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DVDAUTHOR(1)		      DVDAuthor Man Pages		  DVDAUTHOR(1)

NAME
       dvdauthor - assembles multiple mpeg program streams into a suitable DVD
       filesystem

SYNOPSIS
       dvdauthor [ -o output-dir ] -x xml-config-file

       dvdauthor [ -o output-dir ] [ -j | --jumppad | -g | --allgprm ] [ -T  |
       --toc ] [ menu or title options ]

DVD BACKGROUND
       At  a high level, a DVD is a collection of menus and titles.  Conceptu‐
       ally, a menu contains buttons which can be assigned  actions  and  pro‐
       vides  a	 list  of  choices to the end user, while a title contains the
       main content of the DVD.	 However, in  reality  many  of	 the  features
       available  in  menus (including buttons, pausing, and looping) are also
       available in titles.

       The menus and titles are divided into titlesets and the VMGM menu  set.
       A  titleset can contain a number of menus and titles which are meant to
       act together.  The "menu", "audio", "subtitle", and "angle" buttons  on
       the  DVD	 player's  remote  control  will  all access menus in the same
       titleset as the title which is being played.  All the titles and	 menus
       of  a  given titleset have the same video, audio, and subtitle settings
       (the definitions for the menus are independent from the definitions for
       the  titles),  so  if  you want to have different settings (for example
       widescreen vs standard aspect ratios), then you	need  separate	title‐
       sets.  Titlesets are not meant to jump to one another, so the VMGM menu
       domain is used.	It is a collection  of	menus  (no  titles)  that  can
       access the menus and titles of all the titlesets.

       One  of	the most frusterating things when deciding how to author a DVD
       is that there are often many ways to accomplish	the  same  task.   For
       example,	 you  must decide whether to locate menus at the VMGM level or
       the titleset level.  A typical setup is to locate the high level	 menus
       at the VMGM level, and the low level configuration menus (scene / audio
       / subtitle selection) at the titleset.  If there are DVD	 extras,  per‐
       haps with a lower quality audio track and a 4:3 aspect ratio, then they
       would be in a separate titleset with a menu to select among the	extras
       located at the titleset level.

DVDAUTHOR DESCRIPTION
       dvdauthor  works	 in discrete operations.  It authors each titleset one
       at a time, and then finally authors the VMGM to complete the disc.   At
       that  point  the contents can be written out to a DVD.  If you are con‐
       trolling dvdauthor with command line arguments,	then  each  step  will
       occur  independently;  however  if  you are using the XML configuration
       file, then you have the option of combining some or all the steps  into
       one.

       The  VOBs  passed  to dvdauthor must have DVD NAV (VOBU) packets multi‐
       plexed in at the correct locations.  Many tools can do this,  including
       mplex  from  mjpegtools 1.6.0 or later.	dvdauthor will then fill these
       packets in with the correct data.   Special  care  has  been  taken  to
       ensure dvdauthor is fifo compliant; that is every source VOB can be the
       output of another program (such as mplex).   This  can  make  execution
       faster on many systems by avoiding extra filesystem accesses.

COMMAND LINE DESCRIPTION
       -o output-dir
	      The  destination directory to store the DVD-Video file structure
	      in.

       -j

       --jumppad
	      foo

       -g

       --allgprm
	      Enable the use of all 16 general purpose	registers.   Prohibits
	      the  use	of  jumppad  and some complex expressions that require
	      temporary registers.

       -T     Creates the table of contents file instead  of  a	 titleset.  If
	      this  option is used, it should be listed first, and you may not
	      specify any titles.

       -m     Creates a menu.

       -t     Creates a title.

       -v video-opts

       --video=video-opts
	      A plus (+) separated list of video options.  Dvdauthor will  try
	      to  infer	 any  unspecified  options.   pal,  ntsc,  4:3,	 16:9,
	      720xfull,	 720x576,   720x480,   704xfull,   704x576,   704x480,
	      352xfull,	 352x576,  352x480, 352xhalf, 352x288, 352x240, nopan‐
	      scan, noletterbox, crop.	Default is ntsc, 4:3, 720xfull

       -a audio-opts

       --audio=audio-opts
	      A plus (+) separated list of options for an  audio  track,  with
	      each   track   separated	 by  a	comma  (,).   For  example  -a
	      ac3+en,mp2+de specifies two audio tracks: the first is  an  Eng‐
	      lish  track encoded in AC3, the second is a German track encoded
	      using MPEG-1 layer 2 compression.	 ac3, mp2,  pcm,  dts,	16bps,
	      20bps,  24bps,  drc,  surround, nolang, 1ch, 2ch, 3ch, 4ch, 5ch,
	      6ch, 7ch, 8ch, and any two letter ISO 639 language abbreviation.
	      Default is 1 track, mp2, 20bps, nolang, 2ch.  'ac3' implies drc,
	      6ch.

