source
	      repository, with the `cvs diff' command.	If you don't specify a
	      particular  revision, your files are compared with the revisions
	      they were based on.  You can also use the standard  cvs  command
	      option -r to specify a particular revision to compare your files
	      with.  Finally, if you use -r twice,  you	 can  see  differences
	      between  two  revisions in the repository.  You can also specify
	      -D options to diff against a revision (on the  head  branch)  in
	      the  past, and you can also specify -j options to diff against a
	      revision relative to a branch tag in the past.  The  -r  and  -D
	      and  -j  options	can be mixed together with at most two options
	      ever specified.

	      See `cvs --help diff' for a list of supported format_options.

	      If you don't specify any files, diff  will  display  differences
	      for  all those files in the current directory (and its subdirec‐
	      tories, unless you use the standard option -l) that differ  from
	      the  corresponding revision in the source repository (i.e. files
	      that you have changed), or that differ from the revision	speci‐
	      fied.

       export [-flNnQq] -r rev|-D date [-d dir] [-k kflag] module...
	      Requires: repository.
	      Changes: current directory.
	      This  command  is	 a  variant of `cvs checkout'; use it when you
	      want a copy of the source for module without the cvs administra‐
	      tive  directories.   For	example, you might use `cvs export' to
	      prepare source for shipment  off-site.   This  command  requires
	      that  you specify a date or tag (with -D or -r), so that you can
	      count on reproducing the source you ship to others.

	      The only non-standard options are `-d  dir'  (write  the	source
	      into  directory  dir)  and  `-N'	(don't	shorten module paths).
	      These have the same meanings as the same options in `cvs	check‐
	      out'.

	      The  -kv	option is useful when export is used.  This causes any
	      keywords to be expanded such that an import done at  some	 other
	      site  will  not  lose  the  keyword revision information.	 Other
	      kflags may be used with `cvs export' and are described in co(1).

       history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...]
	      Requires: the file `$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history'
	      Changes: nothing.
	      cvs keeps a history file that tracks each use of	the  checkout,
	      commit,  rtag,  update,  and release commands.  You can use `cvs
	      history' to display this information in various formats.

	      Warning: `cvs history' uses `-f', `-l', `-n', and `-p'  in  ways
	      that conflict with the descriptions in COMMON COMMAND OPTIONS.

	      Several  options	(shown	above as -report) control what kind of
	      report is generated:

	     -c	 Report on each time commit was	 used  (i.e.,  each  time  the
		 repository was modified).

	     -m module
		 Report	 on a particular module.  (You can meaningfully use -m
		 more than once on the command line.)

	     -o	 Report on checked-out modules.

	     -T	 Report on all tags.

	     -x type
		 Extract a particular set of record types X from the cvs  his‐
		 tory.	 The  types are indicated by single letters, which you
		 may specify in combination.  Certain commands have  a	single
		 record	 type:	checkout  (type	 `O'), release (type `F'), and
		 rtag (type `T').  One of four record types may result from an
		 update:  `W', when the working copy of a file is deleted dur‐
		 ing update (because it was gone from  the  repository);  `U',
		 when a working file was copied from the repository; `G', when
		 a merge was necessary and it succeeded; and 'C', when a merge
		 was  necessary but collisions were detected (requiring manual
		 merging).  Finally, one of three record  types	 results  from
		 commit:  `M',	when  a file was modified; `A', when a file is
		 first added; and `R', when a file is removed.

	     -e	 Everything  (all  record  types);  equivalent	to  specifying
		 `-xMACFROGWUT'.

	     -z zone
		 Use time zone zone when outputting history records.  The zone
		 name LT stands for local  time;  numeric  offsets  stand  for
		 hours	and  minutes  ahead of UTC.  For example, +0530 stands
		 for 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of (i.e. east of) UTC.

	    The options shown as -flags constrain the report without requiring
	    option arguments:

	     -a	 Show data for all users (the default is to show data only for
		 the user executing `cvs history').

	     -l	 Show last modification only.

	     -w	 Show only the records for modifications done  from  the  same
		 working directory where `cvs history' is executing.

