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dig(1M)								       dig(1M)

       dig - domain information groper

   Single Query
       class]  filename]  filename]  port]  type]  addr] [name] [type] [class]


   Multiple Query
       [global-queryopt]... [query]...

       the domain information groper, is a  flexible  tool  for	 interrogating
       Domain Name System (DNS) servers.  It performs DNS lookups and displays
       the answers that are returned from the name servers that were  queried.
       Most DNS administrators use to troubleshoot DNS problems because of its
       flexibility, ease of use, and clarity of output.	 The command  has  two
       modes:  a simple command-line mode for single or multiple queries and a
       batch mode for reading lookup requests from a file option).

       Unless it is told to query a specific name server option),  tries  each
       of the servers listed in

       When  no	 command  line	arguments or options are given, performs an NS
       query for (the root).

       A simple, typical invocation of looks like:

       Options can be specified in any order.

       Use	 server as the name server to query.  server  can  be  a  host
		 name,	an IPv4 address in dotted-decimal notation, or an IPv6
		 address in colon-delimited notation.  When server is  a  host
		 name,	resolves  that	name before querying that name server.
		 If is omitted, queries the name servers listed in  The	 reply
		 from the name server that responds is displayed.

       Use the IPv4 query transport only.

       Use the IPv6 query transport only.

       Set the source IP address of the query to
		 address.   This  must be a valid address on one of the host's
		 network interfaces or or An optional port on the  source  may
		 be specified by appending

       Set the query class.
		 The  default  is  for Internet.  class can also be for Hesiod
		 records, or for Chaosnet records.

       Make	 operate in batch mode by reading a list of lookup requests to
		 process  from	the file filename.  The file contains a number
		 of queries, one per line.  Each entry in the file  should  be
		 organized in the same way it would be presented as a query to
		 using the command-line interface.

       Display the annotated syntax for the command.
		 If other options or operands are specified, they are ignored.

       Look up IPv6 addresses using the older IP6.INT domain,
		 described in RFC 1886.	 See the option.

       Specify a TSIG key file in order to sign the DNS queries sent by
		 and their responses using transaction signatures (TSIG).

       Send queries to a port number,
		 port, instead of to the standard DNS  port  number  53.   Use
		 this option to test a name server that has been configured to
		 listen for queries on a nonstandard port number.

       Set the query type to
		 type.	It can be any valid query type which is	 supported  in
		 BIND 9.  For potential values, see the command in nslookup(1)
		 and the discussion in named.conf(4).

		 The default query type is unless the option  is  supplied  to
		 indicate  a reverse lookup.  A zone transfer can be requested
		 by specifying a type of When an incremental zone transfer  is
		 required, set type to The incremental zone transfer will con‐
		 tain the changes made to the zone since the serial number  in
		 the zone's record was

       Simplify reverse lookups (mapping addresses to names).
		 addr  is  an  IPv4  address  in  dotted-decimal notation or a
		 colon-delimited IPv6 address.	 When  this  option  is	 used,
		 there	is  no	need to provide the name, class, or type oper‐
		 ands.	automatically performs a lookup for a  name  like  and
		 sets  the  query  type	 and  class  to	 and respectively.  By
		 default, IPv6 addresses are looked  up	 using	nibble	format
		 under	the IP6.ARPA domain.  To use the older RFC 1886 method
		 (IP6.INT) domain, also specify the option.

       Specify the TSIG key itself on the command line.
		 name is the name of the TSIG key and key is the  actual  key.
		 The  key  is a base-64 encoded string, typically generated by
		 (see dnssec-keygen(1)).  Be cautious when using the option on
		 multiuser  systems  as	 the  key can be visible in the output
		 from or in the shell's history file.  When using TSIG authen‐
		 tication  with	 the name server that is queried needs to know
		 the key and algorithm that is being used.  In BIND,  this  is
		 done by providing appropriate key and server statements in

       Operands are order-dependent.

       class	 Set  the  query  class.   See	the option.  The class operand
		 overrides any preceding option.

		 Query options (see the queryopt operand) at the beginning  of
		 the command are "global".  They affect all subsequent queries
		 on the command line (see the query operand).

       name	 The name of the resource record that is to be looked up.

       query	 A set of command-line options, operands,  and	query  options
		 that  form  a	single lookup query, as shown in the syntax in
		 (without the command word).

       queryopt	 Query options at the end of a query  modify  the  lookup  for
		 that  query  only.   They  override any global query options.
		 See the subsection for details.

       type	 Set the query type.  See the option.  The type operand	 over‐
		 rides any preceding option.

   Query Options
       uses  a	number of query options to modify lookups and the results that
       are displayed.  Some options set	 or  clear  flag  bits	in  the	 query
       header,	some  options  determine which sections of the answer get dis‐
       played, and other options determine the timeout and  retry  strategies.
       There are two formats:

	      The prefix	  causes  an  option  to be reset, negated, or
				  cleared.  The action is described in	brack‐
				  ets ([...]).

	      The keyword assigns a value to an option.
       The query options are:

       A synonym for
		 The default is

       Set [do not set] the AA (authoritative answer) flag in the query.
		 The default is

       Display [do not display] the additional section of a reply.
		 The default is

       Set [do not set] the AD (authenticate data) bit in the query.
		 The AD bit currently has a standard meaning only in responses
		 and not in queries.  The ability to set the bit in the	 query
		 is provided for completeness.	The default is

       Set [clear] all display flags.
		 The default is

       Display [do not display] the answer section of a reply.
		 The default is

       Display [do not display] the authority section of a reply.
		 The default is

       Attempt	[do  not attempt] to display the contents of messages that are
		 The default is

       Set the UDP message buffer size advertised using Extended DNS  (	 EDNS)
		 B  bytes.   The  maximum and minimum sizes of this buffer are
		 65535 and 0, respectively.  If the B size is  specified  out‐
		 side  of this range, then the size is adjusted appropriately.
		 The default is 2048.

