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CVS(1)									CVS(1)

NAME
       cvs - Concurrent Versions System

SYNOPSIS
       cvs [ cvs_options ]
	      cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

NOTE
       This  manpage is a summary of some of the features of cvs.  It is auto-
       generated from an appendix of the CVS manual.  For more in-depth	 docu‐
       mentation,  please consult the Cederqvist manual (via the info CVS com‐
       mand or otherwise, as described in the SEE ALSO section	of  this  man‐
       page).  Cross-references in this man page refer to nodes in the same.

CVS commands
   Guide to CVS commands
       This  appendix  describes  the  overall	structure of cvs commands, and
       describes some commands in detail (others are described elsewhere;  for
       a  quick	 reference to cvs commands, see node `Invoking CVS' in the CVS
       manual).

Structure
   Overall structure of CVS commands
       The overall format of all cvs commands is:

	 cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

       cvs

	 The name of the cvs program.

       cvs_options

	 Some  options	that  affect  all  sub-commands	 of  cvs.   These  are
	 described below.

       cvs_command

	 One  of  several  different  sub-commands.  Some of the commands have
	 aliases that can be used instead; those aliases are noted in the ref‐
	 erence	 manual for that command.  There are only two situations where
	 you may omit cvs_command: cvs -H elicits a  list  of  available  com‐
	 mands, and cvs -v displays version information on cvs itself.

       command_options

	 Options that are specific for the command.

       command_args

	 Arguments to the commands.

	 There	is  unfortunately  some confusion between cvs_options and com‐
	 mand_options.	When given as a cvs_option, some options  only	affect
	 some  of  the commands.  When given as a command_option it may have a
	 different meaning, and be accepted by more commands.  In other words,
	 do not take the above categorization too seriously.  Look at the doc‐
	 umentation instead.

Exit status
   CVS's exit status
       cvs can indicate to the calling environment  whether  it	 succeeded  or
       failed  by  setting its exit status.  The exact way of testing the exit
       status will vary from one operating system to another.  For example  in
       a  unix	shell  script  the  $?	variable will be 0 if the last command
       returned a successful exit status, or greater than 0 if the exit status
       indicated failure.

       If  cvs	is  successful, it returns a successful status; if there is an
       error, it prints an error message and returns a	failure	 status.   The
       one  exception  to this is the cvs diff command.	 It will return a suc‐
       cessful status if it found no differences, or a failure status if there
       were  differences or if there was an error.  Because this behavior pro‐
       vides no good way to detect errors, in the future it is	possible  that
       cvs diff will be changed to behave like the other cvs commands.

~/.cvsrc
   Default options and the ~/.cvsrc file
       There  are  some	 command_options that are used so often that you might
       have set up an alias or some other means to make sure you always	 spec‐
       ify that option.	 One example (the one that drove the implementation of
       the .cvsrc support, actually) is that many people find the default out‐
       put  of	the diff command to be very hard to read, and that either con‐
       text diffs or unidiffs are much easier to understand.

       The ~/.cvsrc file is a way that you can add default options to cvs_com‐
       mands within cvs, instead of relying on aliases or other shell scripts.

       The  format of the ~/.cvsrc file is simple.  The file is searched for a
       line that begins with the same name as the cvs_command being  executed.
       If  a  match  is	 found, then the remainder of the line is split up (at
       whitespace characters) into separate options and added to  the  command
       arguments before any options from the command line.

       If  a command has two names (e.g., checkout and co), the official name,
       not necessarily the one used on the command line, will be used to match
       against	the  file.   So if this is the contents of the user's ~/.cvsrc
       file:

	 log -N
	 diff -uN
	 rdiff -u
	 update -Pd
	 checkout -P
	 release -d

       the command cvs checkout foo would have the  -P	option	added  to  the
       arguments, as well as cvs co foo.

       With the example file above, the output from cvs diff foobar will be in
       unidiff format.	cvs diff -c foobar  will  provide  context  diffs,  as
       usual.	Getting "old" format diffs would be slightly more complicated,
       because diff doesn't have an option to specify use of the "old" format,
       so you would need cvs -f diff foobar.

       In  place of the command name you can use cvs to specify global options
       (see node `Global options' in the CVS manual).  For example the follow‐
       ing line in .cvsrc

	 cvs -z6

       causes cvs to use compression level 6.

Global options
       The  available  cvs_options (that are given to the left of cvs_command)
       are:

       --allow-root=rootdir

	 May be invoked multiple times to specify one legal cvsroot  directory
	 with  each invocation.	 Also causes CVS to preparse the configuration
	 file for each specified root, which can be  useful  when  configuring
	 write	proxies,  See see node `Password authentication server' in the
	 CVS manual & see node `Write proxies' in the CVS manual.

       -a

	 Authenticate all communication between the  client  and  the  server.
	 Only  has  an	effect on the cvs client.  As of this writing, this is
	 only implemented when using a GSSAPI  connection  (see	 node  `GSSAPI
	 authenticated'	 in  the CVS manual).  Authentication prevents certain
	 sorts of attacks  involving  hijacking	 the  active  tcp  connection.
	 Enabling authentication does not enable encryption.

       -b bindir

	 In  cvs 1.9.18 and older, this specified that rcs programs are in the
	 bindir directory.  Current versions of cvs do not run	rcs  programs;
	 for compatibility this option is accepted, but it does nothing.

       -T tempdir

	 Use  tempdir  as  the	directory  where  temporary files are located.
	 Overrides the setting of the $TMPDIR  environment  variable  and  any
	 precompiled  directory.   This	 parameter  should  be specified as an
	 absolute pathname.  (When running client/server, -T affects only  the
	 local	process;  specifying  -T  for  the client has no effect on the
	 server and vice versa.)

       -d cvs_root_directory

	 Use cvs_root_directory as the root directory pathname of the  reposi‐
	 tory.	 Overrides  the	 setting of the $CVSROOT environment variable.
	 see node `Repository' in the CVS manual.

       -e editor

	 Use editor to enter revision log information.	Overrides the  setting
	 of the $CVSEDITOR and $EDITOR environment variables.  For more infor‐
	 mation, see see node `Committing your changes' in the CVS manual.

       -f

	 Do not read the ~/.cvsrc  file.   This	 option	 is  most  often  used
	 because of the non-orthogonality of the cvs option set.  For example,
	 the cvs log option -N (turn off display of tag names) does not have a
	 corresponding	option	to  turn the display on.  So if you have -N in
	 the ~/.cvsrc entry for log, you may need to use -f to	show  the  tag
	 names.

       -H

       --help

	 Display usage information about the specified cvs_command (but do not
	 actually execute the command).	 If you don't specify a command	 name,
	 cvs  -H displays overall help for cvs, including a list of other help
	 options.

       -R

	 Turns on read-only repository mode.  This allows  one	to  check  out
	 from  a  read-only  repository,  such as within an anoncvs server, or
	 from a cd-rom repository.

	 Same effect as if the	CVSREADONLYFS  environment  variable  is  set.
	 Using -R can also considerably speed up checkouts over NFS.

       -n

	 Do  not  change  any  files.  Attempt to execute the cvs_command, but
	 only to issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge	 any  existing
	 files, or create any new files.

	 Note that cvs will not necessarily produce exactly the same output as
	 without -n.  In some cases the output will be the same, but in	 other
	 cases	cvs  will  skip	 some  of  the processing that would have been
	 required to produce the exact same output.

       -Q

	 Cause the command to be really quiet; the command will only  generate
	 output for serious problems.

       -q

	 Cause	the command to be somewhat quiet; informational messages, such
	 as reports of recursion through subdirectories, are suppressed.

       -r

	 Make new working files read-only.  Same effect	 as  if	 the  $CVSREAD
	 environment  variable is set (see node `Environment variables' in the
	 CVS manual).  The default is to make working files  writable,	unless
	 watches are on (see node `Watches' in the CVS manual).

       -s variable=value

	 Set a user variable (see node `Variables' in the CVS manual).

       -t

	 Trace	program	 execution;  display messages showing the steps of cvs
	 activity.  Particularly useful	 with  -n  to  explore	the  potential
	 impact of an unfamiliar command.

       -v

       --version

	 Display version and copyright information for cvs.

       -w

	 Make  new  working  files  read-write.	  Overrides the setting of the
	 $CVSREAD environment  variable.   Files  are  created	read-write  by
	 default, unless $CVSREAD is set or -r is given.

       -x

	 Encrypt  all  communication  between the client and the server.  Only
	 has an effect on the cvs client.  As of this writing,	this  is  only
	 implemented  when using a GSSAPI connection (see node `GSSAPI authen‐
	 ticated' in the CVS manual) or a Kerberos connection (see node	 `Ker‐
	 beros authenticated' in the CVS manual).  Enabling encryption implies
	 that message traffic is also authenticated.   Encryption  support  is
	 not  available by default; it must be enabled using a special config‐
	 ure option, --enable-encryption, when you build cvs.

       -z gzip-level

	 Set the compression level.  Valid levels are 1 (high speed, low  com‐
	 pression)  to	9  (low speed, high compression), or 0 to disable com‐
	 pression (the default).  Only has an effect on the cvs client.

Common options
   Common command options
       This section describes the command_options that	are  available	across
       several	cvs  commands.	These options are always given to the right of
       cvs_command. Not all commands support all of these options; each option
       is  only	 supported for commands where it makes sense.  However, when a
       command has one of these options you can almost	always	count  on  the
       same  behavior  of  the	option	as  in other commands.	(Other command
       options, which are listed with the individual commands, may  have  dif‐
       ferent behavior from one cvs command to the other).

       Note:  the  history  command  is an exception; it supports many options
       that conflict even with these standard options.

       -D date_spec

	 Use the most recent revision no later than date_spec.	date_spec is a
	 single argument, a date description specifying a date in the past.

	 The specification is sticky when you use it to make a private copy of
	 a source file; that is, when you get a working	 file  using  -D,  cvs
	 records  the  date you specified, so that further updates in the same
	 directory will use the same date  (for	 more  information  on	sticky
	 tags/dates, see node `Sticky tags' in the CVS manual).

	 -D  is	 available with the annotate, checkout, diff, export, history,
	 ls, rdiff, rls, rtag, tag, and update commands.  (The history command
	 uses  this  option  in	 a  slightly  different way; see node `history
	 options' in the CVS manual).