	    The	 options  shown as -options args constrain the report based on
	    an argument:

	     -b str
		 Show data back to a  record  containing  the  string  str  in
		 either	 the  module  name,  the  file name, or the repository
		 path.

	     -D date
		 Show data since date.

	     -p repository
		 Show data for a particular source repository (you can specify
		 several -p options on the same command line).

	     -r rev
		 Show records referring to revisions since the revision or tag
		 named rev appears in individual RCS files.  Each RCS file  is
		 searched for the revision or tag.

	     -t tag
		 Show  records	since  tag  tag	 was last added to the history
		 file.	This differs from the -r flag above in that  it	 reads
		 only the history file, not the RCS files, and is much faster.

	     -u name
		 Show records for user name.

       import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag...
	      Requires: Repository, source distribution directory.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Use  `cvs	 import'  to incorporate an entire source distribution
	      from an outside source (e.g., a source vendor) into your	source
	      repository directory.  You can use this command both for initial
	      creation of a repository, and for wholesale updates to the  mod‐
	      ule form the outside source.

	      The  repository  argument gives a directory name (or a path to a
	      directory) under the CVS root directory for repositories; if the
	      directory did not exist, import creates it.

	      When you use import for updates to source that has been modified
	      in your source repository (since a prior import), it will notify
	      you  of  any files that conflict in the two branches of develop‐
	      ment; use `cvs checkout -j' to  reconcile	 the  differences,  as
	      import instructs you to do.

	      By  default, certain file names are ignored during `cvs import':
	      names associated with CVS administration, or with	 other	common
	      source  control  systems;	 common	 names for patch files, object
	      files, archive files, and editor backup files; and  other	 names
	      that  are usually artifacts of assorted utilities.  For an up to
	      date list of ignored file names, see the Cederqvist  manual  (as
	      described in the SEE ALSO section of this manpage).

	      The  outside source is saved in a first-level branch, by default
	      `1.1.1'.	Updates are leaves of this branch; for example,	 files
	      from  the	 first	imported collection of source will be revision
	      `1.1.1.1', then files from the first  imported  update  will  be
	      revision `1.1.1.2', and so on.

	      At  least three arguments are required.  repository is needed to
	      identify the collection of source.  vendortag is a tag  for  the
	      entire  branch  (e.g.,  for  `1.1.1').  You must also specify at
	      least one releasetag to  uniquely	 identify  the	files  at  the
	      leaves created each time you execute `cvs import'.  The release‐
	      tag should be new, not previously	 existing  in  the  repository
	      file, and uniquely identify the imported release.

	      One  of  the  standard cvs command options is available: -m mes‐
	      sage.  If you do not specify a logging  message  with  -m,  your
	      editor is invoked (as with commit) to allow you to enter one.

	      There are three additional special options.

	      Use  `-d'	 to specify that each file's time of last modification
	      should be used for the checkin date and time.

	      Use `-b branch' to  specify  a  first-level  branch  other  than
	      `1.1.1'.

	      Use  `-I name' to specify file names that should be ignored dur‐
	      ing import.  You can  use	 this  option  repeatedly.   To	 avoid
	      ignoring any files at all (even those ignored by default), spec‐
	      ify `-I !'.

       log [-l] rlog-options [files...]
	      Requires: repository, working directory.
	      Changes: nothing.
	      Synonym: rlog
	      Display log  information	for  files.   Among  the  more	useful
	      options are -h to display only the header (including tag defini‐
	      tions, but omitting most of the full log); -r to select logs  on
	      particular  revisions  or	 ranges of revisions; and -d to select
	      particular dates or date ranges.	See rlog(1) for full  explana‐
	      tions.   This  command  is  recursive  by default, unless the -l
	      option is specified.

       rdiff [-flags] [-V vn] [-r t|-D d [-r t2|-D d2]] modules...
	      Requires: repository.
	      Changes: nothing.
	      Synonym: patch
	      Builds a Larry Wall format patch(1) file between	two  releases,
	      that  can be fed directly into the patch program to bring an old
	      release up-to-date with the new release.	(This is  one  of  the
	      few cvs commands that operates directly from the repository, and
	      doesn't require a prior checkout.)  The diff output is  sent  to
	      the standard output device.  You can specify (using the standard
	      -r and -D options) any combination of one or  two	 revisions  or
	      dates.   If  only	 one  revision or date is specified, the patch
	      file reflects differences between that revision or date and  the
	      current ``head'' revisions in the RCS file.

