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dump(8)								       dump(8)

Name
       dump - create file system dump

Syntax
       /etc/dump [ key [ argument... ] filesystem ]

Description
       The command copies all files changed after a certain date from a speci‐
       fied filesystem to a file, a pipe, magnetic tapes, or disks.   The  key
       specifies the date and other options to be used by

       Dumping	a  filesystem  requires	 operator attention.  An operator must
       intervene when the end of a tape or disk is reached, when  the  end  of
       the  occurs,  or when an unrecoverable input disk read error occurs (if
       more than 32 read errors occur).	 In addition to alerting all operators
       in  the operator group, interacts with the operator at the control ter‐
       minal when can no longer proceed, or if	something  is  grossly	wrong.
       All questions that poses must be answered by typing yes or no.

       Because	a  full dump uses considerable system time, checkpoints itself
       at the start of each tape or  disk  volume.   If	 writing  that	volume
       fails,  asks  the  operator  to	restart	 from the checkpoint after the
       present tape or disk has been replaced.

       The utility reports to the operator periodically,  giving  usually  low
       estimates  of  the  number  of  blocks to write, the number of tapes or
       disks the dump will take, the time to completion, and  the  time	 until
       the  tape or disk must be changed.  The output is verbose, so that oth‐
       ers know that the terminal controlling is busy, and will	 be  for  some
       time.

       This  utility  supports	EOT  handling which allows the use of multiple
       media.  The utility prompts for the next volume when it encounters  the
       end of the current volume.

       This  utility supports the TA90 style sequential stacker loader device.
       The device ejects a cartridge wehn it is taken off line.	  The  utility
       performs the device ejection on behalf of the user when it encounters a
       multivolume boundary during write or read  operations  involving	 tape.
       The  device  then automatically loads the next available tape (if there
       is one).	 The utility then attempts to access this next tape for a rea‐
       sonable	amount	of time (approximately three minutes) before prompting
       the user for a manual reload operation.

Options
       With the command, you specify a string of one or more  of  the  options
       described below.	 If no options are specified, the key 9u is assumed.

       0-9     Specifies  the  dump level.  All files that were modified since
	       the last date stored in the file for  the  same	filesystem  at
	       lesser  levels will be dumped.  If no date is determined by the
	       level, the beginning of time is assumed.	  Thus,	 the  level  0
	       causes the entire filesystem to be dumped.

       B       Indicates that the next argument is a number that specifies the
	       size, in 1024-byte blocks, of  a	 storage  medium,  such	 as  a
	       diskette	 or  removable disk cartridge.	See the first example.
	       Additionally, permits the utility  to  kill  subprocesses  that
	       have  finished  writing.	  (This	 provides some relief to small
	       memory systems.)

       b       Indicates that the next argument is  the	 blocking  factor  for
	       tape  records.	The  default is 10 and the maximum is 63.  The
	       tape records are stored in 1024-byte blocks.

       d       Indicates that the density of the tape, expressed in  bits  per
	       inch, is taken from the next argument.  This density is used in
	       calculating the amount of tape used per reel.  The default den‐
	       sity is 1600 bpi.

       f       Places  the  dump  on  the file or device specified by the next
	       argument.  If the name of the file is  -,  writes  to  standard
	       output.	The default dump device is

       Permits the program to treat the tape drive as a sequential loader
	       device  even though it is not represented as such in the system
	       driver tables.

       n       Notifies, by means similar to a command, all users in the group
	       operator when needs operator attention.

       S       Prints  output  file  size  in  bytes, or number of volumes for
	       devices.	 See the third example.

       s       Indicates that the next argument specifies the size of the dump
	       tape,  in  feet.	 When the specified size is reached, waits for
	       the reel to be changed.	The default tape size is 2300 feet.

       u       Writes the date of the beginning of the dump on the file if the
	       completes  successfully.	 This file records a separate date for
	       each filesystem and each dump level.  The format of consists of
	       one  free  format  record  per line: filesystem name, increment
	       level and format dump date.  The superuser can  carefully  edit
	       to change any of the fields.

       W       Tells  the operator which file systems need to be dumped.  This
	       information is taken from the files and The W option causes  to
	       print  out,  for	 each file system in the most recent dump date
	       and level, and highlights those file  systems  that  should  be
	       dumped.	 If  the  W  option  is	 used,	all  other options are
	       ignored, and exits immediately.

       w       Lists only those filesystems that need to be dumped.

Examples
       This example dumps the filesystem to RX50  diskettes.   The  option  is
       needed when running to read this dump.
       dump 9Bf 400 /dev/rra2a /dev/ra0a
       This  example  dumps  the  filesystem to a 6250 bpi tape on a TU78 tape
       drive:
       dump 0undf 6250 /dev/rmt?h /usr/users
       This example reports number of bytes to be output for a level 0 dump of
       the root file system.  Please note: the file test is not created.
       dump 0Sf test /

Restrictions
       The program aborts with a segmentation fault if your file has been mis-
       formatted.

       Estimated sizes for unuspported	tape  drives  are  based  on  1600-bpi
       blocked tape.

       Anything fewer than 32 read errors on the filesystem are ignored.

       Each  reel requires a new process, so child processes for reels already
       written remain until the entire tape is written (unless the  -B	option
       is specified).

       Using  a blocking factor other than the default may lead to higher per‐
       formance.  However, you must select a value that is compatible with the
       hardware limitations of the source and destination machines.

Files
       Default filesystem to dump from

       Default tape unit to dump to

       Dump date record

       Dump table: file systems and frequency

       Operator group definition

       Required for user interface

See Also
       dump(5), fstab(5), opser(8), restore(8), rrestore(8c)
       Guide to Backup and Restore

								       dump(8)
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