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DEVELOPMENT(7)	     BSD Miscellaneous Information Manual	DEVELOPMENT(7)

     development — introduction to development with the FreeBSD codebase

     This manual page describes how an ordinary system operator, UNIX adminis‐
     trator, or developer can, without any special permission, obtain, main‐
     tain, and modify the FreeBSD codebase as well as how to maintain a master
     build which can then be exported to other machines in your network.  This
     manual page is targeted to system operators, programmers, and developers.

     Please note that what is being described here is based on a complete
     FreeBSD environment, not just the FreeBSD kernel.	The methods described
     here are as applicable to production installations as it is to develop‐
     ment environments.	 You need a good 12-17GB of disk space on one machine
     to make this work conveniently.

     Your master server should always run a stable, production version of the
     FreeBSD operating system.	This does not prevent you from doing -CURRENT
     builds or development.  The last thing you want to do is to run an unsta‐
     ble environment on your master server which could lead to a situation
     where you lose the environment and/or cannot recover from a mistake.

     Create a huge partition called /FreeBSD.  8-12GB is recommended.  This
     partition will contain nearly all the development environment, including
     the CVS tree, broken-out source, and possibly even object files.  You are
     going to export this partition to your other machines via a READ-ONLY NFS
     export so do not mix it with other more security-sensitive partitions.

     You have to make a choice in regards to /usr/obj.	You can put /usr/obj
     in /FreeBSD or you can make /usr/obj its own partition.  I recommend mak‐
     ing it a separate partition for several reasons.  First, as a safety mea‐
     sure since this partition is written to a great deal.  Second, because
     you typically do not have to back it up.  Third, because it makes it far
     easier to mix and match the development environments which are described
     later in this document.  I recommend a /usr/obj partition of at least

     On the master server, use cvsup(1) (ports/net/cvsup) to automatically
     pull down and maintain the FreeBSD CVS archive once a day.	 The first
     pull will take a long time, it is several gigabytes, but once you have
     it, the daily synchronizations will be quite small.

	 mkdir /FreeBSD/FreeBSD-CVS
	 rm -rf /home/ncvs
	 ln -s /FreeBSD/FreeBSD-CVS /home/ncvs

     The cron(8) job should look something like this (please randomize the
     time of day!).  Note that you can use the cvsup(1) configuration file
     example directly from /usr/share/examples without modification by supply‐
     ing appropriate arguments to cvsup(1).

	 33 6 * * *	 /usr/local/bin/cvsup -g -r 20 -L 2 -h /usr/share/examples/cvsup/cvs-supfile

     Run the cvsup(1) manually the first time to pull down the archive.	 It
     could take all day depending on how fast your connection is!  You will
     run all cvsup(1) and cvs(1) operations as “root” and you need to set up a
     ~/.cvsrc (/root/.cvsrc) file, as shown below, for proper cvs(1) opera‐
     tion.  Using ~/.cvsrc to specify cvs(1) defaults is an excellent way to
     “file and forget”, but you should never forget that you put them in

	 # cvs -q
	 diff -u
	 update -Pd
	 checkout -P

     Now use cvs(1) to check out a -STABLE source tree and a -CURRENT source
     tree, as well as ports and docs, to create your initial source environ‐
     ment.  Keeping the broken-out source and ports in /FreeBSD allows you to
     export it to other machines via read-only NFS.  This also means you only
     need to edit/maintain files in one place and all your clients automati‐
     cally pick up the changes.

	 mkdir /FreeBSD/FreeBSD-4.x
	 mkdir /FreeBSD/FreeBSD-current

	 cd /FreeBSD/FreeBSD-4.x
	 cvs -d /home/ncvs checkout -rRELENG_4 src

	 cd /FreeBSD/FreeBSD-current
	 cvs -d /home/ncvs checkout src
	 cvs -d /home/ncvs checkout ports
	 cvs -d /home/ncvs checkout doc

     Now create a softlink for /usr/src and /usr/src2.	On the main server I
     always point /usr/src at -STABLE and /usr/src2 at -CURRENT.  On client
     machines I usually do not have a /usr/src2 and I make /usr/src point at
     whatever version of FreeBSD the client box is intended to run.

