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DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)		     BIND9		    DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)

NAME
       dnssec-signzone - DNSSEC zone signing tool

SYNOPSIS
       dnssec-signzone [-a] [-c class] [-d directory] [-e end-time]
		       [-f output-file] [-g] [-h] [-k key] [-l domain]
		       [-i interval] [-I input-format] [-j jitter]
		       [-N soa-serial-format] [-o origin] [-O output-format]
		       [-p] [-P] [-r randomdev] [-s start-time] [-t]
		       [-v level] [-z] [-3 salt] [-H iterations] [-A]
		       {zonefile} [key...]

DESCRIPTION
       dnssec-signzone signs a zone. It generates NSEC and RRSIG records and
       produces a signed version of the zone. It also generates a keyset- file
       containing the key-signing keys for the zone, and if signing a zone
       which contains delegations, it can optionally generate DS records for
       the child zones from their keyset- files.

OPTIONS
       -a
	   Verify all generated signatures.

       -c class
	   Specifies the DNS class of the zone.

       -k key
	   Treat specified key as a key signing key ignoring any key flags.
	   This option may be specified multiple times.

       -l domain
	   Generate a DLV set in addition to the key (DNSKEY) and DS sets. The
	   domain is appended to the name of the records.

       -d directory
	   Look for keyset files in directory as the directory

       -g
	   If the zone contains any delegations, and there are keyset- files
	   for any of the child zones, then DS records for the child zones
	   will be generated from the keys in those files. Existing DS records
	   will be removed.

       -s start-time
	   Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records become
	   valid. This can be either an absolute or relative time. An absolute
	   start time is indicated by a number in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation;
	   20000530144500 denotes 14:45:00 UTC on May 30th, 2000. A relative
	   start time is indicated by +N, which is N seconds from the current
	   time. If no start-time is specified, the current time minus 1 hour
	   (to allow for clock skew) is used.

       -e end-time
	   Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records expire.
	   As with start-time, an absolute time is indicated in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS
	   notation. A time relative to the start time is indicated with +N,
	   which is N seconds from the start time. A time relative to the
	   current time is indicated with now+N. If no end-time is specified,
	   30 days from the start time is used as a default.

       -f output-file
	   The name of the output file containing the signed zone. The default
	   is to append .signed to the input filename.

       -h
	   Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to
	   dnssec-signzone.

       -i interval
	   When a previously-signed zone is passed as input, records may be
	   resigned. The interval option specifies the cycle interval as an
	   offset from the current time (in seconds). If a RRSIG record
	   expires after the cycle interval, it is retained. Otherwise, it is
	   considered to be expiring soon, and it will be replaced.

	   The default cycle interval is one quarter of the difference between
	   the signature end and start times. So if neither end-time or
	   start-time are specified, dnssec-signzone generates signatures that
	   are valid for 30 days, with a cycle interval of 7.5 days.
	   Therefore, if any existing RRSIG records are due to expire in less
	   than 7.5 days, they would be replaced.

       -I input-format
	   The format of the input zone file. Possible formats are "text"
	   (default) and "raw". This option is primarily intended to be used
	   for dynamic signed zones so that the dumped zone file in a non-text
	   format containing updates can be signed directly. The use of this
	   option does not make much sense for non-dynamic zones.

       -j jitter
	   When signing a zone with a fixed signature lifetime, all RRSIG
	   records issued at the time of signing expires simultaneously. If
	   the zone is incrementally signed, i.e. a previously-signed zone is
	   passed as input to the signer, all expired signatures have to be
	   regenerated at about the same time. The jitter option specifies a
	   jitter window that will be used to randomize the signature expire
	   time, thus spreading incremental signature regeneration over time.

	   Signature lifetime jitter also to some extent benefits validators
	   and servers by spreading out cache expiration, i.e. if large
	   numbers of RRSIGs don't expire at the same time from all caches
	   there will be less congestion than if all validators need to
	   refetch at mostly the same time.

       -n ncpus
	   Specifies the number of threads to use. By default, one thread is
	   started for each detected CPU.

