dirname man page on Archlinux

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DIRNAME(3P)		   POSIX Programmer's Manual		   DIRNAME(3P)

       This  manual  page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux
       implementation of this interface may differ (consult the	 corresponding
       Linux  manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may
       not be implemented on Linux.

       dirname — report the parent directory name of a file pathname

       #include <libgen.h>

       char *dirname(char *path);

       The dirname() function shall take a pointer to a character string  that
       contains	 a  pathname, and return a pointer to a string that is a path‐
       name of the parent directory of that file. Trailing '/'	characters  in
       the path are not counted as part of the path.

       If  path	 does not contain a '/', then dirname() shall return a pointer
       to the string ".".  If path is a null pointer or	 points	 to  an	 empty
       string, dirname() shall return a pointer to the string ".".

       The dirname() function need not be thread-safe.

       The  dirname()  function shall return a pointer to a string that is the
       parent directory of path.  If path is a null pointer or	points	to  an
       empty string, a pointer to a string "." is returned.

       The  dirname()  function	 may modify the string pointed to by path, and
       may return a pointer to internal storage. The returned pointer might be
       invalidated or the storage might be overwritten by a subsequent call to

       No errors are defined.

       The following sections are informative.

       The following code fragment reads a pathname, changes the current work‐
       ing directory to the parent directory, and opens the file.

	   char *path = NULL, *pathcopy;
	   size_t buflen = 0;
	   ssize_t linelen = 0;
	   int fd;

	   linelen = getline(&path, &buflen, stdin);

	   path[linelen-1] = 0;
	   pathcopy = strdup(path);
	   if (chdir(dirname(pathcopy)) < 0) {
	   if ((fd = open(basename(path), O_RDONLY)) >= 0) {
	       close (fd);
	   free (pathcopy);
	   free (path);

   Sample Input and Output Strings for dirname()
       In  the	following  table,  the input string is the value pointed to by
       path, and the output string is the return value of the dirname()	 func‐

			   │Input String │ Output String │
			   │"/usr/lib"	 │ "/usr"	 │
			   │"/usr/"	 │ "/"		 │
			   │"usr"	 │ "."		 │
			   │"/"		 │ "/"		 │
			   │"."		 │ "."		 │
			   │".."	 │ "."		 │
       The  dirname() and basename() functions together yield a complete path‐
       name. The expression dirname(path) obtains the pathname of  the	direc‐
       tory where basename(path) is found.

       Since  the  meaning  of	the  leading  "//"  is implementation-defined,
       dirname("//foo) may return either "//" or '/' (but nothing else).




       The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, <libgen.h>

       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in  electronic  form
       from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information Technology
       -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX),	The  Open  Group  Base
       Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the Institute of Electri‐
       cal and Electronics Engineers,  Inc  and	 The  Open  Group.   (This  is
       POSIX.1-2008  with  the	2013  Technical Corrigendum 1 applied.) In the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and
       The  Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard
       is the referee document. The original Standard can be  obtained	online
       at http://www.unix.org/online.html .

       Any  typographical  or  formatting  errors that appear in this page are
       most likely to have been introduced during the conversion of the source
       files  to  man page format. To report such errors, see https://www.ker‐
       nel.org/doc/man-pages/reporting_bugs.html .

IEEE/The Open Group		     2013			   DIRNAME(3P)

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