	 cd /usr
	 rm -rf src src2
	 ln -s /FreeBSD/FreeBSD-4.x/src src	 (could be -CURRENT on a client)
	 ln -s /FreeBSD/FreeBSD-current/src src2 (MASTER SERVER ONLY)

     Now you have to make a choice for /usr/obj.  Well, hopefully you made it
     already and chose the partition method.  If you chose poorly you probably
     intend to put it in /FreeBSD and, if so, this is what you want to do:

	 mkdir /FreeBSD/obj
	 cd /usr
	 rm -rf obj
	 ln -s /FreeBSD/obj obj

     Alternatively you may chose simply to leave /usr/obj in /usr.  If your
     /usr is large enough this will work, but I do not recommend it for safety
     reasons (/usr/obj is constantly being modified, /usr is not).

     Note that exporting /usr/obj via read-only NFS to your other boxes will
     allow you to build on your main server and install from your other boxes.
     If you also want to do builds on some or all of the clients you can sim‐
     ply have /usr/obj be a local directory on those clients.  You should
     never export /usr/obj read-write, it will lead to all sorts of problems
     and issues down the line and presents a security problem as well.	It is
     far easier to do builds on the master server and then only do installs on
     the clients.

     I usually maintain my ports tree via CVS.	It is sitting right there in
     the master CVS archive and I have even told you to check it out (see
     above).  With some fancy softlinks you can make the ports tree available
     both on your master server and on all of your other machines.  Note that
     the ports tree exists only on the HEAD CVS branch, so its always -CURRENT
     even on a -STABLE box.  This is what you do:

	 cd /usr
	 rm -rf ports
	 ln -s /FreeBSD/FreeBSD-current/ports ports

	 cd /usr/ports				 (this pushes into the softlink)
	 rm -rf distfiles			 (ON MASTER SERVER ONLY)
	 ln -s /usr/ports.distfiles distfiles	 (ON MASTER SERVER ONLY)

	 mkdir /usr/ports.distfiles
	 mkdir /usr/ports.workdir

     Since /usr/ports is softlinked into what will be read-only on all of your
     clients, you have to tell the ports system to use a different working
     directory to hold ports builds.  You want to add a line to your
     make.conf(5) file on the master server and on all your clients:


     You should try to make the directory you use for the ports working direc‐
     tory as well as the directory used to hold distfiles consistent across
     all of your machines.  If there is not enough room in
     /usr/ports.distfiles and /usr/ports.workdir I usually make those soft‐
     links (since this is on /usr these are per-machine) to where the dist‐
     files and working space really are.

     The master server needs to export /FreeBSD and /usr/obj via NFS so all
     the rest of your machines can get at them.	 I strongly recommend using a
     read-only export for both security and safety.  The environment I am
     describing in this manual page is designed primarily around read-only NFS
     exports.  Your exports file on the master server should contain the fol‐
     lowing lines:

	 /FreeBSD -ro -alldirs -maproot=root: -network YOURLAN -mask YOURLANMASK
	 /usr/obj -ro -alldirs -maproot=root: -network YOURLAN -mask YOURLANMASK

     Of course, NFS server operations must also be configured on that machine.
     This is typically done via your /etc/rc.conf:

	 nfs_server_flags="-u -t -n 4"

     All of your client machines can import the development/build environment
     directory simply by NFS mounting /FreeBSD and /usr/obj from the master
     server.  A typical /etc/fstab entry on your client machines will be some‐
     thing like this:

	 masterserver:/FreeBSD	   /FreeBSD	   nfs	   ro,bg    0	    0
	 masterserver:/usr/obj	   /usr/obj	   nfs	   ro,bg    0	    0

     And, of course, you should configure the client for NFS client operations
     via /etc/rc.conf.	In particular, this will turn on nfsiod(8) which will
     improve client-side NFS performance:


     Each client should create softlinks for /usr/ports and /usr/src that
     point into the NFS-mounted environment.  If a particular client is run‐
     ning -CURRENT, /usr/src should be a softlink to
     /FreeBSD/FreeBSD-current/src.  If it is running -STABLE, /usr/src should
     be a softlink to /FreeBSD/FreeBSD-4.x/src.	 I do not usually create a
     /usr/src2 softlink on clients, that is used as a convenient shortcut when
     working on the source code on the master server only and could create
     massive confusion (of the human variety) on a client.