       Set [do not set] the CD (checking disabled) bit in the query,
		 which requests the server not to perform DNSSEC validation of
		 responses.  The default is

       Display [do not display] the CLASS when printing the record.
		 The default is

       Display [do not display] an initial comment in the output
		 identifying  the  version  of	and the command-line arguments
		 that were specified.  The default is

       Display [do not display] comment lines in the output.
		 The default is

       Deprecated; treated as a synonym for
		 The default is

       Request DNSSEC records be sent by setting the DNSSEC OK bit (DO)
		 in the OPT record in the additional  section  of  the	query.
		 The default is

       Set the default domain to
		 somename  as  if  specified  in  a directive in the file, and
		 enable search list processing as if the  option  were	given.
		 If  this is not used, the query has to contain a fully quali‐
		 fied domain name (FQDN) for forward lookup.

       Do not try [try] the next server if you receive a SERVFAIL.
		 The default is which is the reverse of normal	stub  resolver

       Show [do not show]
		 the  IP address and port number that supplied the answer when
		 short form answers are requested with the query option.   The
		 default is

       Ignore [do not ignore] truncation in UDP responses instead
		 of retrying with TCP.	The default is (perform TCP retries).

       Print [do not print] records like the
		 records  in  a	 verbose  multiline format with human-readable
		 comments.  The default is print each record on a single line,
		 thereby facilitating machine parsing of the output.

       Set the number of dots (periods) that appear in
		 hostname  to  D.  The default for D is the value given in the
		 statement in or if there is no statement.  Names  with	 fewer
		 dots  are  interpreted as relative names and will be searched
		 for in the domains listed in the search or the domain	direc‐
		 tive in the file.

       Attempt [do not attempt] to find the authoritative
		 name servers for the zone containing the name being looked up
		 and display the record that each  name	 server	 has  for  the
		 zone.	also sets the query option.  The default is

       Print [do not print] the query before actually sending the query.
		 The default is

       Print [do not print] the question section of a query when an
		 answer	 is  returned.	The default is print the question sec‐
		 tion as a comment.

       Set [do not set] the RD (recursion desired) bit in the query,
		 to have send recursive queries.  The default is  except  that
		 recursion  is automatically disabled when the or query option
		 is used.

       Set the number of times to retry UDP queries to server to
		 A.  Unlike this count does not	 include  the  initial	query.
		 The default is 2.

       Use [do not use] the search list in
		 (if any).  The default is

       Display [do not display] a short answer.
		 The query results can be displayed in two forms: Complete and
		 Short answers.	 In the short form, only the  result  is  dis‐
		 played.   In  the  complete form, additional information (for
		 example, about other servers that might answer your query) is
		 also included.	 The default is

       Print [do not print] statistics such as the size of the reply
		 when the query was made.  The default is

       Use [do not use] TCP when querying name servers.
		 The  default  is use TCP if an or query is requested, and use
		 UDP otherwise.

       Set the timeout for a query to
		 T seconds.  The minimum value of T is	1  second.   If	 T  is
		 less than 1, it is set to 1 second.  The default timeout is 5

       Trace [do not trace] the delegation path from the root name
		 servers for the  name	being  looked  up.   When  tracing  is
		 enabled,  makes iterative queries to resolve the name that is
		 being looked up.  It will  follow  referrals  from  the  root
		 servers, showing the answer from each server that was used to
		 resolve the lookup.  also sets the query option.  The default

       Set the number of times to retry UDP queries to server to
		 A.  If A is less than 1, it is set to 1.  The default is 3.

       Display [do not display] the TTL when printing the record.
		 The default is

       Use [do not use] virtual circuit when querying name servers.
		 This alternate syntax to is provided for backward compatibil‐
		 ity.  The default is

   Multiple Queries
       The BIND 9 implementation of allows multiple  queries  on  the  command
       line  (in addition to supporting the batch file option).	 Each of those
       queries can be supplied with its own set of options, query type,	 query
       class, and query options.  See in

   Global Query Options
       A  global  set  of  query options, which is applied to all queries, can
       precede the first set of options, name, query type,  query  class,  and
       query  options  supplied on the command line.  Any global query options
       (except the query option) can be overridden by a query-specific set  of
       query options.  See in

   Example 1
       To  look	 up  information about domain using DNS-Server asking for host
       address records:

   Example 2
       To query using DNS-Server without authentication, asking for records:

   Example 3
       To request a transfer:

   Example 4
       To request a transfer with Transaction Signature (TSIG):

       The key is

       To secure server-to-server communication, BIND 9	 primarily  uses  TSIG
       for  zone transfer, notify, and recursive query messages.  TSIG is very
       useful for dynamic updates.

   Example 5
       To make three lookups from the command line:

       The three queries are:

	      An		       query for domain name

	      A reverse lookup of

	      A name server lookup for domain
				       suppressing the query display for  this
				       query only

       was developed by the Internet Systems Consortium (ISC).

       dnssec-keygen(1),     dnssec-signzone(1),     host(1),	  nsupdate(1),
       hosts_to_named(1M), named(1M), gethostent(3N), hostname(5).

       Requests for Comments (RFC): 1886, available online at

       available online at

       available from the Internet Systems Consortium at

				   BIND 9.3			       dig(1M)

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