	 For a complete description of the date formats accepted by  cvs,  see
	 node `Date input formats' in the CVS manual.

	 Remember  to  quote  the  argument  to the -D flag so that your shell
	 doesn't interpret spaces as argument separators.  A command using the
	 -D flag can look like this:

	   $ cvs diff -D "1 hour ago" cvs.texinfo

       -f

	 When  you specify a particular date or tag to cvs commands, they nor‐
	 mally ignore files that do not contain the  tag  (or  did  not	 exist
	 prior to the date) that you specified.	 Use the -f option if you want
	 files retrieved even when there is no match  for  the	tag  or	 date.
	 (The most recent revision of the file will be used).

	 Note  that  even with -f, a tag that you specify must exist (that is,
	 in some file, not necessary in every file).  This is so that cvs will
	 continue to give an error if you mistype a tag name.

	 -f  is	 available  with  these	 commands: annotate, checkout, export,
	 rdiff, rtag, and update.

	 WARNING:  The commit and remove commands also have a -f  option,  but
	 it has a different behavior for those commands.  See see node `commit
	 options' in the CVS manual, and see node `Removing files' in the  CVS
	 manual.

       -k kflag

	 Override  the default processing of RCS keywords other than -kb.  see
	 node `Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual,	 for  the  meaning  of
	 kflag.	 Used with the checkout and update commands, your kflag speci‐
	 fication is sticky; that is, when you use this option with a checkout
	 or  update command, cvs associates your selected kflag with any files
	 it operates on, and continues to use that kflag with future  commands
	 on the same files until you specify otherwise.

	 The  -k  option  is  available	 with the add, checkout, diff, export,
	 import and update commands.

	 WARNING: Prior to CVS version 1.12.2, the -k flag  overrode  the  -kb
	 indication  for  a  binary file.  This could sometimes corrupt binary
	 files.	 see node `Merging and keywords' in the CVS manual, for more.

       -l

	 Local; run only in current working directory, rather  than  recursing
	 through subdirectories.

	 Available  with  the  following commands: annotate, checkout, commit,
	 diff, edit, editors, export, log, rdiff, remove, rtag,	 status,  tag,
	 unedit, update, watch, and watchers.

       -m message

	 Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor.

	 Available with the following commands: add, commit and import.

       -n

	 Do  not  run  any tag program.	 (A program can be specified to run in
	 the modules database (see node `modules' in  the  CVS	manual);  this
	 option bypasses it).

	 Note:	this  is  not the same as the cvs -n program option, which you
	 can specify to the left of a cvs command!

	 Available with the checkout, commit, export, and rtag commands.

       -P

	 Prune empty directories.  See see node `Removing directories' in  the
	 CVS manual.

       -p

	 Pipe  the  files  retrieved  from  the repository to standard output,
	 rather than writing them in the current  directory.   Available  with
	 the checkout and update commands.

       -R

	 Process  directories  recursively.   This  is the default for all cvs
	 commands, with the exception of ls & rls.

	 Available with the following commands:	 annotate,  checkout,  commit,
	 diff,	edit,  editors,	 export, ls, rdiff, remove, rls, rtag, status,
	 tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers.

       -r tag

	 Use the revision specified by the tag argument instead of the default
	 head  revision.   As  well  as arbitrary tags defined with the tag or
	 rtag command, two special tags are always available: HEAD  refers  to
	 the  most recent version available in the repository, and BASE refers
	 to the revision you last checked out into the current working	direc‐
	 tory.

	 The  tag  specification  is sticky when you use this with checkout or
	 update to make your own copy of a file: cvs  remembers	 the  tag  and
	 continues to use it on future update commands, until you specify oth‐
	 erwise (for more information on sticky tags/dates, see	 node  `Sticky
	 tags' in the CVS manual).

	 The  tag can be either a symbolic or numeric tag, as described in see
	 node `Tags' in the CVS manual, or the name of a branch, as  described
	 in see node `Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.

	 Specifying  the  -q global option along with the -r command option is
	 often useful, to suppress the warning messages when the rcs file does
	 not contain the specified tag.

	 Note:	this  is  not the same as the overall cvs -r option, which you
	 can specify to the left of a cvs command!

	 -r is available with the annotate, checkout, commit,  diff,  history,
	 export, rdiff, rtag, and update commands.

       -W

	 Specify  file names that should be filtered.  You can use this option
	 repeatedly.  The spec can be a file name pattern  of  the  same  type
	 that  you  can	 specify in the .cvswrappers file.  Available with the
	 following commands: import, and update.

admin
   Administration
       · Requires: repository, working directory.

       · Changes: repository.

       · Synonym: rcs

	 This is the cvs  interface  to	 assorted  administrative  facilities.
	 Some  of them have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for his‐
	 torical purposes.  Some of the questionable  options  are  likely  to
	 disappear  in	the  future.   This  command does work recursively, so
	 extreme care should be used.

	 On unix, if there is a group named cvsadmin,  only  members  of  that
	 group	can  run  cvs admin commands, except for those specified using
	 the UserAdminOptions configuration option in the CVSROOT/config file.
	 Options specified using UserAdminOptions can be run by any user.  See
	 see node `config' in the CVS manual for more on UserAdminOptions.

	 The cvsadmin group should exist on the server, or any system  running
	 the non-client/server cvs.  To disallow cvs admin for all users, cre‐
	 ate a group with no users in it.  On NT, the  cvsadmin	 feature  does
	 not exist and all users can run cvs admin.

admin options
       Some  of	 these	options have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist
       for historical purposes.	 Some even make it impossible to use cvs until
       you undo the effect!

       -Aoldfile

	 Might	not work together with cvs.  Append the access list of oldfile
	 to the access list of the rcs file.

       -alogins

	 Might not work together with cvs.  Append the login  names  appearing
	 in  the  comma-separated  list	 logins	 to the access list of the rcs
	 file.

       -b[rev]

	 Set the default branch to rev.	 In cvs, you normally do  not  manipu‐
	 late default branches; sticky tags (see node `Sticky tags' in the CVS
	 manual) are a better way to decide which branch you want to work  on.
	 There	is  one	 reason to run cvs admin -b: to revert to the vendor's
	 version  when	using  vendor  branches	 (see  node  `Reverting	 local
	 changes'  in  the  CVS manual).  There can be no space between -b and
	 its argument.

       -cstring

	 Sets the comment leader to string.  The comment leader is not used by
	 current versions of cvs or rcs 5.7.  Therefore, you can almost surely
	 not worry about it.  see node `Keyword substitution' in the CVS  man‐
	 ual.

       -e[logins]

	 Might not work together with cvs.  Erase the login names appearing in
	 the comma-separated list logins from the access list of the RCS file.
	 If  logins is omitted, erase the entire access list.  There can be no
	 space between -e and its argument.

       -I

	 Run interactively, even if the standard  input	 is  not  a  terminal.
	 This option does not work with the client/server cvs and is likely to
	 disappear in a future release of cvs.

       -i

	 Useless with cvs.  This creates and initializes a new rcs file, with‐
	 out depositing a revision.  With cvs, add files with the cvs add com‐
	 mand (see node `Adding files' in the CVS manual).

       -ksubst

	 Set the default keyword substitution to  subst.   see	node  `Keyword
	 substitution' in the CVS manual.  Giving an explicit -k option to cvs
	 update, cvs export, or cvs checkout overrides this default.

       -l[rev]

	 Lock the revision with number rev.  If a branch is  given,  lock  the
	 latest	 revision  on that branch.  If rev is omitted, lock the latest
	 revision on the default branch.  There can be no space between -l and
	 its argument.

	 This  can  be	used  in conjunction with the rcslock.pl script in the
	 contrib directory of the cvs source distribution to provide  reserved
	 checkouts  (where  only  one  user  can  be editing a given file at a
	 time).	 See the comments in that file for details (and see the README
	 file  in  that directory for disclaimers about the unsupported nature
	 of contrib).  According to comments in that file, locking must set to
	 strict (which is the default).

       -L

	 Set locking to strict.	 Strict locking means that the owner of an RCS
	 file is not exempt from locking  for  checkin.	  For  use  with  cvs,
	 strict	 locking  must	be set; see the discussion under the -l option
	 above.

       -mrev:msg

	 Replace the log message of revision rev with msg.

       -Nname[:[rev]]

	 Act like -n, except override any previous assignment  of  name.   For
	 use  with  magic branches, see see node `Magic branch numbers' in the
	 CVS manual.

       -nname[:[rev]]

	 Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or revision rev.  It
	 is  normally  better  to use cvs tag or cvs rtag instead.  Delete the
	 symbolic name if both : and rev  are  omitted;	 otherwise,  print  an
	 error	message if name is already associated with another number.  If
	 rev is symbolic, it is expanded before association.  A rev consisting
	 of  a	branch	number	followed  by a . stands for the current latest
	 revision in the branch.  A : with an empty rev stands for the current
	 latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk.  For exam‐
	 ple, cvs admin -nname: associates name with the current latest	 revi‐
	 sion  of  all	the  RCS files; this contrasts with cvs admin -nname:$
	 which associates name with the revision numbers extracted  from  key‐
	 word strings in the corresponding working files.

       -orange

	 Deletes (outdates) the revisions given by range.

	 Note that this command can be quite dangerous unless you know exactly
	 what you are doing (for example see the warnings below about how  the
	 rev1:rev2 syntax is confusing).

	 If you are short on disc this option might help you.  But think twice
	 before using it—there is no way short of restoring the latest	backup
	 to  undo  this	 command!   If you delete different revisions than you
	 planned, either due to carelessness or (heaven	 forbid)  a  cvs  bug,
	 there is no opportunity to correct the error before the revisions are
	 deleted.  It probably would be a good idea to experiment on a copy of
	 the repository first.

	 Specify range in one of the following ways:

	 rev1::rev2

	   Collapse  all  revisions  between  rev1  and rev2, so that cvs only
	   stores the differences associated with going from rev1 to rev2, not
	   intermediate	 steps.	  For  example,	 after	-o  1.3::1.5  one  can
	   retrieve revision 1.3, revision 1.5, or the differences to get from
	   1.3	to  1.5,  but not the revision 1.4, or the differences between
	   1.3 and 1.4.	 Other examples: -o 1.3::1.4 and -o 1.3::1.3  have  no
	   effect, because there are no intermediate revisions to remove.