	 cd /usr
	 rm -rf ports src
	 ln -s /FreeBSD/FreeBSD-current/ports ports
	 ln -s /FreeBSD/FreeBSD-XXX/src src

     Do not forget to create the working directories so you can build ports,
     as previously described.  If these are not good locations, make them
     softlinks to the correct location.	 Remember that /usr/ports/distfiles is
     exported by the master server and is therefore going to point to the same
     place (typically /usr/ports.distfiles) on every machine.

	 mkdir /usr/ports.distfiles
	 mkdir /usr/ports.workdir

     Here is how you build a -STABLE kernel (on your main development box).
     If you want to create a custom kernel, copy GENERIC to KERNELNAME and
     then edit it before configuring and building.  The kernel configuration
     file lives in /usr/src/sys/i386/conf/KERNELNAME.

	 cd /usr/src
	 make buildkernel KERNCONF=KERNELNAME

     WARNING! If you are familiar with the old config/cd/make method of build‐
     ing a -STABLE kernel, note that the config(8) method will put the build
     environment in /usr/src/sys/i386/compile/KERNELNAME instead of in

     Building a -CURRENT kernel

	 cd /usr/src2		 (on the master server)
	 make buildkernel KERNCONF=KERNELNAME

     Installing a -STABLE kernel (typically done on a client, only do this on
     your main development server if you want to install a new kernel for your
     main development server):

	 cd /usr/src
	 make installkernel KERNCONF=KERNELNAME

     If you are using the older config/cd/make build mechanism for -STABLE,
     you would install using:

	 cd /usr/src/sys/i386/compile/KERNELNAME
	 make install

     Installing a -CURRENT kernel (typically done only on a client)

	 (remember /usr/src is pointing to the client's specific environment)
	 cd /usr/src
	 make installkernel KERNCONF=KERNELNAME

     This environment is designed such that you do all builds on the master
     server, and then install from each client.	 You can do builds on a client
     only if /usr/obj is local to that client.	Building the world is easy:

	 cd /usr/src
	 make buildworld

     If you are on the master server you are running in a -STABLE environment,
     but that does not prevent you from building the -CURRENT world.  Just
     cd(1) into the appropriate source directory and you are set.  Do not
     accidentally install it on your master server though!

	 cd /usr/src2
	 make buildworld

     You can build on your main development server and install on clients.
     The main development server must export /FreeBSD and /usr/obj via read-
     only NFS to the clients.

     NOTE!!! If /usr/obj is a softlink on the master server, it must also be
     the EXACT SAME softlink on each client.  If /usr/obj is a directory in
     /usr or a mount point on the master server, then it must be (interchange‐
     ably) a directory in /usr or a mount point on each client.	 This is
     because the absolute paths are expected to be the same when building the
     world as when installing it, and you generally build it on your main
     development box and install it from a client.  If you do not set up
     /usr/obj properly you will not be able to build on machine and install on

	 (remember /usr/src is pointing to the client's specific environment)
	 cd /usr/src
	 make installworld

     WARNING! If builds work on the master server but installs do not work
     from the clients, for example you try to install and the client complains
     that the install tried to write into the read-only /usr/obj, then it is
     likely that the make.conf(5) file on the client does not match the one on
     the master server closely enough and the install is trying to install
     something that was not built.

     Developers often want to run buildkernel's or buildworld's on client
     boxes simply to life-test the box.	 You do this in the same manner that
     you buildkernel and buildworld on your master server.  All you have to do
     is make sure that /usr/obj is pointing to local storage.  If you followed
     my advise and made /usr/obj its own partition on the master server, then
     it is typically going to be an NFS mount on the client.  Simply unmount‐
     ing /usr/obj will leave you with a /usr/obj that is a subdirectory in
     /usr which is typically local to the client.  You can then do builds to
     your heart's content!

