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resolver(3)							   resolver(3)

       res_mkquery, res_send, res_init, dn_comp, dn_expand - resolver routines

       #include <sys/types.h>
       #include <netinet/in.h>
       #include <arpa/nameser.h>
       #include <resolv.h>

       res_mkquery(op, dname, class, type, data, datalen, newrr, buf, buflen)
       int op;
       char *dname;
       int class, type;
       char *data;
       int datalen;
       struct rrec *newrr;
       char *buf;
       int buflen;

       res_send(msg, msglen, answer, anslen)
       char *msg;
       int msglen;
       char *answer;
       int anslen;


       dn_comp(exp_dn, comp_dn, length, dnptrs, lastdnptr)
       char *exp_dn, *comp_dn;
       int length;
       char **dnptrs, **lastdnptr;

       dn_expand(msg, eomorig, comp_dn, exp_dn, length)
       char *msg, *eomorig, *comp_dn, exp_dn;
       int length;

       The  resolver  routines	are used for making, sending, and interpreting
       packets to BIND servers.	  Global  information  that  is	 used  by  the
       resolver	 routines is kept in the variable Most of the values have rea‐
       sonable defaults and you need not be concerned with them.  The  options
       are  a  simple bit mask and are or'ed in to enable.  The options stored
       in are defined in and are as follows:

       RES_INIT		  True if the initial name server address and  default
			  domain name are initialized, for example if has been

       RES_DEBUG	  Print debugging messages.

       RES_AAONLY	  Accept authoritative answers only.

       RES_USEVC	  Use TCP connections for queries instead of UDP.

       RES_STAYOPEN	  This is used with to keep the	 TCP  connection  open
			  between  queries.   This  is useful only in programs
			  that regularly do many queries.  You should normally
			  use UDP.

       RES_RECURSE	  Set  the  recursion desired bit in queries.  This is
			  the default.	The  routine  does  not	 do  iterative
			  queries and expects the BIND server to handle recur‐

       RES_DEFNAMES	  Append the  default  domain  name  to	 single	 label
			  queries.  This is the default.

       The following lists the routines found in

       res_init	       This  routine  reads the initialization file to get the
		       default domain name and the  Internet  address  of  the
		       initial	hosts  running	the name server.  If this line
		       does not exist, the host running the resolver is tried.

       res_mkquery     This routine makes a standard query message and	places
		       it in buf.  The res_mkquery routine returns the size of
		       the query or -1 if the query is larger than buflen.

		       op     The opcode is usually but	 can  be  any  of  the
			      query types defined in nameser.h.

		       Dname  This variable is the domain name.	 If dname con‐
			      sists of a single label and the flag is enabled,
			      which is the default, dname is appended with the
			      current domain name.  The current domain name is
			      defined  in  a system file, but you can override
			      it by using the environment variable

       res_send	       This routine sends a query  to  the  BIND  servers  and
		       returns	an  answer.   It calls the routine.  If is not
		       set, sends the query to the local name server, and han‐
		       dle timeouts and retries.  The length of the message is
		       returned or -1 if there were errors.

       dn_comp	       This routine compresses	the  domain  name  exp_dn  and
		       stores  it in comp_dn.  The size of the compressed name
		       is returned or -1 if there were errors.	The length  is
		       the size of the array pointed to by comp_dn.

		       dnptrs This  variable  is  a list of pointers to previ‐
			      ously compressed names in the  current  message.
			      The first pointer points to the beginning of the
			      message and the list ends with

			      This is a	 pointer  to  the  end	of  the	 array
			      pointed  to  by  dnptrs.	 A  side  effect is to
			      update the list of pointers for labels  inserted
			      into  the message by dn_comp as the name is com‐
			      pressed.	If dnptr is NULL, the  names  are  not
			      compressed.   If	lastdnptr is NULL, the list is
			      not updated.

       dn_expand       This routine expands the compressed domain  name	 to  a
		       full BIND domain name.  Expanded names are converted to
		       upper case.

		       msg    This variable is a pointer to the	 beginning  of
			      the message.

		       exp_dn This  variable  is a pointer to a buffer of size
			      length for the result.  The  size	 of  the  com‐
			      pressed  name  is returned or -1 if there was an

See Also
       named(8), resolv.conf(5)
       Guide to the BIND/Hesiod Service


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