	 ::rev

	   Collapse  revisions	between the beginning of the branch containing
	   rev and rev itself.	The branchpoint and rev are left intact.   For
	   example,  -o	 ::1.3.2.6 deletes revision 1.3.2.1, revision 1.3.2.5,
	   and everything in between, but leaves 1.3 and 1.3.2.6 intact.

	 rev::

	   Collapse revisions between rev and the end of the branch containing
	   rev.	 Revision rev is left intact but the head revision is deleted.

	 rev

	   Delete  the	revision rev.  For example, -o 1.3 is equivalent to -o
	   1.2::1.4.

	 rev1:rev2

	   Delete the revisions from rev1 to  rev2,  inclusive,	 on  the  same
	   branch.   One  will	not be able to retrieve rev1 or rev2 or any of
	   the revisions in between.   For  example,  the  command  cvs	 admin
	   -oR_1_01:R_1_02  .  is rarely useful.  It means to delete revisions
	   up to, and including, the tag R_1_02.  But beware!	If  there  are
	   files that have not changed between R_1_02 and R_1_03 the file will
	   have the same numerical revision number assigned to the tags R_1_02
	   and	R_1_03.	 So not only will it be impossible to retrieve R_1_02;
	   R_1_03 will also have to be restored from the tapes!	 In most cases
	   you want to specify rev1::rev2 instead.

	 :rev

	   Delete revisions from the beginning of the branch containing rev up
	   to and including rev.

	 rev:

	   Delete revisions from revision rev, including rev  itself,  to  the
	   end of the branch containing rev.

	   None of the revisions to be deleted may have branches or locks.

	   If  any of the revisions to be deleted have symbolic names, and one
	   specifies one of the :: syntaxes, then cvs will give an  error  and
	   not	delete	any  revisions.	 If you really want to delete both the
	   symbolic names and the revisions, first delete the  symbolic	 names
	   with	 cvs  tag  -d,	then  run  cvs admin -o.  If one specifies the
	   non-:: syntaxes, then cvs will delete the revisions but  leave  the
	   symbolic names pointing to nonexistent revisions.  This behavior is
	   preserved for compatibility with  previous  versions	 of  cvs,  but
	   because  it	isn't  very  useful, in the future it may change to be
	   like the :: case.

	   Due to the way cvs handles branches rev cannot be specified symbol‐
	   ically  if  it is a branch.	see node `Magic branch numbers' in the
	   CVS manual, for an explanation.

	   Make sure that no-one has checked out a copy of  the	 revision  you
	   outdate.   Strange  things  will happen if he starts to edit it and
	   tries to check it back in.  For this reason, this option is	not  a
	   good way to take back a bogus commit; commit a new revision undoing
	   the bogus change instead (see node `Merging two revisions'  in  the
	   CVS manual).

       -q

	 Run quietly; do not print diagnostics.

       -sstate[:rev]

	 Useful	 with  cvs.   Set  the	state attribute of the revision rev to
	 state.	 If rev is a branch number, assume the latest revision on that
	 branch.  If rev is omitted, assume the latest revision on the default
	 branch.  Any identifier is acceptable for state.   A  useful  set  of
	 states	 is  Exp  (for	experimental), Stab (for stable), and Rel (for
	 released).  By default, the state of a new revision  is  set  to  Exp
	 when  it is created.  The state is visible in the output from cvs log
	 (see node `log' in the CVS manual), and in the $Log$ and $State$ key‐
	 words (see node `Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual).  Note that
	 cvs uses the dead state for its own purposes; to take a  file	to  or
	 from the dead state use commands like cvs remove and cvs add, not cvs
	 admin -s.

       -t[file]

	 Useful with cvs.  Write descriptive text from	the  contents  of  the
	 named	file  into the RCS file, deleting the existing text.  The file
	 pathname may not begin with -.	 The descriptive text can be  seen  in
	 the  output  from  cvs log (see node `log' in the CVS manual).	 There
	 can be no space between -t and its argument.

	 If file is omitted, obtain the text from standard  input,  terminated
	 by  end-of-file  or by a line containing . by itself.	Prompt for the
	 text if interaction is possible; see -I.

       -t-string

	 Similar to -tfile. Write descriptive text from the  string  into  the
	 rcs  file, deleting the existing text.	 There can be no space between
	 -t and its argument.

       -U

	 Set locking to non-strict.  Non-strict locking means that  the	 owner
	 of  a	file  need not lock a revision for checkin.  For use with cvs,
	 strict locking must be set; see the discussion under  the  -l	option
	 above.

       -u[rev]

	 See  the  option -l above, for a discussion of using this option with
	 cvs.  Unlock the revision with number rev.  If	 a  branch  is	given,
	 unlock the latest revision on that branch.  If rev is omitted, remove
	 the latest lock held by the caller.  Normally, only the locker	 of  a
	 revision may unlock it; somebody else unlocking a revision breaks the
	 lock.	This causes the original locker to be sent a commit  notifica‐
	 tion  (see  node `Getting Notified' in the CVS manual).  There can be
	 no space between -u and its argument.

       -Vn

	 In previous versions of cvs, this option meant to write an  rcs  file
	 which	would  be  acceptable to rcs version n, but it is now obsolete
	 and specifying it will produce an error.

       -xsuffixes

	 In previous versions of cvs, this was documented as a way of specify‐
	 ing  the  names  of  the rcs files.  However, cvs has always required
	 that the rcs files used by cvs end in ,v, so this  option  has	 never
	 done anything useful.

annotate
   What revision modified each line of a file?
       · Synopsis: annotate [options] files...

       · Requires: repository.

       · Changes: nothing.

	 For  each  file  in  files,  print  the  head	revision of the trunk,
	 together with information on the last modification for each line.

annotate options
       These standard options are supported  by	 annotate  (see	 node  `Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):

       -l

	 Local directory only, no recursion.

       -R

	 Process directories recursively.

       -f

	 Use head revision if tag/date not found.

       -F

	 Annotate binary files.

       -r revision

	 Annotate file as of specified revision/tag.

       -D date

	 Annotate file as of specified date.

annotate example
       For example:

	 $ cvs annotate ssfile
	 Annotations for ssfile
	 ***************
	 1.1	      (mary	27-Mar-96): ssfile line 1
	 1.2	      (joe	28-Mar-96): ssfile line 2

       The  file  ssfile currently contains two lines.	The ssfile line 1 line
       was checked in by mary on March 27.  Then, on March  28,	 joe  added  a
       line  ssfile  line  2,  without modifying the ssfile line 1 line.  This
       report doesn't tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or
       replaced; you need to use cvs diff for that (see node `diff' in the CVS
       manual).

       The options to cvs annotate are listed in see node  `Invoking  CVS'  in
       the  CVS	 manual,  and can be used to select the files and revisions to
       annotate.  The options are described in more detail there  and  in  see
       node `Common options' in the CVS manual.

checkout
   Check out sources for editing
       · Synopsis: checkout [options] modules...

       · Requires: repository.

       · Changes: working directory.

       · Synonyms: co, get

	 Create	 or update a working directory containing copies of the source
	 files specified by modules.  You must execute checkout	 before	 using
	 most  of  the	other cvs commands, since most of them operate on your
	 working directory.

	 The modules are either symbolic names for some collection  of	source
	 directories and files, or paths to directories or files in the repos‐
	 itory.	 The symbolic names are defined in the modules file.  see node
	 `modules' in the CVS manual.

	 Depending on the modules you specify, checkout may recursively create
	 directories and populate them with the appropriate source files.  You
	 can  then  edit these source files at any time (regardless of whether
	 other software	 developers  are  editing  their  own  copies  of  the
	 sources); update them to include new changes applied by others to the
	 source repository; or commit your work as a permanent change  to  the
	 source repository.

	 Note  that  checkout  is  used	 to create directories.	 The top-level
	 directory created is always added to the directory where checkout  is
	 invoked,  and	usually has the same name as the specified module.  In
	 the case of a module alias, the created sub-directory may have a dif‐
	 ferent name, but you can be sure that it will be a sub-directory, and
	 that checkout will show the relative path leading to each file as  it
	 is  extracted	into your private work area (unless you specify the -Q
	 global option).

	 The files created by checkout are created read-write, unless  the  -r
	 option to cvs (see node `Global options' in the CVS manual) is speci‐
	 fied, the CVSREAD environment variable is specified (see node	`Envi‐
	 ronment  variables'  in  the CVS manual), or a watch is in effect for
	 that file (see node `Watches' in the CVS manual).

	 Note that running checkout on a directory that was already built by a
	 prior	checkout is also permitted.  This is similar to specifying the
	 -d option to the update command in the	 sense	that  new  directories
	 that  have  been  created  in the repository will appear in your work
	 area.	However, checkout takes a module name whereas update  takes  a
	 directory  name.   Also  to use checkout this way it must be run from
	 the top level directory (where you originally ran checkout from),  so
	 before you run checkout to update an existing directory, don't forget
	 to change your directory to the top level directory.

	 For the output produced by the checkout command see see node  `update
	 output' in the CVS manual.

checkout options
       These  standard	options	 are  supported	 by checkout (see node `Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):

       -D date

	 Use the most recent revision no later	than  date.   This  option  is
	 sticky,  and  implies -P.  See see node `Sticky tags' in the CVS man‐
	 ual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.

       -f

	 Only useful with the -D date or -r tag flags.	If no  matching	 revi‐
	 sion is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring
	 the file).

       -k kflag

	 Process keywords according to kflag.  See see node `Keyword substitu‐
	 tion'	in  the	 CVS manual.  This option is sticky; future updates of
	 this file in this working directory will use  the  same  kflag.   The
	 status command can be viewed to see the sticky options.  See see node
	 `Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual, for more information on the	status
	 command.

       -l

	 Local; run only in current working directory.

       -n

	 Do  not  run any checkout program (as specified with the -o option in
	 the modules file; see node `modules' in the CVS manual).

       -P

	 Prune empty directories.  See see node `Moving	 directories'  in  the
	 CVS manual.

       -p

	 Pipe files to the standard output.

       -R

	 Checkout directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

       -r tag

	 Use  revision	tag.   This option is sticky, and implies -P.  See see
	 node `Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on	sticky
	 tags/dates.

	 In  addition to those, you can use these special command options with
	 checkout:

       -A

	 Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  See  see	 node  `Sticky
	 tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.