       -s subpicture-opts

       --subpictures=subpicture-opts
	      A plus (+) separated list of options  for	 a  subpicture	track,
	      with  each  track	 separated  by a comma (,). nolang and any two
	      letter language abbreviation (see -a) Default is	no  subpicture
	      tracks.

       -e entry(s)

       --entry=entry(s)
	      Makes the current menu the default for certain circumstances. It
	      is a comma separated list of any of:

	      for TOC menus: title

	      for VTS menus: root, ptt, audio, subtitle, angle

       -p palette-file

       --palette=palette-file
	      Specifies where to get  the  subpicture  palette.	 Settable  per
	      title  and per menu. If the filename ends in .rgb (case insensi‐
	      tive) then it is assumed to be RGB, otherwise it is YUV. Entries
	      should  be  6  hexadecimal  digits.  FILE	 defaults to xste-pal‐
	      ette.dat

       -c chapterpts

       --chapters=chapterpts
	      Specifies a comma (,) separated list of  chapter	markers.  Each
	      marker  is of the form [[h:]mm:]ss[.frac] and is relative to the
	      SCR of the next file listed (independent of any timestamp trans‐
	      posing  that  occurs within dvdauthor). The chapter markers ONLY
	      apply to the next file listed. Defaults to 0.

       -f mpeg-file

       --file=mpeg-file

       mpeg-file
	      Specifies either a file, a pipe, or a shell command ending in  |
	      which supplies an MPEG-2 system stream with VOB sectors inserted
	      in the appropriate places (using mplex -f 8 to generate)

       -b buttondef

       --button=X1xY1-X2xY2,commandlist
	      creates a button of the specified size. See LANGUAGE DESCRIPTION
	      for a description of commandlist.

       -i [pre|post]=commandlist

       --instructions=[pre|post]=commandlist
	      Executes	the  commandlist  instructions either before or at the
	      end of the menu/title.  See LANGUAGE DESCRIPTION for the	format
	      of commandlist.

XML DESCRIPTION
       Here is the basic structure of the configuration file:

       <dvdauthor [dest="output-dir"] [jumppad="1|on|yes" | allgprm="1|on|yes"]>
	  <vmgm>
	     [<fpc>commands;</fpc>]
	     <menus [lang="language-code"] >
		<video [format="ntsc|pal"] [aspect="4:3|16:9"]
		       [resolution="XxY"] [caption="field1|field2"]
		       [widescreen="nopanscan|noletterbox|crop"] />
		<audio [format="mp2|ac3|dts|pcm"] [channels="numchannels"]
		       [quant="16bps|20bps|24bps|drc"] [dolby="surround"]
		       [samplerate="48khz|96khz"] [lang="language"] />
		[<audio ... />]
		<subpicture lang="language" />
		<pgc [entry="title"] [palette="yuvfile|rgbfile"]
		     [pause="seconds|inf"]>
		   <pre> commands; </pre>
		   <vob file="file.mpg" [chapters="chapter-list"]
			[pause="seconds|inf"] />
		   [<vob ... />]
		   <button [name="buttonname"]> commands; </button>
		   [<button ... />]
		   <post> commands; </post>
		</pgc>
		[<pgc ... />]
	     </menus>
	  </vmgm>
	  <titleset>
	     <menus>
		[<video ... />]
		[<audio ... />]
		<pgc [entry="entries"]
		     [palette="yuvfile|rgbfile"] [pause="seconds|inf"]>
		   [...]
		</pgc>
		[<pgc ... />]
	     </menus>
	     <titles>
		[<video ... />]
		[<audio ... />]
		<pgc [palette="yuvfile|rgbfile"] [pause="seconds|inf"]>
		   [...]
		</pgc>
		[<pgc ... />]
	     </titles>
	  </titleset>
	  [<titleset ... />]
       </dvdauthor>

       A breakdown of the config file:

       <dvdauthor     [dest="output-dir"]     [jumppad="1|on|yes"    |	  all‐
       gprm="1|on|yes"]>
	      Initiates dvdauthor.  dest denotes the directory where dvdauthor
	      will  write the files.  It overrides the -o option.  Contains up
	      to one <vmgm> tag and any number of <titleset>'s.

       <vmgm>

       <titleset>
	      Constructs of a VMGM level menu set or a title set.  Contains up
	      to one <menus> tag and if a titleset, up to one <titles> tag.

