dnssec-signzone man page on FreeBSD
DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8) BIND9 DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)
dnssec-signzone - DNSSEC zone signing tool
dnssec-signzone [-a] [-c class] [-d directory] [-e end-time]
[-f output-file] [-g] [-h] [-k key] [-l domain]
[-i interval] [-I input-format] [-j jitter]
[-N soa-serial-format] [-o origin] [-O output-format]
[-p] [-P] [-r randomdev] [-s start-time] [-t]
[-v level] [-z] [-3 salt] [-H iterations] [-A]
dnssec-signzone signs a zone. It generates NSEC and RRSIG records and
produces a signed version of the zone. It also generates a keyset- file
containing the key-signing keys for the zone, and if signing a zone
which contains delegations, it can optionally generate DS records for
the child zones from their keyset- files.
Verify all generated signatures.
Specifies the DNS class of the zone.
Treat specified key as a key signing key ignoring any key flags.
This option may be specified multiple times.
Generate a DLV set in addition to the key (DNSKEY) and DS sets. The
domain is appended to the name of the records.
Look for keyset files in directory as the directory
If the zone contains any delegations, and there are keyset- files
for any of the child zones, then DS records for the child zones
will be generated from the keys in those files. Existing DS records
will be removed.
Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records become
valid. This can be either an absolute or relative time. An absolute
start time is indicated by a number in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation;
20000530144500 denotes 14:45:00 UTC on May 30th, 2000. A relative
start time is indicated by +N, which is N seconds from the current
time. If no start-time is specified, the current time minus 1 hour
(to allow for clock skew) is used.
Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records expire.
As with start-time, an absolute time is indicated in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS
notation. A time relative to the start time is indicated with +N,
which is N seconds from the start time. A time relative to the
current time is indicated with now+N. If no end-time is specified,
30 days from the start time is used as a default.
The name of the output file containing the signed zone. The default
is to append .signed to the input filename.
Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to
When a previously-signed zone is passed as input, records may be
resigned. The interval option specifies the cycle interval as an
offset from the current time (in seconds). If a RRSIG record
expires after the cycle interval, it is retained. Otherwise, it is
considered to be expiring soon, and it will be replaced.
The default cycle interval is one quarter of the difference between
the signature end and start times. So if neither end-time or
start-time are specified, dnssec-signzone generates signatures that
are valid for 30 days, with a cycle interval of 7.5 days.
Therefore, if any existing RRSIG records are due to expire in less
than 7.5 days, they would be replaced.
The format of the input zone file. Possible formats are "text"
(default) and "raw". This option is primarily intended to be used
for dynamic signed zones so that the dumped zone file in a non-text
format containing updates can be signed directly. The use of this
option does not make much sense for non-dynamic zones.
When signing a zone with a fixed signature lifetime, all RRSIG
records issued at the time of signing expires simultaneously. If
the zone is incrementally signed, i.e. a previously-signed zone is
passed as input to the signer, all expired signatures have to be
regenerated at about the same time. The jitter option specifies a
jitter window that will be used to randomize the signature expire
time, thus spreading incremental signature regeneration over time.
Signature lifetime jitter also to some extent benefits validators
and servers by spreading out cache expiration, i.e. if large
numbers of RRSIGs don't expire at the same time from all caches
there will be less congestion than if all validators need to
refetch at mostly the same time.
Specifies the number of threads to use. By default, one thread is
started for each detected CPU.
The SOA serial number format of the signed zone. Possible formats
are "keep" (default), "increment" and "unixtime".
Do not modify the SOA serial number.
Increment the SOA serial number using RFC 1982 arithmetics.
Set the SOA serial number to the number of seconds since
The zone origin. If not specified, the name of the zone file is
assumed to be the origin.
The format of the output file containing the signed zone. Possible
formats are "text" (default) and "raw".
Use pseudo-random data when signing the zone. This is faster, but
less secure, than using real random data. This option may be useful
when signing large zones or when the entropy source is limited.
Disable post sign verification tests.
The post sign verification test ensures that for each algorithm in
use there is at least one non revoked self signed KSK key, that all
revoked KSK keys are self signed, and that all records in the zone
are signed by the algorithm. This option skips these tests.
Specifies the source of randomness. If the operating system does
not provide a /dev/random or equivalent device, the default source
of randomness is keyboard input. randomdev specifies the name of a
character device or file containing random data to be used instead
of the default. The special value keyboard indicates that keyboard
input should be used.
Print statistics at completion.
Sets the debugging level.
Ignore KSK flag on key when determining what to sign.
Generate a NSEC3 chain with the given hex encoded salt. A dash
(salt) can be used to indicate that no salt is to be used when
generating the NSEC3 chain.
When generating a NSEC3 chain use this many interations. The
default is 100.
When generating a NSEC3 chain set the OPTOUT flag on all NSEC3
records and do not generate NSEC3 records for insecure delegations.
The file containing the zone to be signed.
Specify which keys should be used to sign the zone. If no keys are
specified, then the zone will be examined for DNSKEY records at the
zone apex. If these are found and there are matching private keys,
in the current directory, then these will be used for signing.
The following command signs the example.com zone with the DSA key
generated by dnssec-keygen (Kexample.com.+003+17247). The zone's keys
must be in the master file (db.example.com). This invocation looks for
keyset files, in the current directory, so that DS records can be
generated from them (-g).
% dnssec-signzone -g -o example.com db.example.com \
In the above example, dnssec-signzone creates the file
db.example.com.signed. This file should be referenced in a zone
statement in a named.conf file.
This example re-signs a previously signed zone with default parameters.
The private keys are assumed to be in the current directory.
% cp db.example.com.signed db.example.com
% dnssec-signzone -o example.com db.example.com
dnssec-signzone was designed so that it could sign a zone partially,
using only a subset of the DNSSEC keys needed to produce a fully-signed
zone. This permits a zone administrator, for example, to sign a zone
with one key on one machine, move the resulting partially-signed zone
to a second machine, and sign it again with a second key.
An unfortunate side-effect of this flexibility is that dnssec-signzone
does not check to make sure it's signing a zone with any valid keys at
all. An attempt to sign a zone without any keys will appear to succeed,
producing a "signed" zone with no signatures. There is no warning
issued when a zone is not fully signed.
This will be corrected in a future release. In the meantime, ISC
recommends examining the output of dnssec-signzone to confirm that the
zone is properly signed by all keys before using it.
dnssec-keygen(8), BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual, RFC 4033.
Internet Systems Consortium
Copyright © 2004-2009 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
Copyright © 2000-2003 Internet Software Consortium.
BIND9 June 08, 2009 DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)
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