       -c

	 Copy the module file, sorted, to the standard output, instead of cre‐
	 ating or modifying any files or directories in	 your  working	direc‐
	 tory.

       -d dir

	 Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using
	 the module name.  In general, using this flag is equivalent to	 using
	 mkdir	dir;  cd  dir  followed by the checkout command without the -d
	 flag.

	 There is an important exception, however.  It is very convenient when
	 checking  out	a single item to have the output appear in a directory
	 that doesn't contain empty intermediate directories.	In  this  case
	 only,	cvs tries to ``shorten'' pathnames to avoid those empty direc‐
	 tories.

	 For example, given a module foo that contains	the  file  bar.c,  the
	 command  cvs  co -d dir foo will create directory dir and place bar.c
	 inside.  Similarly, given a module bar	 which	has  subdirectory  baz
	 wherein  there	 is  a	file quux.c, the command cvs co -d dir bar/baz
	 will create directory dir and place quux.c inside.

	 Using the -N flag will defeat this behavior.  Given the  same	module
	 definitions  above,  cvs  co  -N  -d  dir foo will create directories
	 dir/foo and place bar.c inside, while cvs co -N -d dir	 bar/baz  will
	 create directories dir/bar/baz and place quux.c inside.

       -j tag

	 With  two  -j options, merge changes from the revision specified with
	 the first -j option to the  revision  specified  with	the  second  j
	 option, into the working directory.

	 With  one  -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the
	 revision specified with the -j option, into  the  working  directory.
	 The  ancestor	revision  is the common ancestor of the revision which
	 the working directory is based on, and the revision specified in  the
	 -j option.

	 In  addition,	each -j option can contain an optional date specifica‐
	 tion which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to
	 one  within a specific date.  An optional date is specified by adding
	 a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

	 see node `Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.

       -N

	 Only useful together with -d dir.  With this  option,	cvs  will  not
	 ``shorten'' module paths in your working directory when you check out
	 a single module.  See the -d flag for examples and a discussion.

       -s

	 Like -c, but include the status of all modules, and sort  it  by  the
	 status	 string.  see node `modules' in the CVS manual, for info about
	 the -s option that is used inside the modules file to set the	module
	 status.

checkout examples
       Get a copy of the module tc:

	 $ cvs checkout tc

       Get a copy of the module tc as it looked one day ago:

	 $ cvs checkout -D yesterday tc

commit
   Check files into the repository
       · Synopsis:  commit  [-lnRf] [-m 'log_message' | -F file] [-r revision]
	 [files...]

       · Requires: working directory, repository.

       · Changes: repository.

       · Synonym: ci

	 Use commit when you want to incorporate  changes  from	 your  working
	 source files into the source repository.

	 If  you don't specify particular files to commit, all of the files in
	 your working current directory are examined.  commit  is  careful  to
	 change	 in  the  repository  only  those  files  that you have really
	 changed.  By default (or if you explicitly specify  the  -R  option),
	 files	in subdirectories are also examined and committed if they have
	 changed; you can use the -l option to limit  commit  to  the  current
	 directory only.

	 commit	 verifies that the selected files are up to date with the cur‐
	 rent revisions in the source repository; it will notify you, and exit
	 without  committing,  if any of the specified files must be made cur‐
	 rent first with update (see node `update' in the CVS manual).	commit
	 does  not call the update command for you, but rather leaves that for
	 you to do when the time is right.

	 When all is well, an editor is invoked to allow you to	 enter	a  log
	 message  that	will  be  written to one or more logging programs (see
	 node `modules' in the CVS manual, and see node `loginfo' in  the  CVS
	 manual)  and  placed in the rcs file inside the repository.  This log
	 message can be retrieved with the log command; see see node `log'  in
	 the  CVS manual.  You can specify the log message on the command line
	 with the -m message option, and thus avoid the editor invocation,  or
	 use the -F file option to specify that the argument file contains the
	 log message.

commit options
       These standard options  are  supported  by  commit  (see	 node  `Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):

       -l

	 Local; run only in current working directory.

       -R

	 Commit directories recursively.  This is on by default.

       -r revision

	 Commit	 to revision.  revision must be either a branch, or a revision
	 on the main trunk that is higher than any  existing  revision	number
	 (see  node `Assigning revisions' in the CVS manual).  You cannot com‐
	 mit to a specific revision on a branch.

	 commit also supports these options:

       -c

	 Refuse to commit files unless the user has registered a valid edit on
	 the  file  via cvs edit.  This is most useful when commit -c and edit
	 -c have been placed in all .cvsrc files.  A commit can be forced any‐
	 ways  by  either  regestering	an edit retroactively via cvs edit (no
	 changes to the file will be lost) or using the -f option  to  commit.
	 Support  for  commit  -c  requires  both client and a server versions
	 1.12.10 or greater.

       -F file

	 Read the log message from file, instead of invoking an editor.

       -f

	 Note that this is not the standard  behavior  of  the	-f  option  as
	 defined in see node `Common options' in the CVS manual.

	 Force	cvs  to	 commit	 a  new	 revision even if you haven't made any
	 changes to the file.  As of cvs version 1.12.10, it also  causes  the
	 -c  option  to	 be  ignored.  If the current revision of file is 1.7,
	 then the following two commands are equivalent:

	   $ cvs commit -f file
	   $ cvs commit -r 1.8 file

	 The -f option disables recursion (i.e., it implies -l).  To force cvs
	 to  commit  a	new  revision for all files in all subdirectories, you
	 must use -f -R.

       -m message

	 Use message as the log message, instead of invoking an editor.

commit examples
   Committing to a branch
       You can commit to a branch revision (one that has  an  even  number  of
       dots)  with  the	 -r  option.   To create a branch revision, use the -b
       option of the rtag or tag commands (see node `Branching and merging' in
       the  CVS	 manual).  Then, either checkout or update can be used to base
       your sources on the newly created branch.  From that point on, all com‐
       mit  changes  made  within  these working sources will be automatically
       added to a branch revision, thereby not disturbing  main-line  develop‐
       ment  in any way.  For example, if you had to create a patch to the 1.2
       version of the product, even though the 2.0 version  is	already	 under
       development, you might do:

	 $ cvs rtag -b -r FCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module
	 $ cvs checkout -r FCS1_2_Patch product_module
	 $ cd product_module
	 [[ hack away ]]
	 $ cvs commit

       This works automatically since the -r option is sticky.

   Creating the branch after editing
       Say  you	 have  been  working  on some extremely experimental software,
       based on whatever revision you happened to checkout last week.  If oth‐
       ers  in	your  group  would like to work on this software with you, but
       without disturbing main-line development, you could commit your	change
       to  a new branch.  Others can then checkout your experimental stuff and
       utilize the full benefit of  cvs	 conflict  resolution.	 The  scenario
       might look like:

	 [[ hacked sources are present ]]
	 $ cvs tag -b EXPR1
	 $ cvs update -r EXPR1
	 $ cvs commit

       The  update  command will make the -r EXPR1 option sticky on all files.
       Note that your changes to the files will never be removed by the update
       command.	  The  commit will automatically commit to the correct branch,
       because the -r is sticky.  You could also do like this:

	 [[ hacked sources are present ]]
	 $ cvs tag -b EXPR1
	 $ cvs commit -r EXPR1

       but then, only those files that were changed by you will	 have  the  -r
       EXPR1 sticky flag.  If you hack away, and commit without specifying the
       -r EXPR1 flag, some files may accidentally end up on the main trunk.

       To work with you on the experimental change, others would simply do

	 $ cvs checkout -r EXPR1 whatever_module

diff
   Show differences between revisions
       · Synopsis: diff [-lR] [-k  kflag]  [format_options]  [[-r  rev1	 |  -D
	 date1] [-r rev2 |  -D date2]] [files...]

       · Requires: working directory, repository.

       · Changes: nothing.

	 The  diff  command  is	 used to compare different revisions of files.
	 The default action is to compare your working files  with  the	 revi‐
	 sions they were based on, and report any differences that are found.

	 If  any  file names are given, only those files are compared.	If any
	 directories are given, all files under them will be compared.

	 The exit status for diff is different than for	 other	cvs  commands;
	 for details see node `Exit status' in the CVS manual.

diff options
       These standard options are supported by diff (see node `Common options'
       in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):

       -D date

	 Use the most recent revision no later than date.  See -r for how this
	 affects the comparison.

       -k kflag

	 Process keywords according to kflag.  See see node `Keyword substitu‐
	 tion' in the CVS manual.

       -l

	 Local; run only in current working directory.

       -R

	 Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

       -r tag

	 Compare with revision tag.  Zero,  one	 or  two  -r  options  can  be
	 present.   With  no -r option, the working file will be compared with
	 the revision it was based on.	With one -r,  that  revision  will  be
	 compared to your current working file.	 With two -r options those two
	 revisions will be compared (and your working file will not affect the
	 outcome in any way).

	 One or both -r options can be replaced by a -D date option, described
	 above.

	 The following options specify the format of the  output.   They  have
	 the  same  meaning  as in GNU diff.  Most options have two equivalent
	 names, one of which is a single letter preceded by -, and  the	 other
	 of which is a long name preceded by --.

       -lines

	 Show lines (an integer) lines of context.  This option does not spec‐
	 ify an output format by itself; it has no effect unless  it  is  com‐
	 bined with -c or -u.  This option is obsolete.	 For proper operation,
	 patch typically needs at least two lines of context.

       -a

	 Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even  if  they
	 do not seem to be text.

       -b

	 Ignore	 trailing  white space and consider all other sequences of one
	 or more white space characters to be equivalent.

       -B

	 Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

       --binary

	 Read and write data in binary mode.

       --brief

	 Report only whether the files differ, not the details of the  differ‐
	 ences.

       -c

	 Use the context output format.

       -C lines

       --context[=lines]

	 Use  the  context  output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of
	 context, or three if lines is not given.  For proper operation, patch
	 typically needs at least two lines of context.

       --changed-group-format=format

	 Use  format  to  output  a line group containing differing lines from
	 both files in if-then-else format.  see node `Line group formats'  in
	 the CVS manual.

       -d

	 Change	 the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.  This
	 makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).

       -e

       --ed

	 Make output that is a valid ed script.

       --expand-tabs

	 Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to  preserve  the	 alignment  of
	 tabs in the input files.

       -f

	 Make  output  that looks vaguely like an ed script but has changes in
	 the order they appear in the file.