       <menus [lang="language-code"] >

       <titles>
	      Marks  the  list	of  menus  or titles for this VMGM menu set or
	      titleset, called in dvdauthor terminology	 a  "pgcgroup."	  Con‐
	      tains  up to one <video> tag, up to eight <audio> tags, up to 32
	      <subpicture> tags, and any number of <pgc> tags.

       <video [format="ntsc|pal"] [aspect="4:3|16:9"] [resolution="XxY"] [cap‐
       tion="field1|field2"] [widescreen="nopanscan|noletterbox|crop"] />
	      Manually	configures the video parameters for this pgcgroup.  If
	      any of these are not set, then they will be  inferred  from  the
	      source  stream.  Note that the DVD format only specifically sup‐
	      ports 720x480, 704x480, 352x480,	and  352x240  resolutions  for
	      NTSC, and 720x576, 704x576, 352x576, and 352x288 resolutions for
	      PAL, but DVD author will accept a	 wider	range  of  inputs  and
	      round up to the nearest size.

       <audio [format="mp2|ac3|dts|pcm"] [channels="numchannels"] [dolby="sur‐
       round"]	 [quant="16bps|20bps|24bps|drc"]    [samplerate="48khz|96khz"]
       [lang="language"] />
	      Manually	configures  an	audio channel for this pgcgroup.  List
	      once for each channel.  Most parameters are  inferred  automati‐
	      cally  from the source VOBs except for PCM parameters.  However,
	      language must be manually specified.  Note that it  is  possible
	      to  just	list  the language attribute and let dvdauthor fill in
	      the rest.

       <subpicture lang="language" />
	      foo

       <pgc   [entry="entries"]	   [palette="yuvfile|rgbfile"]	  [pause="sec‐
       onds|inf"]>
	      A PGC is just a fancy term for either a menu or a title.	It has
	      a special meaning in the DVD spec so I  have  retained  its  use
	      here.   PGC's  can  have	commands that get executed before they
	      start playing or after they finish; see pre and post tags below.

	      If the PGC is a menu, you can specify one or  more  entries  for
	      it.   This  means	 that if you press the corresponding button on
	      your DVD remote, then it will go to this menu.  For a VMGM level
	      menu,  the  only choice is title, which on my remote corresponds
	      to the top menu button.  For a titleset level menu, you can  use
	      root,  subtitle,	audio,	angle, and ptt.	 If you want more than
	      one, separate them by a space or a comma.	 Note that root	 entry
	      is  meant	 for  commands	that  jump from a VMGM level menu to a
	      titleset menu.

	      All button and menu masks and all subtitles within  a  PGC  must
	      share  the same 16 color palette.	 If you use spumux to generate
	      the subtitle/subpicture packets, then the color information will
	      be  automatically	 passed	 to  dvdauthor;	 however,  if  you use
	      another subtitler or want to have more control over the palette,
	      you  can	manually  specify  it with the palette attribute.  The
	      first 16 entries of the file should be the 16 colors of the pal‐
	      ette,  listed as 6 digit hexadecimal numbers representing either
	      the RGB breakdown (if the filename  ends	in  .rgb  or  the  YUV
	      breakdown	 (if  the  filename does not end in .rgb.  After that,
	      the button group information can be listed as pairs of  8	 digit
	      hexadecimal numbers; up to three button groups may be specified.

	      If  you  have  a	short video sequence or just want the video to
	      pause at the end, you can use the pause  attribute  to  set  the
	      number  of  seconds  (as an integer) from 1 to 254.  If you want
	      the video to pause indefinitely, use inf.

       <pre> commands; </pre>

       <post> commands; </post>
	      Sets the commands to execute before or after a  PGC  plays.   It
	      can  be  used to loop the current video (by having a <post> jump
	      ... </post> sequence), or to conditionally skip certain chapters
	      if a flag has been set.

       <fpc> commands; </fpc>
	      Sets  the	 commands to execute when the disk is first put in the
	      player (FPC = First Program Chain).  It can be used to jump to a
	      particular  menu	or  initialize	registers  on startup.	If not
	      specified, an implicit one will be created  that	jumps  to  the
	      first  menu  found,  or  if there is no menu it will jump to the
	      first title..

       <vob file="file.mpg" [chapters="chapter-list"] [pause="seconds|inf"] />
	      foo

       <cell [start="timestamp"] [end="timestamp"] [chapter="1|on|yes" |  pro‐
       gram="1|on|yes"] [pause="seconds|inf"] />
	      foo

       <button [name="buttonname"]> commands; </button>
	      foo

LANGUAGE DESCRIPTION
       The language is quite simple and roughly looks like C.