       -N soa-serial-format
	   The SOA serial number format of the signed zone. Possible formats
	   are "keep" (default), "increment" and "unixtime".

	       "keep"
		   Do not modify the SOA serial number.

	       "increment"
		   Increment the SOA serial number using RFC 1982 arithmetics.

	       "unixtime"
		   Set the SOA serial number to the number of seconds since
		   epoch.

       -o origin
	   The zone origin. If not specified, the name of the zone file is
	   assumed to be the origin.

       -O output-format
	   The format of the output file containing the signed zone. Possible
	   formats are "text" (default) and "raw".

       -p
	   Use pseudo-random data when signing the zone. This is faster, but
	   less secure, than using real random data. This option may be useful
	   when signing large zones or when the entropy source is limited.

       -P
	   Disable post sign verification tests.

	   The post sign verification test ensures that for each algorithm in
	   use there is at least one non revoked self signed KSK key, that all
	   revoked KSK keys are self signed, and that all records in the zone
	   are signed by the algorithm. This option skips these tests.

       -r randomdev
	   Specifies the source of randomness. If the operating system does
	   not provide a /dev/random or equivalent device, the default source
	   of randomness is keyboard input.  randomdev specifies the name of a
	   character device or file containing random data to be used instead
	   of the default. The special value keyboard indicates that keyboard
	   input should be used.

       -t
	   Print statistics at completion.

       -v level
	   Sets the debugging level.

       -z
	   Ignore KSK flag on key when determining what to sign.

       -3 salt
	   Generate a NSEC3 chain with the given hex encoded salt. A dash
	   (salt) can be used to indicate that no salt is to be used when
	   generating the NSEC3 chain.

       -H iterations
	   When generating a NSEC3 chain use this many interations. The
	   default is 100.

       -A
	   When generating a NSEC3 chain set the OPTOUT flag on all NSEC3
	   records and do not generate NSEC3 records for insecure delegations.

       zonefile
	   The file containing the zone to be signed.

       key
	   Specify which keys should be used to sign the zone. If no keys are
	   specified, then the zone will be examined for DNSKEY records at the
	   zone apex. If these are found and there are matching private keys,
	   in the current directory, then these will be used for signing.

EXAMPLE
       The following command signs the example.com zone with the DSA key
       generated by dnssec-keygen (Kexample.com.+003+17247). The zone's keys
       must be in the master file (db.example.com). This invocation looks for
       keyset files, in the current directory, so that DS records can be
       generated from them (-g).

	   % dnssec-signzone -g -o example.com db.example.com \
	   Kexample.com.+003+17247
	   db.example.com.signed
	   %

       In the above example, dnssec-signzone creates the file
       db.example.com.signed. This file should be referenced in a zone
       statement in a named.conf file.

       This example re-signs a previously signed zone with default parameters.
       The private keys are assumed to be in the current directory.

	   % cp db.example.com.signed db.example.com
	   % dnssec-signzone -o example.com db.example.com
	   db.example.com.signed
	   %

KNOWN BUGS
       dnssec-signzone was designed so that it could sign a zone partially,
       using only a subset of the DNSSEC keys needed to produce a fully-signed
       zone. This permits a zone administrator, for example, to sign a zone
       with one key on one machine, move the resulting partially-signed zone
       to a second machine, and sign it again with a second key.

       An unfortunate side-effect of this flexibility is that dnssec-signzone
       does not check to make sure it's signing a zone with any valid keys at
       all. An attempt to sign a zone without any keys will appear to succeed,
       producing a "signed" zone with no signatures. There is no warning
       issued when a zone is not fully signed.

       This will be corrected in a future release. In the meantime, ISC
       recommends examining the output of dnssec-signzone to confirm that the
       zone is properly signed by all keys before using it.

SEE ALSO
       dnssec-keygen(8), BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual, RFC 4033.

AUTHOR
       Internet Systems Consortium

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright © 2004-2009 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
       Copyright © 2000-2003 Internet Software Consortium.

BIND9				 June 08, 2009		    DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)
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