       -F regexp

	 In context and unified format, for each  hunk	of  differences,  show
	 some of the last preceding line that matches regexp.

       --forward-ed

	 Make  output  that looks vaguely like an ed script but has changes in
	 the order they appear in the file.

       -H

	 Use heuristics to speed handling of large files  that	have  numerous
	 scattered small changes.

       --horizon-lines=lines

	 Do  not  discard  the	last  lines lines of the common prefix and the
	 first lines lines of the common suffix.

       -i

	 Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case letters equiv‐
	 alent.

       -I regexp

	 Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

       --ifdef=name

	 Make merged if-then-else output using name.

       --ignore-all-space

	 Ignore white space when comparing lines.

       --ignore-blank-lines

	 Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

       --ignore-case

	 Ignore	 changes  in  case;  consider  upper- and lower-case to be the
	 same.

       --ignore-matching-lines=regexp

	 Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

       --ignore-space-change

	 Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences  of  one
	 or more white space characters to be equivalent.

       --initial-tab

	 Output	 a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal
	 or context format.  This causes the alignment of tabs in the line  to
	 look normal.

       -L label

	 Use  label instead of the file name in the context format and unified
	 format headers.

       --label=label

	 Use label instead of the file name in the context format and  unified
	 format headers.

       --left-column

	 Print	only  the left column of two common lines in side by side for‐
	 mat.

       --line-format=format

	 Use format to output all input lines  in  if-then-else	 format.   see
	 node `Line formats' in the CVS manual.

       --minimal

	 Change	 the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.  This
	 makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).

       -n

	 Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each  command  specifies
	 the number of lines affected.

       -N

       --new-file

	 In  directory	comparison,  if a file is found in only one directory,
	 treat it as present but empty in the other directory.

       --new-group-format=format

	 Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the second file
	 in  if-then-else  format.   see  node `Line group formats' in the CVS
	 manual.

       --new-line-format=format

	 Use format to output a line taken from just the second	 file  in  if-
	 then-else format.  see node `Line formats' in the CVS manual.

       --old-group-format=format

	 Use  format to output a group of lines taken from just the first file
	 in if-then-else format.  see node `Line group	formats'  in  the  CVS
	 manual.

       --old-line-format=format

	 Use  format  to  output  a line taken from just the first file in if-
	 then-else format.  see node `Line formats' in the CVS manual.

       -p

	 Show which C function each change is in.

       --rcs

	 Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each  command  specifies
	 the number of lines affected.

       --report-identical-files

       -s

	 Report when two files are the same.

       --show-c-function

	 Show which C function each change is in.

       --show-function-line=regexp

	 In  context  and  unified  format, for each hunk of differences, show
	 some of the last preceding line that matches regexp.

       --side-by-side

	 Use the side by side output format.

       --speed-large-files

	 Use heuristics to speed handling of large files  that	have  numerous
	 scattered small changes.

       --suppress-common-lines

	 Do not print common lines in side by side format.

       -t

	 Expand	 tabs  to  spaces  in the output, to preserve the alignment of
	 tabs in the input files.

       -T

	 Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in	normal
	 or  context format.  This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to
	 look normal.

       --text

	 Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even  if  they
	 do not appear to be text.

       -u

	 Use the unified output format.

       --unchanged-group-format=format

	 Use format to output a group of common lines taken from both files in
	 if-then-else format.  see node `Line group formats' in the  CVS  man‐
	 ual.

       --unchanged-line-format=format

	 Use format to output a line common to both files in if-then-else for‐
	 mat.  see node `Line formats' in the CVS manual.

       -U lines

       --unified[=lines]

	 Use the unified output format, showing lines (an  integer)  lines  of
	 context, or three if lines is not given.  For proper operation, patch
	 typically needs at least two lines of context.

       -w

	 Ignore white space when comparing lines.

       -W columns

       --width=columns

	 Use an output width of columns in side by side format.

       -y

	 Use the side by side output format.

Line group formats
       Line group formats let you specify formats suitable for	many  applica‐
       tions  that  allow  if-then-else input, including programming languages
       and text formatting languages.  A line group format specifies the  out‐
       put format for a contiguous group of similar lines.

       For  example,  the  following command compares the TeX file myfile with
       the original version from the repository, and outputs a merged file  in
       which  old regions are surrounded by \begin{em}-\end{em} lines, and new
       regions are surrounded by \begin{bf}-\end{bf} lines.

	 cvs diff \

	    --old-group-format='\begin{em}
	 %<\end{em}
	 ' \

	    --new-group-format='\begin{bf}
	 %>\end{bf}
	 ' \

	    myfile

       The following command is equivalent to the above example, but it	 is  a
       little  more verbose, because it spells out the default line group for‐
       mats.

	 cvs diff \

	    --old-group-format='\begin{em}
	 %<\end{em}
	 ' \

	    --new-group-format='\begin{bf}
	 %>\end{bf}
	 ' \

	    --unchanged-group-format='%=' \

	    --changed-group-format='\begin{em}
	 %<\end{em}
	 \begin{bf}
	 %>\end{bf}
	 ' \

	    myfile

       Here is a more advanced example, which  outputs	a  diff	 listing  with
       headers containing line numbers in a ``plain English'' style.

	 cvs diff \

	    --unchanged-group-format='' \

	    --old-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) deleted at %df:
	 %<' \

	    --new-group-format='-------- %dN line%(N=1?:s) added after %de:
	 %>' \

	    --changed-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) changed at %df:
	 %<-------- to:
	 %>' \

	    myfile

       To  specify  a  line group format, use one of the options listed below.
       You can specify up to four line group formats, one  for	each  kind  of
       line  group.   You  should  quote format, because it typically contains
       shell metacharacters.

       --old-group-format=format

	 These line groups are hunks containing	 only  lines  from  the	 first
	 file.	 The default old group format is the same as the changed group
	 format if it is specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs  the
	 line group as-is.

       --new-group-format=format

	 These	line  groups  are  hunks containing only lines from the second
	 file.	The default new group format is same as the changed group for‐
	 mat  if  it  is  specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs the
	 line group as-is.

       --changed-group-format=format

	 These line groups are hunks containing lines from  both  files.   The
	 default  changed group format is the concatenation of the old and new
	 group formats.

       --unchanged-group-format=format

	 These line groups contain lines common to both	 files.	  The  default
	 unchanged group format is a format that outputs the line group as-is.

	 In  a	line  group  format, ordinary characters represent themselves;
	 conversion specifications start with % and have one of the  following
	 forms.

       %<

	 stands for the lines from the first file, including the trailing new‐
	 line.	Each line is formatted according to the old line  format  (see
	 node `Line formats' in the CVS manual).

       %>

	 stands	 for  the  lines  from the second file, including the trailing
	 newline.  Each line is formatted according to the new line format.

       %=

	 stands for the lines common to both  files,  including	 the  trailing
	 newline.  Each line is formatted according to the unchanged line for‐
	 mat.

       %%

	 stands for %.

       %c'C'

	 where C is a single character, stands for C.  C may not  be  a	 back‐
	 slash	or an apostrophe.  For example, %c':' stands for a colon, even
	 inside the then-part of an if-then-else format, which a  colon	 would
	 normally terminate.

       %c'\O'

	 where	O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the char‐
	 acter with octal code O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null char‐
	 acter.

       Fn

	 where F is a printf conversion specification and n is one of the fol‐
	 lowing letters, stands for n's value formatted with F.

	 e

	   The line number of the line just before the group in the old file.

	 f

	   The line number of the first line in the group  in  the  old	 file;
	   equals e + 1.

	 l

	   The line number of the last line in the group in the old file.

	 m

	   The	line  number of the line just after the group in the old file;
	   equals l + 1.

	 n

	   The number of lines in the group in the old file; equals l - f + 1.

	 E, F, L, M, N

	   Likewise, for lines in the new file.

	   The printf conversion specification can be %d, %o, %x, or %X, spec‐
	   ifying  decimal, octal, lower case hexadecimal, or upper case hexa‐
	   decimal output respectively.	 After the % the following options can
	   appear  in  sequence: a - specifying left-justification; an integer
	   specifying the minimum field width; and a  period  followed	by  an
	   optional  integer  specifying  the  minimum	number of digits.  For
	   example, %5dN prints the number of new lines	 in  the  group	 in  a
	   field of width 5 characters, using the printf format "%5d".

       (A=B?T:E)

	 If  A equals B then T else E.	A and B are each either a decimal con‐
	 stant or a single letter interpreted as above.	 This format  spec  is
	 equivalent  to	 T if A's value equals B's; otherwise it is equivalent
	 to E.

	 For example, %(N=0?no:%dN) line%(N=1?:s) is equivalent to no lines if
	 N  (the number of lines in the group in the new file) is 0, to 1 line
	 if N is 1, and to %dN lines otherwise.

Line formats
       Line formats control how each line taken from an input file  is	output
       as part of a line group in if-then-else format.

       For  example,  the  following  command  outputs	text with a one-column
       change indicator to the left of the text.  The first column  of	output
       is  -  for  deleted lines, | for added lines, and a space for unchanged
       lines.  The formats  contain  newline  characters  where	 newlines  are
       desired on output.

	 cvs diff \

	    --old-line-format='-%l
	 ' \

	    --new-line-format='|%l
	 ' \

	    --unchanged-line-format=' %l
	 ' \

	    myfile

       To specify a line format, use one of the following options.  You should
       quote format, since it often contains shell metacharacters.

       --old-line-format=format

	 formats lines just from the first file.

       --new-line-format=format

	 formats lines just from the second file.

       --unchanged-line-format=format

	 formats lines common to both files.

       --line-format=format

	 formats all lines; in effect, it sets all three above options	simul‐
	 taneously.

	 In  a	line format, ordinary characters represent themselves; conver‐
	 sion specifications start with % and have one of the following forms.

       %l

	 stands for the contents of the line, not counting its	trailing  new‐
	 line (if any).	 This format ignores whether the line is incomplete.

       %L

	 stands	 for  the contents of the line, including its trailing newline
	 (if any).  If a line is incomplete, this format preserves its	incom‐
	 pleteness.

       %%

	 stands for %.

       %c'C'

	 where	C  is  a single character, stands for C.  C may not be a back‐
	 slash or an apostrophe.  For example, %c':' stands for a colon.

       %c'\O'

	 where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the	 char‐
	 acter with octal code O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null char‐
	 acter.

