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dump(1M)							      dump(1M)

       dump, rdump - incremental file system dump, local or across network

       [option [argument ...]  filesystem]

       [option [argument ...]  filesystem]

       The and commands copy to magnetic tape all files in the filesystem that
       have been changed after a certain date.	This  information  is  derived
       from  the  files	 and option specifies the date and other options about
       the dump.  option consists of characters from the set The and  commands
       work  only  on  file systems of type If the given file system is not of
       type and will abort after printing an error message.

	      This number is the "dump level".
			All files modified since the last date stored in  file
			for  the  same	file  system  at lesser levels will be
			dumped.	 If no date is determined by  the  level,  the
			beginning of time is assumed.  Thus, the option causes
			the entire file system to be dumped.

	      The blocking factor is taken from the next argument
			(default is 10	if  not	 specified).   Block  size  is
			defined	 as the logical record size times the blocking
			factor.	 writes logical records of 1024	 bytes.	  When
			dumping to tapes with densities of 6250 BPI or greater
			without using the option, the default blocking	factor
			is 32.

	      The density of the tape (expressed in BPIs)
			is taken from the next argument.  This is used in cal‐
			culating the  amount  of  tape	used  per  reel.   The
			default value of 1600 assumes a reel tape.

	      Place the dump on the next
			argument file instead of the tape.  If the name of the
			file is writes to the  standard	 output.   When	 using
			this option should be specified, and the next argument
			supplied should be of the form

	      Whenever	and require operator attention, notify	all  users  in
			group by means similar to that described by wall(1).

	      The size of the dump tape is specified in feet.
			The  number  of	 feet is taken from the next argument.
			When the specified size is reached, and wait for reels
			to  be	changed.   The default tape size value of 2300
			feet assumes a reel tape.

	      If the dump completes successfully,
			write on file the date when the	 dump  started.	  This
			file  records a separate date for each file system and
			each dump level.  The format of is  user-readable  and
			consists of one free-format record per line: file sys‐
			tem name, increment level, and dump date in  ctime(3C)
			format.	  The  file can be edited to change any of the
			fields if necessary.

	      For each file system in
			print the most recent dump date and level,  indicating
			which file systems should be dumped.  If the option is
			set, all other options are ignored and	exits  immedi‐

	      Operates like
			but prints only file systems that need to be dumped.

       If  no  arguments are given, option is assumed to be and a default file
       system is dumped to the default tape.

       Sizes are based on 1600-BPI blocked tape; the raw magnetic tape	device
       must  be used to approach these densities.  Up to 32 read errors on the
       file system are ignored.	 Each reel requires a new process; thus parent
       processes  for  reels  already  written remain until the entire tape is

       The command creates a server, or on the remote machine  to  access  the
       tape device.

       and require operator intervention for any of the following conditions:

	      ·	 end of tape,
	      ·	 end of dump,
	      ·	 tape-write error,
	      ·	 tape-open error, or
	      ·	 disk-read error (if errors exceed threshold of 32).

       In addition to alerting all operators implied by the option, and inter‐
       act with the control terminal operator by posing questions requiring or
       answers when it can no longer proceed or if something is grossly wrong.

       Since  making  a	 full  dump involves considerable time and effort, and
       each establish a checkpoint at the start of each tape volume.  If,  for
       any  reason, writing that volume fails, and will, with operator permis‐
       sion, restart from the checkpoint after the old tape has	 been  rewound
       and removed and a new tape has been mounted.

       and  periodically  report  information to the operator, including typi‐
       cally low estimates of the number of blocks to  write,  the  number  of
       tapes  it  will	require,  the time needed for completion, and the time
       remaining until tape change.  The output is  verbose  to	 inform	 other
       users  that  the	 terminal controlling and is busy and will be for some

   Access Control Lists (ACLs)
       The optional entries of a file's access	control	 list  (ACL)  are  not
       backed  up  with	 and Instead, the file's permission bits are backed up
       and any information contained in its optional ACL entries is lost  (see

       In the following example, assume that the file system is to be attached
       to the file tree at the root directory, This example causes the	entire
       file  system to be dumped on and specifies that the density of the tape
       is 6250 BPI.

       will not backup a file system containing large files.

       Tapes created from file systems containing files with UID/GIDs  greater
       than 60,000 will have a new magic number in the header to prevent older
       versions of restore(1M) from incorrectly restoring ownerships for these

       and were developed by the University of California, Berkeley.

       Default file system to dump from.
       Default tape unit to dump to.
       New format-dump-date record.
       Dump table: file systems and frequency.
       Used to find group

       restore(1M), rmt(1M), fstab(4), acl(5).


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