	      Note  that if the software release affected is contained in more
	      than one directory, then it may be necessary to specify  the  -p
	      option  to  the  patch command when patching the old sources, so
	      that patch is able to find the files that are located  in	 other
	      directories.

	      The  standard  option  flags  -f, and -l are available with this
	      command.	There are also several special option flags:

	      If you use the -s option, no patch output is produced.  Instead,
	      a summary of the changed or added files between the two releases
	      is sent to the standard output device.  This is useful for find‐
	      ing out, for example, which files have changed between two dates
	      or revisions.

	      If you use the -t option, a diff of the  top  two	 revisions  is
	      sent  to	the  standard  output device.  This is most useful for
	      seeing what the last change to a file was.

	      If you use the -u option, the patch output uses the newer ``uni‐
	      diff'' format for context diffs.

	      You  can use -c to explicitly specify the `diff -c' form of con‐
	      text diffs (which is the default), if you like.

       release [-dQq] modules...
	      Requires: Working directory.
	      Changes: Working directory, history log.
	      This command is meant to safely cancel the effect of `cvs check‐
	      out'.  Since cvs doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly necessary
	      to use this command.  You can always simply delete your  working
	      directory, if you like; but you risk losing changes you may have
	      forgotten, and you leave no trace in the cvs history  file  that
	      you've abandoned your checkout.

	      Use  `cvs release' to avoid these problems.  This command checks
	      that no un-committed changes are present; that you are executing
	      it  from	immediately above, or inside, a cvs working directory;
	      and that the repository recorded for your files is the  same  as
	      the repository defined in the module database.

	      If  all these conditions are true, `cvs release' leaves a record
	      of its execution (attesting  to  your  intentionally  abandoning
	      your checkout) in the cvs history log.

	      You  can	use the -d flag to request that your working copies of
	      the source files be deleted if the release succeeds.

       remove [-lR] [files...]
	      Requires: Working directory.
	      Changes: Working directory.
	      Synonyms: rm, delete
	      Use this command to declare that you wish to remove  files  from
	      the  source  repository.	 Like  most cvs commands, `cvs remove'
	      works on files in your working directory, not  directly  on  the
	      repository.   As	a  safeguard,  it also requires that you first
	      erase the specified files from your working directory.

	      The files are not actually removed until you apply your  changes
	      to  the repository with commit; at that point, the corresponding
	      RCS files in the source repository are moved  into  the  `Attic'
	      directory (also within the source repository).

	      This  command is recursive by default, scheduling all physically
	      removed files that it finds for removal by the next commit.  Use
	      the  -l  option  to  avoid  this recursion, or just specify that
	      actual files that you wish remove to consider.

       rtag [-falnRQq] [-b] [-d] [-r tag | -D date] symbolic_tag modules...
	      Requires: repository.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Synonym: rfreeze
	      You can use this command to assign symbolic tags to  particular,
	      explicitly  specified  source  versions in the repository.  `cvs
	      rtag' works directly on the repository contents (and requires no
	      prior  checkout).	  Use `cvs tag' instead, to base the selection
	      of versions to tag on the contents of your working directory.

	      In general, tags (often the symbolic names of software distribu‐
	      tions)  should not be removed, but the -d option is available as
	      a means to remove completely obsolete symbolic names  if	neces‐
	      sary (as might be the case for an Alpha release, say).

	      `cvs rtag' will not move a tag that already exists.  With the -F
	      option, however, `cvs rtag' will re-locate any instance of  sym‐
	      bolic_tag that already exists on that file to the new repository
	      versions.	 Without the -F option, attempting to use  `cvs	 rtag'
	      to  apply a tag that already exists on that file will produce an
	      error message.