       Fn

	 where F is a printf conversion specification,	stands	for  the  line
	 number	 formatted  with F.  For example, %.5dn prints the line number
	 using the printf format "%.5d".  see node `Line group formats' in the
	 CVS manual, for more about printf conversion specifications.

	 The default line format is %l followed by a newline character.

	 If  the  input	 contains tab characters and it is important that they
	 line up on output, you should ensure that %l or %L in a  line	format
	 is just after a tab stop (e.g. by preceding %l or %L with a tab char‐
	 acter), or you should use the -t or --expand-tabs option.

	 Taken together, the line and line group formats let you specify  many
	 different  formats.  For example, the following command uses a format
	 similar to diff's normal format.  You can tailor this command to  get
	 fine control over diff's output.

	 cvs diff \

	    --old-line-format='< %l
	 ' \

	    --new-line-format='> %l
	 ' \

	    --old-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)d%dE
	 %<' \

	    --new-group-format='%dea%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
	 %>' \

	    --changed-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)c%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
	 %<—
	 %>' \

	    --unchanged-group-format='' \

	    myfile

diff examples
       The  following  line produces a Unidiff (-u flag) between revision 1.14
       and 1.19 of backend.c.  Due to the -kk flag  no	keywords  are  substi‐
       tuted,  so  differences	that  only  depend on keyword substitution are
       ignored.

	 $ cvs diff -kk -u -r 1.14 -r 1.19 backend.c

       Suppose the experimental branch EXPR1 was  based	 on  a	set  of	 files
       tagged  RELEASE_1_0.  To see what has happened on that branch, the fol‐
       lowing can be used:

	 $ cvs diff -r RELEASE_1_0 -r EXPR1

       A command like this can be used to produce a context diff  between  two
       releases:

	 $ cvs diff -c -r RELEASE_1_0 -r RELEASE_1_1 > diffs

       If  you	are  maintaining ChangeLogs, a command like the following just
       before you commit your changes may help you write the ChangeLog	entry.
       All  local  modifications  that	have  not  yet	been committed will be
       printed.

	 $ cvs diff -u | less

export
   Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout
       · Synopsis: export [-flNnR] [-r rev|-D date] [-k subst] [-d  dir]  mod‐
	 ule...

       · Requires: repository.

       · Changes: current directory.

	 This command is a variant of checkout; use it when you want a copy of
	 the source for module without	the  cvs  administrative  directories.
	 For example, you might use export to prepare source for shipment off-
	 site.	This command requires that you specify a date or tag (with  -D
	 or  -r),  so that you can count on reproducing the source you ship to
	 others (and thus it always prunes empty directories).

	 One often would like to use -kv with cvs  export.   This  causes  any
	 keywords  to  be expanded such that an import done at some other site
	 will not lose the keyword revision information.  But  be  aware  that
	 doesn't  handle an export containing binary files correctly.  Also be
	 aware that after having used -kv, one can no  longer  use  the	 ident
	 command (which is part of the rcs suite—see ident(1)) which looks for
	 keyword strings.  If you want to be able to use ident	you  must  not
	 use -kv.


export options
       These  standard	options	 are  supported	 by  export  (see node `Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):

       -D date

	 Use the most recent revision no later than date.

       -f

	 If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most  recent  revision
	 (instead of ignoring the file).

       -l

	 Local; run only in current working directory.

       -n

	 Do not run any checkout program.

       -R

	 Export directories recursively.  This is on by default.

       -r tag

	 Use revision tag.

	 In  addition,	these options (that are common to checkout and export)
	 are also supported:

       -d dir

	 Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using
	 the  module name.  see node `checkout options' in the CVS manual, for
	 complete details on how cvs handles this flag.

       -k subst

	 Set keyword expansion mode (see node `Substitution modes' in the  CVS
	 manual).

       -N

	 Only useful together with -d dir.  see node `checkout options' in the
	 CVS manual, for complete details on how cvs handles this flag.

history
   Show status of files and users
       · Synopsis:     history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...]

       · Requires: the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history

       · Changes: nothing.

	 cvs can keep a history file that tracks each  use  of	the  checkout,
	 commit,  rtag,	 update, and release commands.	You can use history to
	 display this information in various formats.

	 Logging must be enabled by creating  the  file	 $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/his‐
	 tory.

	 Note:	history uses -f, -l, -n, and -p in ways that conflict with the
	 normal use inside cvs (see node `Common options' in the CVS manual).

history options
       Several options (shown above as -report)	 control  what kind of	report
       is generated:

       -c

	 Report	 on  each time commit was used (i.e., each time the repository
	 was modified).

       -e

	 Everything (all record types).	 Equivalent to specifying -x with  all
	 record types.	Of course, -e will also include record types which are
	 added in a future version of cvs; if you are writing a	 script	 which
	 can only handle certain record types, you'll want to specify -x.

       -m module

	 Report	 on  a	particular  module.  (You can meaningfully use -m more
	 than once on the command line.)

       -o

	 Report on checked-out modules.	 This is the default report type.

       -T

	 Report on all tags.

       -x type

	 Extract a particular set of record types type from the	 cvs  history.
	 The  types  are indicated by single letters, which you may specify in
	 combination.

	 Certain commands have a single record type:

	 F

	   release

	 O

	   checkout

	 E

	   export

	 T

	   rtag

	   One of five record types may result from an update:

	 C

	   A merge was necessary but collisions were detected (requiring  man‐
	   ual merging).

	 G

	   A merge was necessary and it succeeded.

	 U

	   A working file was copied from the repository.

	 P

	   A working file was patched to match the repository.

	 W

	   The	working	 copy  of a file was deleted during update (because it
	   was gone from the repository).

	   One of three record types results from commit:

	 A

	   A file was added for the first time.

	 M

	   A file was modified.

	 R

	   A file was removed.

	   The options shown as -flags constrain or expand the report  without
	   requiring option arguments:

       -a

	 Show  data  for  all  users (the default is to show data only for the
	 user executing history).

       -l

	 Show last modification only.

       -w

	 Show only the records for modifications done from  the	 same  working
	 directory where history is executing.

	 The  options  shown as -options args constrain the report based on an
	 argument:

       -b str

	 Show data back to a record containing	the  string  str   in	either
	 the module name, the file name, or the repository path.

       -D date

	 Show data since date.	This is slightly different from the normal use
	 of -D date, which selects the newest revision older than date.

       -f file

	 Show data for a particular file (you can specify several  -f  options
	 on the same command line).  This is equivalent to specifying the file
	 on the command line.

       -n module

	 Show data for a particular module (you can specify several -n options
	 on the same command line).

       -p repository

	 Show  data  for a particular source repository	 (you can specify sev‐
	 eral -p options on the same command line).

       -r rev

	 Show records referring to revisions since the revision or  tag	 named
	 rev  appears  in individual rcs files.	 Each rcs file is searched for
	 the revision or tag.

       -t tag

	 Show records since tag tag was last added to the history file.	  This
	 differs  from	the  -r	 flag  above in that it reads only the history
	 file, not the rcs files, and is much faster.

       -u name

	 Show records for user name.

       -z timezone

	 Show times in the selected records  using  the	 specified  time  zone
	 instead of UTC.

import
   Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches
       · Synopsis: import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag...

       · Requires: Repository, source distribution directory.

       · Changes: repository.

	 Use  import to incorporate an entire source distribution from an out‐
	 side source (e.g., a  source  vendor)	into  your  source  repository
	 directory.   You  can use this command both for initial creation of a
	 repository, and for wholesale updates to the module from the  outside
	 source.  see node `Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, for a discus‐
	 sion on this subject.

	 The repository argument gives a directory name (or a path to a direc‐
	 tory) under the cvs root directory for repositories; if the directory
	 did not exist, import creates it.

	 When you use import for updates to source that has been  modified  in
	 your  source repository (since a prior import), it will notify you of
	 any files that conflict in  the  two  branches	 of  development;  use
	 checkout  -j to reconcile the differences, as import instructs you to
	 do.

	 If cvs decides a file should be ignored (see node `cvsignore' in  the
	 CVS  manual),	it  does  not  import it and prints I  followed by the
	 filename (see node `import output' in the CVS manual, for a  complete
	 description of the output).

	 If the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/cvswrappers exists, any file whose names
	 match the specifications in that file will be treated as packages and
	 the  appropriate  filtering  will  be performed on the file/directory
	 before being imported.	 see node `Wrappers' in the CVS manual.

	 The outside source is saved  in  a  first-level  branch,  by  default
	 1.1.1.	  Updates  are	leaves of this branch; for example, files from
	 the first imported collection of source  will	be  revision  1.1.1.1,
	 then  files  from the first imported update will be revision 1.1.1.2,
	 and so on.

	 At least three arguments are required.	 repository is needed to iden‐
	 tify  the  collection	of  source.  vendortag is a tag for the entire
	 branch (e.g., for  1.1.1).   You  must	 also  specify	at  least  one
	 releasetag  to uniquely identify the files at the leaves created each
	 time you execute import.  The releasetag should be  new,  not	previ‐
	 ously	existing  in  the  repository  file, and uniquely identify the
	 imported release,

	 Note that import does not change the directory in  which  you	invoke
	 it.   In particular, it does not set up that directory as a cvs work‐
	 ing directory; if you want to work with the sources import them first
	 and then check them out into a different directory (see node `Getting
	 the source' in the CVS manual).

import options
       This standard option is supported by import (see node `Common  options'
       in the CVS manual, for a complete description):

       -m message

	 Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor.

	 There are the following additional special options.

       -b branch

	 See see node `Multiple vendor branches' in the CVS manual.

       -k subst

	 Indicate the keyword expansion mode desired.  This setting will apply
	 to all files created during the import, but not  to  any  files  that
	 previously  existed  in  the  repository.  See see node `Substitution
	 modes' in the CVS manual, for a list of valid -k settings.

       -I name

	 Specify file names that should be ignored during import.  You can use
	 this  option  repeatedly.   To	 avoid ignoring any files at all (even
	 those ignored by default), specify `-I !'.

	 name can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify
	 in the .cvsignore file.  see node `cvsignore' in the CVS manual.

       -W spec

	 Specify  file	names  that should be filtered during import.  You can
	 use this option repeatedly.

	 spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify
	 in the .cvswrappers file. see node `Wrappers' in the CVS manual.