     I have described how to maintain two versions of the source tree, a sta‐
     ble version in /FreeBSD/FreeBSD-4.x and a current version in
     /FreeBSD/FreeBSD-current.	There is absolutely nothing preventing you
     from breaking out other versions of the source tree into /FreeBSD/XXX.
     In fact, my /FreeBSD partition also contains OpenBSD, NetBSD, and various
     flavors of Linux.	You may not necessarily be able to build non-FreeBSD
     operating systems on your master server, but being able to collect and
     manage source distributions from a central server is a very useful thing
     to be able to do and you can certainly export to machines which can build
     those other operating systems.

     Many developers choose to maintain a local branch of FreeBSD to test
     patches or build a custom distribution.  This can be done with CVS or
     another source code management system (SubVersion, Perforce, BitKeeper)
     with its own repository.  Since the main FreeBSD tree is based on CVS,
     the former is convenient.

     First, you need to modify your cvsup(1) environment to avoid it modifying
     the local changes you have committed to the repository.  It is important
     to remove the delete keyword from your supfile and to add the CVSROOT
     subdirectory to your refuse file.	For more information, see cvsup(1).

     The FreeBSD version of cvs(1) examines a custom environmental variable,
     CVS_LOCAL_BRANCH_NUM, which specifies an integer to use when doing a
     cvs(1) tag/rtag.  Set this number to something high (say 1000) to avoid
     colliding with potential future branches of the main repository.  For
     example, branching a file with version 1.4 produces 1.4.1000.  Future
     commits to this branch will produce revisions 1.4.1000.1, 1.4.1000.2,

     To fork your local branch, do:

	 cvs rtag -r RELENG_4 -b LOCAL_RELENG_4 src

     After this, you can check out a copy from your local repository using the
     new tag and begin making changes and committing them.  For more informa‐
     tion on using CVS, see cvs(1).

     WARNING! The cvsup(1) utility may blow away changes made on a local
     branch in some situations.	 This has been reported to occur when the mas‐
     ter CVS repository is directly manipulated or an RCS file is changed.  At
     this point, cvsup(1) notices that the client and server have entirely
     different RCS files, so it does a full replace instead of trying to send
     just deltas.  Ideally this situation should never arise, but in the real
     world it happens all the time.

     While this is the only scenario where the problem should crop up, there
     have been some suspicious-sounding reports of CVS_LOCAL_BRANCH_NUM los‐
     sage that cannot be explained by this alone.  Bottom line is, if you
     value your local branch then you should back it up before every update.

     The advantage of using cvsup(1) to maintain an updated copy of the CVS
     repository instead of using it to maintain source trees directly is that
     you can then pick and choose when you bring your source tree (or pieces
     of your source tree) up to date.  By using a cron(8) job to maintain an
     updated CVS repository, you can update your source tree at any time with‐
     out any network cost as follows:

	 (on the main development server)
	 cd /usr/src
	 cvs -d /home/ncvs update
	 cd /usr/src2
	 cvs -d /home/ncvs update
	 cd /usr/ports
	 cvs -d /home/ncvs update

     It is that simple, and since you are exporting the whole lot to your
     clients, your clients have immediate visibility into the updated source.
     This is a good time to also remind you that most of the cvs(1) operations
     you do will be done as “root”, and that certain options are required for
     CVS to operate properly on the FreeBSD repository.	 For example, -Pd is
     necessary when running cvs update.	 These options are typically placed in
     your ~/.cvsrc (as already described) so you do not have to re-specify
     them every time you run a cvs(1) command.	Maintaining the CVS repository
     also gives you far more flexibility in regards to breaking out multiple
     versions of the source tree.  It is a good idea to give your /FreeBSD
     partition a lot of space (I recommend 8-12GB) precisely for that reason.
     If you can make it 15GB I would do it.

     I generally do not cvs update via a cron(8) job.  This is because I gen‐
     erally want the source to not change out from under me when I am develop‐
     ing code.	Instead I manually update the source every so often... when I
     feel it is a good time.  My recommendation is to only keep the CVS repos‐
     itory synchronized via cron(8).

     crontab(1), crontab(5), make.conf(5), build(7), firewall(7), release(7),
     tuning(7), diskless(8)

     The development manual page was originally written by Matthew Dillon
     ⟨⟩ and first appeared in FreeBSD 5.0, December 2002.

BSD			       December 21, 2002			   BSD

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