	      The -b option makes the tag a ``branch'' tag,  allowing  concur‐
	      rent,  isolated development.  This is most useful for creating a
	      patch to a previously released software distribution.

	      You can use the standard -r and -D options  to  tag  only	 those
	      files  that already contain a certain tag.  This method would be
	      used to rename a tag: tag only the files identified by  the  old
	      tag, then delete the old tag, leaving the new tag on exactly the
	      same files as the old tag.

	      rtag executes recursively by default, tagging all subdirectories
	      of  modules  you	specify in the argument.  You can restrict its
	      operation to top-level directories with the standard -l  option;
	      or you can explicitly request recursion with -R.

	      The modules database can specify a program to execute whenever a
	      tag is specified; a typical use is to send electronic mail to  a
	      group  of	 interested  parties.  If you want to bypass that pro‐
	      gram, use the standard -n option.

	      Use the -a option to have rtag look in the `Attic'  for  removed
	      files  that  contain the specified tag.  The tag is removed from
	      these files, which makes it convenient to re-use a symbolic  tag
	      as development continues (and files get removed from the up-com‐
	      ing distribution).

       status [-lRqQ] [-v] [files...]
	      Requires: working directory, repository.
	      Changes: nothing.
	      Display a brief report on	 the  current  status  of  files  with
	      respect to the source repository, including any ``sticky'' tags,
	      dates, or -k options.  (``Sticky''  options  will	 restrict  how
	      `cvs  update' operates until you reset them; see the description
	      of `cvs update -A...'.)

	      You can also use this command to anticipate the potential impact
	      of  a  `cvs update' on your working source directory.  If you do
	      not specify any files explicitly,	 reports  are  shown  for  all
	      files  that  cvs	has placed in your working directory.  You can
	      limit the scope of this search to the current  directory	itself
	      (not  its	 subdirectories)  with the standard -l option flag; or
	      you can explicitly request recursive status reports with the  -R
	      option.

	      The  -v  option  causes the symbolic tags for the RCS file to be
	      displayed as well.

       tag [-lQqR] [-F] [-b]  [-d]  [-r	 tag  |	 -D  date]  [-f]  symbolic_tag
       [files...]
	      Requires: working directory, repository.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Synonym: freeze
	      Use  this command to assign symbolic tags to the nearest reposi‐
	      tory versions to your working sources.   The  tags  are  applied
	      immediately to the repository, as with rtag.

	      One potentially surprising aspect of the fact that cvs tag oper‐
	      ates on the repository is that you are  tagging  the  checked-in
	      revisions,  which may differ from locally modified files in your
	      working directory.  If you want to avoid doing this by  mistake,
	      specify the -c option to cvs tag.	 If there are any locally mod‐
	      ified files, CVS will abort with an error	 before	 it  tags  any
	      files.

	      One  use	for  tags  is  to record a ``snapshot'' of the current
	      sources when the software freeze date of a project arrives.   As
	      bugs are fixed after the freeze date, only those changed sources
	      that are to be part of the release need be re-tagged.

	      The symbolic tags are meant to permanently  record  which	 revi‐
	      sions  of which files were used in creating a software distribu‐
	      tion.  The checkout, export and update  commands	allow  you  to
	      extract  an  exact  copy	of a tagged release at any time in the
	      future, regardless of whether files have been changed, added, or
	      removed since the release was tagged.

	      You  can	use  the  standard -r and -D options to tag only those
	      files that already contain a certain tag.	 This method would  be
	      used  to	rename a tag: tag only the files identified by the old
	      tag, then delete the old tag, leaving the new tag on exactly the
	      same files as the old tag.

	      Specifying  the  -f  flag in addition to the -r or -D flags will
	      tag those files named on the command line even if	 they  do  not
	      contain the old tag or did not exist on the specified date.

	      By  default  (without a -r or -D flag) the versions to be tagged
	      are supplied implicitly by  the  cvs  records  of	 your  working
	      files' history rather than applied explicitly.

	      If  you  use  `cvs tag -d symbolic_tag...', the symbolic tag you
	      specify is deleted instead of being  added.   Warning:  Be  very
	      certain  of  your	 ground	 before	 you  delete a tag; doing this
	      effectively discards  some  historical  information,  which  may
	      later turn out to have been valuable.