       -X

	 Modify the algorithm used by cvs when importing new files so that new
	 files do not immediately appear on the main trunk.

	 Specifically, this flag causes cvs to mark new files as if they  were
	 deleted  on  the  main	 trunk, by taking the following steps for each
	 file in addition to those normally taken on import:  creating	a  new
	 revision  on  the  main  trunk	 indicating that the new file is dead,
	 resetting the new file's default branch, and placing the file in  the
	 Attic (see node `Attic' in the CVS manual) directory.

	 Use  of  this option can be forced on a repository-wide basis by set‐
	 ting the ImportNewFilesToVendorBranchOnly  option  in	CVSROOT/config
	 (see node `config' in the CVS manual).

import output
       import  keeps  you informed of its progress by printing a line for each
       file, preceded by one character indicating the status of the file:

       U file

	 The file already exists in the repository and has  not	 been  locally
	 modified; a new revision has been created (if necessary).

       N file

	 The file is a new file which has been added to the repository.

       C file

	 The  file already exists in the repository but has been locally modi‐
	 fied; you will have to merge the changes.

       I file

	 The file is being ignored (see node `cvsignore' in the CVS manual).

       L file

	 The file is a symbolic link; cvs import ignores symbolic links.  Peo‐
	 ple periodically suggest that this behavior should be changed, but if
	 there is a consensus on what it should	 be  changed  to,  it  is  not
	 apparent.  (Various options in the modules file can be used to recre‐
	 ate symbolic links on checkout, update, etc.; see node	 `modules'  in
	 the CVS manual.)

import examples
       See  see	 node `Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, and see node `From
       files' in the CVS manual.

log
   Print out log information for files
       · Synopsis: log [options] [files...]

       · Requires: repository, working directory.

       · Changes: nothing.

	 Display log information for files.  log used to call the rcs  utility
	 rlog.	 Although  this is no longer true in the current sources, this
	 history determines the format of the output and  the  options,	 which
	 are not quite in the style of the other cvs commands.

	 The  output  includes the location of the rcs file, the head revision
	 (the latest revision on the trunk), all  symbolic  names  (tags)  and
	 some other things.  For each revision, the revision number, the date,
	 the author, the number of lines added/deleted and the log message are
	 printed.   All dates are displayed in local time at the client.  This
	 is typically specified in the $TZ environment variable, which can  be
	 set to govern how log displays dates.

	 Note:	log uses -R in a way that conflicts with the normal use inside
	 cvs (see node `Common options' in the CVS manual).

log options
       By default, log prints all information that is  available.   All	 other
       options restrict the output.

       -b

	 Print information about the revisions on the default branch, normally
	 the highest branch on the trunk.

       -d dates

	 Print information about revisions with a  checkin  date/time  in  the
	 range	given by the semicolon-separated list of dates.	 The date for‐
	 mats accepted are those accepted by the -D option to many  other  cvs
	 commands (see node `Common options' in the CVS manual).  Dates can be
	 combined into ranges as follows:

	 d1<d2

	 d2>d1

	   Select the revisions that were deposited between d1 and d2.

	 <d

	 d>

	   Select all revisions dated d or earlier.

	 d<

	 >d

	   Select all revisions dated d or later.

	 d

	   Select the single, latest revision dated d or earlier.

	   The > or < characters may be followed by = to indicate an inclusive
	   range rather than an exclusive one.

	   Note that the separator is a semicolon (;).

       -h

	 Print	only the name of the rcs file, name of the file in the working
	 directory, head, default branch, access list, locks, symbolic	names,
	 and suffix.

       -l

	 Local;	 run  only  in	current working directory.  (Default is to run
	 recursively).

       -N

	 Do not print the list of tags for this file.  This option can be very
	 useful	 when  your site uses a lot of tags, so rather than "more"'ing
	 over 3 pages of tag information, the  log  information	 is  presented
	 without tags at all.

       -R

	 Print only the name of the rcs file.

       -rrevisions

	 Print	information  about revisions given in the comma-separated list
	 revisions of revisions and ranges.  The following table explains  the
	 available range formats:

	 rev1:rev2

	   Revisions rev1 to rev2 (which must be on the same branch).

	 rev1::rev2

	   The same, but excluding rev1.

	 :rev

	 ::rev

	   Revisions from the beginning of the branch up to and including rev.

	 rev:

	   Revisions  starting	with  rev  to the end of the branch containing
	   rev.

	 rev::

	   Revisions starting just after rev to the end of the branch contain‐
	   ing rev.

	 branch

	   An argument that is a branch means all revisions on that branch.

	 branch1:branch2

	 branch1::branch2

	   A  range  of	 branches  means all revisions on the branches in that
	   range.

	 branch.

	   The latest revision in branch.

	   A bare -r with no  revisions	 means	the  latest  revision  on  the
	   default  branch, normally the trunk.	 There can be no space between
	   the -r option and its argument.

       -S

	 Suppress the header if no revisions are selected.

       -s states

	 Print information about revisions whose state attributes match one of
	 the states given in the comma-separated list states.

       -t

	 Print the same as -h, plus the descriptive text.

       -wlogins

	 Print	information  about  revisions  checked	in by users with login
	 names appearing in the comma-separated list  logins.	If  logins  is
	 omitted,  the user's login is assumed.	 There can be no space between
	 the -w option and its argument.

	 log prints the	 intersection  of  the	revisions  selected  with  the
	 options  -d,  -s, and -w, intersected with the union of the revisions
	 selected by -b and -r.


log examples
       Since log shows dates in local time, you might  want  to	 see  them  in
       Coordinated  Universal  Time  (UTC) or some other timezone.  To do this
       you can set your $TZ environment variable before invoking cvs:

	 $ TZ=UTC cvs log foo.c
	 $ TZ=EST cvs log bar.c

       (If you are using a csh-style shell, like tcsh, you would need to  pre‐
       fix the examples above with env.)

ls & rls
       · ls [-e | -l] [-RP] [-r revision] [-D date] [path...]

       · Requires: repository for rls, repository & working directory for ls.

       · Changes: nothing.

       · Synonym: dir & list are synonyms for ls and rdir & rlist are synonyms
	 for rls.

	 The ls and rls commands are used to list files and directories in the
	 repository.

	 By  default  ls  lists	 the files and directories that belong in your
	 working directory, what would be there after an update.

	 By default rls lists the files and directories	 on  the  tip  of  the
	 trunk in the topmost directory of the repository.

	 Both  commands	 accept	 an optional list of file and directory names,
	 relative to the working directory for ls and the topmost directory of
	 the repository for rls.  Neither is recursive by default.

ls & rls options
       These standard options are supported by ls & rls:

       -d

	 Show dead revisions (with tag when specified).

       -e

	 Display in CVS/Entries format.	 This format is meant to remain easily
	 parsable by automation.

       -l

	 Display all details.

       -P

	 Don't list contents of empty directories when recursing.

       -R

	 List recursively.

       -r revision

	 Show files with revision or tag.

       -D date

	 Show files from date.

rls examples
	 $ cvs rls
	 cvs rls: Listing module: `.'
	 CVSROOT
	 first-dir

	 $ cvs rls CVSROOT
	 cvs rls: Listing module: `CVSROOT'
	 checkoutlist
	 commitinfo
	 config
	 cvswrappers
	 loginfo
	 modules
	 notify
	 rcsinfo
	 taginfo
	 verifymsg

rdiff
   'patch' format diffs between releases
       · rdiff [-flags] [-V vn] [-r t|-D d [-r t2|-D d2]] modules...

       · Requires: repository.

       · Changes: nothing.

       · Synonym: patch

	 Builds a Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two  releases,  that
	 can  be  fed  directly into the patch program to bring an old release
	 up-to-date with the new release.  (This is one of the	few  cvs  com‐
	 mands that operates directly from the repository, and doesn't require
	 a prior checkout.) The diff output is sent  to	 the  standard	output
	 device.

	 You  can  specify (using the standard -r and -D options) any combina‐
	 tion of one or two revisions or dates.	 If only one revision or  date
	 is  specified, the patch file reflects differences between that revi‐
	 sion or date and the current head revisions in the rcs file.

	 Note that if the software release affected is contained in more  than
	 one  directory,  then it may be necessary to specify the -p option to
	 the patch command when patching the old sources,  so  that  patch  is
	 able to find the files that are located in other directories.

rdiff options
       These  standard	options	 are  supported	 by  rdiff  (see  node `Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):

       -D date

	 Use the most recent revision no later than date.

       -f

	 If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most  recent  revision
	 (instead of ignoring the file).

       -l

	 Local; don't descend subdirectories.

       -R

	 Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

       -r tag

	 Use revision tag.

	 In addition to the above, these options are available:

       -c

	 Use the context diff format.  This is the default format.

       -s

	 Create	 a  summary  change  report  instead  of a patch.  The summary
	 includes information about files that were changed or	added  between
	 the  releases.	  It  is  sent to the standard output device.  This is
	 useful for finding out, for example, which files have changed between
	 two dates or revisions.

       -t

	 A  diff  of  the  top	two  revisions	is sent to the standard output
	 device.  This is most useful for seeing what the  last	 change	 to  a
	 file was.

       -u

	 Use the unidiff format for the context diffs.	Remember that old ver‐
	 sions of the patch program can't handle the unidiff format, so if you
	 plan to post this patch to the net you should probably not use -u.

       -V vn

	 Expand keywords according to the rules current in rcs version vn (the
	 expansion format changed with rcs version 5).	Note that this	option
	 is  no longer accepted.  cvs will always expand keywords the way that
	 rcs version 5 does.

rdiff examples
       Suppose you receive mail from foo@example.net asking for an update from
       release	1.2  to	 1.4  of the tc compiler.  You have no such patches on
       hand, but with cvs that can easily be fixed  with  a  command  such  as
       this:

	 $ cvs rdiff -c -r FOO1_2 -r FOO1_4 tc | \
	 $$ Mail -s 'The patches you asked for' foo@example.net

       Suppose	you have made release 1.3, and forked a branch called R_1_3fix
       for bug fixes.  R_1_3_1 corresponds to release 1.3.1,  which  was  made
       some time ago.  Now, you want to see how much development has been done
       on the branch.  This command can be used:

	 $ cvs patch -s -r R_1_3_1 -r R_1_3fix module-name
	 cvs rdiff: Diffing module-name
	 File ChangeLog,v changed from revision 1.52.2.5 to 1.52.2.6
	 File foo.c,v changed from revision 1.52.2.3 to 1.52.2.4
	 File bar.h,v changed from revision 1.29.2.1 to 1.2

release
   Indicate that a Module is no longer in use
       · release [-d] directories...

