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DBOPEN(3)		 BSD Library Functions Manual		     DBOPEN(3)

NAME
     dbopen — database access methods

SYNOPSIS
     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <db.h>
     #include <fcntl.h>
     #include <limits.h>

     DB *
     dbopen(const char *file, int flags, int mode, DBTYPE type,
	 const void *openinfo);

DESCRIPTION
     The dbopen() function is the library interface to database files.	The
     supported file formats are btree, hashed and UNIX file oriented.  The
     btree format is a representation of a sorted, balanced tree structure.
     The hashed format is an extensible, dynamic hashing scheme.  The flat-
     file format is a byte stream file with fixed or variable length records.
     The formats and file format specific information are described in detail
     in their respective manual pages btree(3), hash(3) and recno(3).

     The dbopen() function opens file for reading and/or writing.  Files never
     intended to be preserved on disk may be created by setting the file argu‐
     ment to NULL.

     The flags and mode arguments are as specified to the open(2) routine,
     however, only the O_CREAT, O_EXCL, O_EXLOCK, O_NONBLOCK, O_RDONLY,
     O_RDWR, O_SHLOCK and O_TRUNC flags are meaningful.	 (Note, opening a
     database file O_WRONLY is not possible.)

     The type argument is of type DBTYPE (as defined in the <db.h> include
     file) and may be set to DB_BTREE, DB_HASH or DB_RECNO.

     The openinfo argument is a pointer to an access method specific structure
     described in the access method's manual page.  If openinfo is NULL, each
     access method will use defaults appropriate for the system and the access
     method.

     The dbopen() function returns a pointer to a DB structure on success and
     NULL on error.  The DB structure is defined in the <db.h> include file,
     and contains at least the following fields:

     typedef struct {
	     DBTYPE type;
	     int (*close)(DB *db);
	     int (*del)(const DB *db, const DBT *key, u_int flags);
	     int (*fd)(const DB *db);
	     int (*get)(const DB *db, const DBT *key, DBT *data, u_int flags);
	     int (*put)(const DB *db, DBT *key, const DBT *data,
		  u_int flags);
	     int (*sync)(const DB *db, u_int flags);
	     int (*seq)(const DB *db, DBT *key, DBT *data, u_int flags);
     } DB;

     These elements describe a database type and a set of functions performing
     various actions.  These functions take a pointer to a structure as
     returned by dbopen(), and sometimes one or more pointers to key/data
     structures and a flag value.

     type    The type of the underlying access method (and file format).

     close   A pointer to a routine to flush any cached information to disk,
	     free any allocated resources, and close the underlying file(s).
	     Since key/data pairs may be cached in memory, failing to sync the
	     file with a close or sync function may result in inconsistent or
	     lost information.	close routines return -1 on error (setting
	     errno) and 0 on success.

     del     A pointer to a routine to remove key/data pairs from the data‐
	     base.

	     The flags argument may be set to the following value:

	     R_CURSOR
		     Delete the record referenced by the cursor.  The cursor
		     must have previously been initialized.

	     delete routines return -1 on error (setting errno), 0 on success,
	     and 1 if the specified key was not in the file.

     fd	     A pointer to a routine which returns a file descriptor represen‐
	     tative of the underlying database.	 A file descriptor referencing
	     the same file will be returned to all processes which call
	     dbopen() with the same file name.	This file descriptor may be
	     safely used as an argument to the fcntl(2) and flock(2) locking
	     functions.	 The file descriptor is not necessarily associated
	     with any of the underlying files used by the access method.  No
	     file descriptor is available for in memory databases.  Fd rou‐
	     tines return -1 on error (setting errno), and the file descriptor
	     on success.

     get     A pointer to a routine which is the interface for keyed retrieval
	     from the database.	 The address and length of the data associated
	     with the specified key are returned in the structure referenced
	     by data.  get routines return -1 on error (setting errno), 0 on
	     success, and 1 if the key was not in the file.

     put     A pointer to a routine to store key/data pairs in the database.

	     The flags argument may be set to one of the following values:

	     R_CURSOR
		     Replace the key/data pair referenced by the cursor.  The
		     cursor must have previously been initialized.

	     R_IAFTER
		     Append the data immediately after the data referenced by
		     key, creating a new key/data pair.	 The record number of
		     the appended key/data pair is returned in the key struc‐
		     ture.  (Applicable only to the DB_RECNO access method.)

	     R_IBEFORE
		     Insert the data immediately before the data referenced by
		     key, creating a new key/data pair.	 The record number of
		     the inserted key/data pair is returned in the key struc‐
		     ture.  (Applicable only to the DB_RECNO access method.)

	     R_NOOVERWRITE
		     Enter the new key/data pair only if the key does not pre‐
		     viously exist.

	     R_SETCURSOR
		     Store the key/data pair, setting or initializing the
		     position of the cursor to reference it.  (Applicable only
		     to the DB_BTREE and DB_RECNO access methods.)

	     R_SETCURSOR is available only for the DB_BTREE and DB_RECNO
	     access methods because it implies that the keys have an inherent
	     order which does not change.