	      `cvs  tag' will not move a tag that already exists.  With the -F
	      option, however, `cvs tag' will re-locate any instance  of  sym‐
	      bolic_tag that already exists on that file to the new repository
	      versions.	 Without the -F option, attempting to use `cvs tag' to
	      apply  a	tag  that  already exists on that file will produce an
	      error message.

	      The -b option makes the tag a ``branch'' tag,  allowing  concur‐
	      rent,  isolated development.  This is most useful for creating a
	      patch to a previously released software distribution.

	      Normally, tag executes recursively through  subdirectories;  you
	      can prevent this by using the standard -l option, or specify the
	      recursion explicitly by using -R.

       update [-ACdflPpQqR] [-d] [-r tag|-D date] files...
	      Requires: repository, working directory.
	      Changes: working directory.
	      After you've run checkout to create your private copy of	source
	      from  the	 common	 repository,  other  developers	 will continue
	      changing the central source.  From time to time, when it is con‐
	      venient in your development process, you can use the update com‐
	      mand from within your working directory to reconcile  your  work
	      with  any revisions applied to  the source repository since your
	      last checkout or update.

	      update keeps you informed of its progress by printing a line for
	      each  file,  prefaced with one of the characters `U P A R M C ?'
	      to indicate the status of the file:

       U file	 The file was brought up to date with respect to  the  reposi‐
		 tory.	 This  is done for any file that exists in the reposi‐
		 tory but not in your working directory, and  for  files  that
		 you  haven't  changed	but  are  not the most recent versions
		 available in the repository.

       P file	 Like U, but the CVS server sends a patch instead of an entire
		 file.	This accomplishes the same thing as U using less band‐
		 width.

       A file	 The file has been added to your private copy of the  sources,
		 and  will be added to the source repository when you run `cvs
		 commit' on the file.  This is a reminder to you that the file
		 needs to be committed.

       R file	 The  file  has	 been  removed	from  your private copy of the
		 sources, and will be removed from the source repository  when
		 you  run `cvs commit' on the file.  This is a reminder to you
		 that the file needs to be committed.

       M file	 The file is modified in  your	working	 directory.   `M'  can
		 indicate  one	of  two	 states	 for a file you're working on:
		 either there were no modifications to the same	 file  in  the
		 repository,  so that your file remains as you last saw it; or
		 there were modifications in the repository as well as in your
		 copy, but they were merged successfully, without conflict, in
		 your working directory.

       C file	 A conflict was detected while trying to merge your changes to
		 file with changes from the source repository.	file (the copy
		 in your working directory) is now the result of  merging  the
		 two versions; an unmodified copy of your file is also in your
		 working directory, with the name `.#file.version', where ver‐
		 sion  is  the	revision that your modified file started from.
		 (Note that some systems automatically purge files that	 begin
		 with  `.#' if they have not been accessed for a few days.  If
		 you intend to keep a copy of your original file, it is a very
		 good idea to rename it.)

       ? file	 file is in your working directory, but does not correspond to
		 anything in the source repository, and is not in the list  of
		 files	for  cvs  to  ignore  (see  the	 description of the -I
		 option).

	    Use the -A option to reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k  options.
	    (If	 you  get a working copy of a file by using one of the -r, -D,
	    or -k options, cvs remembers the corresponding tag, date, or kflag
	    and	 continues  using  it  on future updates; use the -A option to
	    make cvs forget these specifications, and  retrieve	 the  ``head''
	    version of the file).

	    The	 -jbranch option merges the changes made between the resulting
	    revision and the revision that it is based on (e.g.,  if  the  tag
	    refers to a branch, cvs will merge all changes made in that branch
	    into your working file).

	    With two -j options, cvs will merge in the changes between the two
	    respective	revisions.   This  can be used to ``remove'' a certain
	    delta from your working file.  E.g., If the file foo.c is based on
	    revision 1.6 and I want to remove the changes made between 1.3 and
	    1.5, I might do:

		      example% cvs update -j1.5 -j1.3 foo.c   # note the order...