       · Requires: Working directory.

       · Changes: Working directory, history log.

	 This command is meant to safely cancel the effect  of	cvs  checkout.
	 Since cvs doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly necessary to use this
	 command.  You can always simply delete your working directory, if you
	 like;	but  you  risk	losing changes you may have forgotten, and you
	 leave no trace in the cvs history file (see node  `history  file'  in
	 the CVS manual) that you've abandoned your checkout.

	 Use cvs release to avoid these problems.  This command checks that no
	 uncommitted changes are present; that you are executing it from imme‐
	 diately  above	 a  cvs	 working  directory;  and  that the repository
	 recorded for your files is the same as the repository defined in  the
	 module database.

	 If  all these conditions are true, cvs release leaves a record of its
	 execution (attesting to your intentionally abandoning your  checkout)
	 in the cvs history log.

release options
       The release command supports one command option:

       -d

	 Delete	 your  working	copy  of the file if the release succeeds.  If
	 this flag is not given your files will remain in your working	direc‐
	 tory.

	 WARNING:   The	 release  command  deletes  all	 directories and files
	 recursively.  This has the very serious side-effect that  any	direc‐
	 tory  that  you have created inside your checked-out sources, and not
	 added to the repository (using the  add  command;  see	 node  `Adding
	 files' in the CVS manual) will be silently deleted—even if it is non-
	 empty!

release output
       Before release releases your sources it will print a  one-line  message
       for any file that is not up-to-date.

       U file

       P file

	 There exists a newer revision of this file in the repository, and you
	 have not modified your local copy of the file (U and P mean the  same
	 thing).

       A file

	 The  file has been added to your private copy of the sources, but has
	 not yet been committed to the repository.  If you delete your copy of
	 the sources this file will be lost.

       R file

	 The  file has been removed from your private copy of the sources, but
	 has not yet been removed from the repository, since you have not  yet
	 committed the removal.	 see node `commit' in the CVS manual.

       M file

	 The  file is modified in your working directory.  There might also be
	 a newer revision inside the repository.

       ? file

	 file is in your working directory, but does not  correspond  to  any‐
	 thing	in  the source repository, and is not in the list of files for
	 cvs to ignore (see the description of the -I  option,	and  see  node
	 `cvsignore'  in the CVS manual).  If you remove your working sources,
	 this file will be lost.

release examples
       Release the tc directory, and delete your local	working	 copy  of  the
       files.

	 $ cd ..	 # You must stand immediately above the

			 # sources when you issue cvs release.
	 $ cvs release -d tc
	 You have [0] altered files in this repository.
	 Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory `tc': y
	 $

update
   Bring work tree in sync with repository
       · update	 [-ACdflPpR] [-I name] [-j rev [-j rev]] [-k kflag] [-r tag|-D
	 date] [-W spec] files...

       · Requires: repository, working directory.

       · Changes: working directory.

	 After you've run checkout to create your private copy of source  from
	 the  common  repository,  other developers will continue changing the
	 central source.  From time to time, when it  is  convenient  in  your
	 development  process, you can use the update command from within your
	 working directory to reconcile your work with any  revisions  applied
	 to the source repository since your last checkout or update.  Without
	 the -C option, update will also merge	any  differences  between  the
	 local	copy  of  files	 and their base revisions into any destination
	 revisions specified with -r, -D, or -A.


update options
       These standard options are available  with  update  (see	 node  `Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):

       -D date

	 Use  the  most	 recent	 revision  no later than date.	This option is
	 sticky, and implies -P.  See see node `Sticky tags' in the  CVS  man‐
	 ual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.

       -f

	 Only  useful  with the -D date or -r tag flags.  If no matching revi‐
	 sion is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring
	 the file).

       -k kflag

	 Process keywords according to kflag.  See see node `Keyword substitu‐
	 tion' in the CVS manual.  This option is sticky;  future  updates  of
	 this  file  in	 this  working directory will use the same kflag.  The
	 status command can be viewed to see the sticky options.  See see node
	 `Invoking  CVS' in the CVS manual, for more information on the status
	 command.

       -l

	 Local; run only in current working directory.	 see  node  `Recursive
	 behavior' in the CVS manual.

       -P

	 Prune	empty  directories.   See see node `Moving directories' in the
	 CVS manual.

       -p

	 Pipe files to the standard output.

       -R

	 Update directories recursively (default).  see node `Recursive behav‐
	 ior' in the CVS manual.

       -r rev

	 Retrieve  revision/tag	 rev.	This option is sticky, and implies -P.
	 See see node `Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on
	 sticky tags/dates.

	 These special options are also available with update.

       -A

	 Reset	any  sticky  tags, dates, or -k options.  See see node `Sticky
	 tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.

       -C

	 Overwrite locally modified files with clean copies from  the  reposi‐
	 tory (the modified file is saved in .#file.revision, however).

       -d

	 Create	 any directories that exist in the repository if they're miss‐
	 ing from the working directory.  Normally, update acts only on direc‐
	 tories	 and  files  that were already enrolled in your working direc‐
	 tory.

	 This is useful for updating directories  that	were  created  in  the
	 repository since the initial checkout; but it has an unfortunate side
	 effect.  If you  deliberately	avoided	 certain  directories  in  the
	 repository  when  you	created your working directory (either through
	 use of a module name or by listing explicitly the files and  directo‐
	 ries you wanted on the command line), then updating with -d will cre‐
	 ate those directories, which may not be what you want.

       -I name

	 Ignore files whose names match name (in your working directory)  dur‐
	 ing  the  update.   You  can specify -I more than once on the command
	 line to specify several files to ignore.  Use -I ! to avoid  ignoring
	 any  files at all.  see node `cvsignore' in the CVS manual, for other
	 ways to make cvs ignore some files.

       -Wspec

	 Specify file names that should be filtered during  update.   You  can
	 use this option repeatedly.

	 spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify
	 in the .cvswrappers file. see node `Wrappers' in the CVS manual.

       -jrevision

	 With two -j options, merge changes from the revision  specified  with
	 the  first  -j	 option	 to  the  revision specified with the second j
	 option, into the working directory.

	 With one -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision  to  the
	 revision  specified  with  the -j option, into the working directory.
	 The ancestor revision is the common ancestor of  the  revision	 which
	 the  working directory is based on, and the revision specified in the
	 -j option.

	 Note that using a single -j tagname option rather than -j  branchname
	 to merge changes from a branch will often not remove files which were
	 removed on the branch.	 see node `Merging adds and removals'  in  the
	 CVS manual, for more.

	 In  addition,	each -j option can contain an optional date specifica‐
	 tion which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to
	 one  within a specific date.  An optional date is specified by adding
	 a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

	 see node `Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.

update output
       update and checkout keep you informed of their progress by  printing  a
       line  for each file, preceded by one character indicating the status of
       the file:

       U file

	 The file was brought up to date with respect to the repository.  This
	 is  done  for	any file that exists in the repository but not in your
	 source, and for files that you haven't changed but are not  the  most
	 recent versions available in the repository.

       P file

	 Like  U,  but the cvs server sends a patch instead of an entire file.
	 This accomplishes the same thing as U using less bandwidth.

       A file

	 The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, and will
	 be  added  to	the source repository when you run commit on the file.
	 This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed.

       R file

	 The file has been removed from your private copy of the sources,  and
	 will be removed from the source repository when you run commit on the
	 file.	This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed.

       M file

	 The file is modified in  your	working	 directory.

	 M can indicate one of two states for a file you're working on: either
	 there	were  no  modifications to the same file in the repository, so
	 that your file remains as you last saw it; or	there  were  modifica‐
	 tions in the repository as well as in your copy, but they were merged
	 successfully, without conflict, in your working directory.

	 cvs will print some messages if it merges your	 work,	and  a	backup
	 copy  of  your working file (as it looked before you ran update) will
	 be made.  The exact name of that file is printed while update runs.

       C file

	 A conflict was detected while trying to merge your  changes  to  file
	 with  changes	from  the  source  repository.	file (the copy in your
	 working directory) is now the result of attempting to merge  the  two
	 revisions;  an	 unmodified  copy of your file is also in your working
	 directory, with the name .#file.revision where revision is the	 revi‐
	 sion  that  your modified file started from.  Resolve the conflict as
	 described in see node `Conflicts example' in the CVS  manual.	 (Note
	 that  some  systems  automatically  purge files that begin with .# if
	 they have not been accessed for a few days.  If you intend to keep  a
	 copy  of  your	 original  file, it is a very good idea to rename it.)
	 Under vms, the file name starts with __ rather than .#.

       ? file

	 file is in your working directory, but does not  correspond  to  any‐
	 thing	in  the source repository, and is not in the list of files for
	 cvs to ignore (see the description of the -I  option,	and  see  node
	 `cvsignore' in the CVS manual).

AUTHORS
       Dick Grune
	      Original	author	of  the	 cvs  shell  script  version posted to
	      comp.sources.unix in the	volume6	 release  of  December,	 1986.
	      Credited with much of the cvs conflict resolution algorithms.

       Brian Berliner
	      Coder  and  designer  of	the cvs program itself in April, 1989,
	      based on the original work done by Dick.

       Jeff Polk
	      Helped Brian with the design of the cvs module and vendor branch
	      support  and author of the checkin(1) shell script (the ancestor
	      of cvs import).

       Larry Jones, Derek R. Price, and Mark D. Baushke
	      Have helped maintain cvs for many years.

       And many others too numerous to mention here.

SEE ALSO
       The most comprehensive manual for CVS is Version Management with CVS by
       Per Cederqvist et al.  Depending on your system, you may be able to get
       it with the info CVS command or it may be available as cvs.pdf  (Porta‐
       ble   Document	Format),  cvs.ps  (PostScript),	 cvs.texinfo  (Texinfo
       source), or cvs.html.

       For CVS updates, more information on documentation, software related to
       CVS, development of CVS, and more, see:

	   http://cvshome.org

 ci(1),	 co(1),	 cvs(5),  cvsbug(8), diff(1), grep(1), patch(1), rcs(1), rcsd‐
 iff(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1).

									CVS(1)
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