	     R_IAFTER and R_IBEFORE are available only for the DB_RECNO access
	     method because they each imply that the access method is able to
	     create new keys.  This is only true if the keys are ordered and
	     independent, record numbers for example.

	     The default behavior of the put routines is to enter the new
	     key/data pair, replacing any previously existing key.

	     put routines return -1 on error (setting errno), 0 on success,
	     and 1 if the R_NOOVERWRITE flag was set and the key already
	     exists in the file.

     seq     A pointer to a routine which is the interface for sequential
	     retrieval from the database.  The address and length of the key
	     are returned in the structure referenced by key, and the address
	     and length of the data are returned in the structure referenced
	     by data.

	     Sequential key/data pair retrieval may begin at any time, and the
	     position of the “cursor” is not affected by calls to the del,
	     get, put, or sync routines.  Modifications to the database during
	     a sequential scan will be reflected in the scan, i.e., records
	     inserted behind the cursor will not be returned while records
	     inserted in front of the cursor will be returned.

	     The flags argument must be set to one of the following values:

	     R_CURSOR
		     The data associated with the specified key is returned.
		     This differs from the get routines in that it sets or
		     initializes the cursor to the location of the key as
		     well.  (Note, for the DB_BTREE access method, the
		     returned key is not necessarily an exact match for the
		     specified key.  The returned key is the smallest key
		     greater than or equal to the specified key, permitting
		     partial key matches and range searches.)

	     R_FIRST
		     The first key/data pair of the database is returned, and
		     the cursor is set or initialized to reference it.

	     R_LAST  The last key/data pair of the database is returned, and
		     the cursor is set or initialized to reference it.
		     (Applicable only to the DB_BTREE and DB_RECNO access
		     methods.)

	     R_NEXT  Retrieve the key/data pair immediately after the cursor.
		     If the cursor is not yet set, this is the same as the
		     R_FIRST flag.

	     R_PREV  Retrieve the key/data pair immediately before the cursor.
		     If the cursor is not yet set, this is the same as the
		     R_LAST flag.  (Applicable only to the DB_BTREE and
		     DB_RECNO access methods.)

	     R_LAST and R_PREV are available only for the DB_BTREE and
	     DB_RECNO access methods because they each imply that the keys
	     have an inherent order which does not change.

	     seq routines return -1 on error (setting errno), 0 on success and
	     1 if there are no key/data pairs less than or greater than the
	     specified or current key.	If the DB_RECNO access method is being
	     used, and if the database file is a character special file and no
	     complete key/data pairs are currently available, the seq routines
	     return 2.

     sync    A pointer to a routine to flush any cached information to disk.
	     If the database is in memory only, the sync routine has no effect
	     and will always succeed.

	     The flags argument may be set to the following value:

	     R_RECNOSYNC
		     If the DB_RECNO access method is being used, this flag
		     causes the sync routine to apply to the btree file which
		     underlies the recno file, not the recno file itself.
		     (See the bfname field of the recno(3) manual page for
		     more information.)

	     sync routines return -1 on error (setting errno) and 0 on suc‐
	     cess.

KEY/DATA PAIRS
     Access to all file types is based on key/data pairs.  Both keys and data
     are represented by the following data structure:

     typedef struct {
	     void *data;
	     size_t size;
     } DBT;

     The elements of the DBT structure are defined as follows:

     data  A pointer to a byte string.

     size  The length of the byte string.

     Key and data byte strings may reference strings of essentially unlimited
     length although any two of them must fit into available memory at the
     same time.	 It should be noted that the access methods provide no guaran‐
     tees about byte string alignment.

ERRORS
     The dbopen() routine may fail and set errno for any of the errors speci‐
     fied for the library routines open(2) and malloc(3) or the following:

     [EFTYPE]		A file is incorrectly formatted.

     [EINVAL]		An argument has been specified (hash function, pad
			byte etc.) that is incompatible with the current file
			specification or which is not meaningful for the func‐
			tion (for example, use of the cursor without prior
			initialization) or there is a mismatch between the
			version number of file and the software.

     The close routines may fail and set errno for any of the errors specified
     for the library routines close(2), read(2), write(2), free(3), or
     fsync(2).

     The del, get, put and seq routines may fail and set errno for any of the
     errors specified for the library routines read(2), write(2), free(3) or
     malloc(3).

     The fd routines will fail and set errno to ENOENT for in memory data‐
     bases.

     The sync routines may fail and set errno for any of the errors specified
     for the library routine fsync(2).

SEE ALSO
     btree(3), hash(3), mpool(3), recno(3)

     Margo Seltzer and Michael Olson, LIBTP: Portable, Modular Transactions
     for UNIX, USENIX proceedings, Winter 1992.

BUGS
     The typedef DBT is a mnemonic for “data base thang”, and was used because
     noone could think of a reasonable name that was not already used.

     The file descriptor interface is a kluge and will be deleted in a future
     version of the interface.

     None of the access methods provide any form of concurrent access, lock‐
     ing, or transactions.

BSD				January 2, 1994				   BSD
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