	    In addition, each -j option can contain on optional date  specifi‐
	    cation  which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revi‐
	    sion to one within a specific date.	 An optional date is specified
	    by adding a colon (:) to the tag.

		      -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier

	    Use	 the  -d  option  to  create any directories that exist in the
	    repository if they're missing from the working  directory.	 (Nor‐
	    mally, update acts only on directories and files that were already
	    enrolled in your working directory.)  This is useful for  updating
	    directories	 that were created in the repository since the initial
	    checkout; but it has an unfortunate side effect.  If you  deliber‐
	    ately  avoided certain directories in the repository when you cre‐
	    ated your working directory (either through use of a  module  name
	    or	by  listing explicitly the files and directories you wanted on
	    the command line), then updating with -d will create those	direc‐
	    tories, which may not be what you want.

	    Use	 -I name to ignore files whose names match name (in your work‐
	    ing directory) during the update.  You can specify	-I  more  than
	    once  on  the command line to specify several files to ignore.  By
	    default, update ignores files whose names match certain  patterns;
	    for	 an  up to date list of ignored file names, see the Cederqvist
	    manual (as described in the SEE ALSO section of this manpage).

	    Use `-I !' to avoid ignoring any files at all.

	    Use the `-C' option to overwrite locally modified files with clean
	    copies  from  the  repository  (the	 modified  file	 is  saved  in
	    `.#file.revision', however).

	    The standard cvs command options -f, -k, -l, -P, -p,  and  -r  are
	    also available with update.

FILES
       For more detailed information on cvs supporting files, see cvs(5).

       Files in home directories:

       .cvsrc The  cvs initialization file.  Lines in this file can be used to
	      specify default options for each cvs command.  For  example  the
	      line  `diff -c' will ensure that `cvs diff' is always passed the
	      -c option in addition to any other options passed on the command
	      line.

       .cvswrappers
	      Specifies	 wrappers to be used in addition to those specified in
	      the CVSROOT/cvswrappers file in the repository.

       Files in working directories:

       CVS    A directory of cvs administrative files.	Do not delete.

       CVS/Entries
	      List and status of files in your working directory.

       CVS/Entries.Backup
	      A backup of `CVS/Entries'.

       CVS/Entries.Static
	      Flag: do not add more entries on `cvs update'.

       CVS/Root
	      Pathname to the repository ( CVSROOT ) location at the  time  of
	      checkout.	  This file is used instead of the CVSROOT environment
	      variable if the environment variable is not set.	A warning mes‐
	      sage  will be issued when the contents of this file and the CVS‐
	      ROOT environment variable differ.	 The file may  be  over-ridden
	      by  the presence of the CVS_IGNORE_REMOTE_ROOT environment vari‐
	      able.

       CVS/Repository
	      Pathname to the corresponding directory in  the  source  reposi‐
	      tory.

       CVS/Tag
	      Contains	the  per-directory ``sticky'' tag or date information.
	      This file is created/updated when you specify -r or  -D  to  the
	      checkout or update commands, and no files are specified.

       CVS/Checkin.prog
	      Name of program to run on `cvs commit'.

       CVS/Update.prog
	      Name of program to run on `cvs update'.

       Files in source repositories:

       $CVSROOT/CVSROOT
	      Directory of global administrative files for repository.

       CVSROOT/commitinfo,v
	      Records programs for filtering `cvs commit' requests.

       CVSROOT/cvswrappers,v
	      Records cvs wrapper commands to be used when checking files into
	      and out of the repository.  Wrappers allow the file or directory
	      to be processed on the way in and out of CVS.  The intended uses
	      are many, one possible use would be to reformat a C file	before
	      the  file	 is  checked  in, so all of the code in the repository
	      looks the same.

       CVSROOT/editinfo,v
	      Records  programs	 for  editing/validating  `cvs	 commit'   log
	      entries.

       CVSROOT/history
	      Log file of cvs transactions.

       CVSROOT/loginfo,v
	      Records programs for piping `cvs commit' log entries.

       CVSROOT/modules,v
	      Definitions for modules in this repository.