       · Statements are terminated with a semicolon.

       · Statements can span multiple lines.

       · Multiple statements can appear on one line.

       · Whitespace  (space, tab, newlines) are not important, except to sepa‐
	 rate keywords and identifiers.

   VARIABLES
       The DVD virtual machine processes 16 bit values.	 It supports up to  16
       general	purpose	 registers;  however dvdauthor reserves 3 for internal
       use.  Thus register 0-12 are avaialable for use and are referred to  as
       g0 through g12.

       There  are  also	 24  system  registers, which can be referred to as s0
       through s23.  Not all  of  these	 can  be  set.	 Many  of  these  have
       pseodonyms.

       audio (s1, rw)
	      Denotes the audio channel, ranging from 0-7.

       subtitle (s2, rw)
	      The subtitle track, ranging from 0-31.  If you want the subtitle
	      to always be displayed, then you	should	add  64	 (i.e.	choose
	      64-95).	Simply	selecting the track (0-31) means that only the
	      forced subtitles will be displayed, whereas enabling  the	 track
	      (64-95)  means  that  all the subtitles will be displayed.  This
	      allows you to have forced subtitles only for the	parts  of  the
	      movie  where  the	 actors are speaking a foreign (to the viewer)
	      language, but  still  have  normal  subtitles  for  the  hearing
	      impaired.	  The  hearing impaired viewers would enable the track
	      (64-95) while the other viewers  would  just  select  the	 track
	      (0-31) they would be able to share the track.

       angle (s3, rw)
	      Selects the angle (currently untested).

       button (s8, rw)
	      Denotes  the  currently highlighted button.  Note that the value
	      is multiplied by 1024, so the first button is 1024,  the	second
	      is 2048, etc.

   EXPRESSIONS
       Expressions  follow  typical C syntax except that booleans are not con‐
       vertible to integers and vice versa.  Operators and comparisons are:

       ==, !=, >=, >, <=, <, &&, ||, !, eq, ne, ge, gt, le, lt, and, or,  xor,
       not, +, -, *, /, %, &, |, ^

       Since  the  code	 is  encapsulated  in  XML,  the parser will catch any
       unescaped < characters, thus alphabetic mnemonics  have	been  provided
       for all comparison operators for consistency.

       There is also a numerical function:

       random(EXPRESSION)
	      Computes a psuedo-random number, between 1 and the supplied num‐
	      ber, inclusively.

   BLOCKS
       Blocks are either a single statement (terminated by a semicolon), or  a
       group of statements wrapped in curly braces.  For example:

       ·
	 g3=s7;

       ·
	 {
	   audio=1;
	   subtitle=65;
	   jump vmgm menu 3;
	 }

   STATEMENTS
       The statements supported are fairly simple at the moment.

       VARIABLE=EXPRESSION;
	      Sets a variable equal to the result of an equation.

       if (EXPRESSION) BLOCK;

       if (EXPRESSION) BLOCK; else BLOCK;
	      Calculates  the  expression; if true, then it executes the block
	      of code.

       jump TARGET;

       call TARGET [resume CELL];

       resume;
	      Jumps to a particular title or menu, or calls a particular menu,
	      or  returns  to  the calling title.  You can only execute a call
	      from a title to a menu; all other forms are illegal.   The  pur‐
	      pose  of	using call instead of jump (besides the fact that they
	      support a mutually exclusive list of targets) is	to  allow  the
	      menu  to	return to the point in the title where the call origi‐
	      nated using resume.  You can manually specify the return cell by
	      using  the resume keyword, however if you do not specify one and
	      you use the command in a post instruction block,	then  it  will
	      presume cell 1.

	      The following are possible targets:

	      [vmgm | titleset X] menu

	      [vmgm | titleset X] menu Y

	      [vmgm | titleset X] menu entry Z
		     Targets  either the default menu, a menu number Y, or the
		     menu denoted as the entry for Z.  The menu is  in	either
		     the  VMGM	or  titleset  domain.  If you wish to target a
		     menu in the current domain then you can omit  the	domain
		     moniker.

	      [vmgm | titleset X] title Y [chapter Z]
		     Targets  a	 title,	 or  a	chapter in a title.  Numbering
		     starts at 1.  All of the titles on the disc are  accessi‐
		     ble  in the VMGM domain, or you can access them by title‐
		     set instead.

	      chapter Z

	      program Z

	      cell Z Targets a chapter, program, or cell in the current	 title
		     or	 menu (note that menus do not have chapters).  You can
		     use this to create looping menus: jump cell 1;

				13 January 2007			  DVDAUTHOR(1)
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