       CVSROOT/rcsinfo,v
	      Records pathnames to templates used during a `cvs commit' opera‐
	      tion.

       CVSROOT/taginfo,v
	      Records programs for validating/logging `cvs tag' and `cvs rtag'
	      operations.

       MODULE/Attic
	      Directory for removed source files.

       #cvs.lock
	      A	 lock directory created by cvs when doing sensitive changes to
	      the source repository.

       #cvs.tfl.pid
	      Temporary lock file for repository.

       #cvs.rfl.pid
	      A read lock.

       #cvs.wfl.pid
	      A write lock.

ENVIRONMENT
       CVSROOT
	      Should contain the full pathname to the root of the  cvs	source
	      repository  (where  the  RCS  files are kept).  This information
	      must be available to cvs for most commands to execute;  if  CVS‐
	      ROOT  is	not set, or if you wish to override it for one invoca‐
	      tion, you can supply it on the command  line:  `cvs  -d  cvsroot
	      cvs_command...'  You  may	 not  need  to set CVSROOT if your cvs
	      binary has the right path compiled in.

       CVSREAD
	      If this is set, checkout and update will try hard	 to  make  the
	      files  in	 your  working	directory read-only.  When this is not
	      set, the default behavior is  to	permit	modification  of  your
	      working files.

       CVSREADONLYFS
	      If  this	is  set, the -R option is assumed, and cvs operates in
	      read-only repository mode.

       RCSBIN Specifies the full pathname where to find RCS programs, such  as
	      co(1) and ci(1) (CVS 1.9 and older).

       CVSEDITOR
	      Specifies	 the  program to use for recording log messages during
	      commit.  If not set, the VISUAL and EDITOR environment variables
	      are  tried  (in that order).  If neither is set, a system-depen‐
	      dent default editor (e.g., vi) is used.

       CVS_CLIENT_PORT
	      If this variable is set then cvs will use this port  in  pserver
	      mode rather than the default port (cvspserver 2401).

       CVS_IGNORE_REMOTE_ROOT
	      If  this	variable is set then cvs will ignore all references to
	      remote repositories in the CVS/Root file.

       CVS_OPTIONS
	      Specifies a set of default options for cvs.  These  options  are
	      interpreted  before  the startup file (~/.cvsrc) is read and can
	      be overridden by explicit command line parameters.

       CVS_RSH
	      cvs uses the contents of this variable to determine the name  of
	      the  remote shell command to use when starting a cvs server.  If
	      this variable is not set then `ssh' is used.

       CVS_SERVER
	      cvs uses the contents of this variable to determine the name  of
	      the  cvs server command.	If this variable is not set then `cvs'
	      is used.

       CVSWRAPPERS
	      This variable is used by the `cvswrappers' script	 to  determine
	      the  name	 of  the  wrapper  file,  in  addition to the wrappers
	      defaults contained in the repository  (CVSROOT/cvswrappers)  and
	      the user's home directory (~/.cvswrappers).

AUTHORS
       Dick Grune
	      Original	author	of  the	 cvs  shell  script  version posted to
	      comp.sources.unix in the	volume6	 release  of  December,	 1986.
	      Credited with much of the cvs conflict resolution algorithms.

       Brian Berliner
	      Coder  and  designer  of	the cvs program itself in April, 1989,
	      based on the original work done by Dick.

       Jeff Polk
	      Helped Brian with the design of the cvs module and vendor branch
	      support  and author of the checkin(1) shell script (the ancestor
	      of `cvs import').

       And many others too numerous to mention here.

SEE ALSO
       The most comprehensive manual for CVS is Version Management with CVS by
       Per Cederqvist et al.  Depending on your system, you may be able to get
       it with the info cvs command or it may be available  as	cvs.ps	(post‐
       script), cvs.texinfo (texinfo source), or cvs.html.

       For CVS updates, more information on documentation, software related to
       CVS, development of CVS, and more, see:
		 http://cvs.nongnu.org

       ci(1), co(1), cvs(5), cvsbug(8), diff(1),  grep(1),  patch(1),  rcs(1),
       rcsdiff(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1).

									CVS(1)
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