ecp man page on Plan9

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ECP(1)									ECP(1)

       ecp - fast copy, handling errors

       ecp  [ -bcprvZ ] [ -B block-size ] [ -e max-errors ] [ -i issect ] [ -o
	    ossect ] [ -s sector-size ] sectors input output

       Ecp copies sectors disk sectors of the  specified  input	 file  to  the
       specified  output  file.	  Ecp copies multiple sectors (a `block') at a
       time for speed.	When ecp encounters an I/O  error,  it	transfers  the
       current	block  again,  assuming	 the file is seekable, one sector at a
       time, prints the sector number(s) of the error(s), and continues	 copy‐

       Options are:

       -b  reblock  input  on short reads; this was used mainly when reading a
	   pipe on standard input on 4.2+BSD systems.

       -B  sets the block size (16,384 bytes by default) to block-size.

       -c  ask for confirmation on /dev/cons before starting the copy.

       -e  sets a maximum number of consecutive I/O errors to  permit  at  the
	   beginning  of the copy before quitting to max-errors.  Lots of con‐
	   secutive errors may indicate a  deeper  problem,  such  as  missing
	   media.  By default there is no limit.

       -i  seeks  to  sector  issect  (assuming	 zero-origin) before beginning

       -o  seeks to sector ossect (assuming zero-origin) before beginning out‐

       -p  print reassuring progress reports; helpful mainly when dealing with
	   cranky hardware.

       -r  copy sector groups in reverse order, assuming the files  are	 seek‐
	   able; this is most useful when input and output overlap.

       -s  sets the sector size (512 bytes by default) to sector-size.

       -v  verify the copy by rereading the input and output files after copy‐
	   ing all sectors.  This is intended to force the disk to deliver the
	   actual  data written on it rather than some cached copy.  The loca‐
	   tions of any differences are printed.

       -Z  `Swizzle'  the  input:  stir	 the  bits  around  in	some  fashion.
	   Intended for diagnosing bad disks by copying a disk to itself a few
	   times with swizzling on (to defeat caching in operating systems  or
	   disk controllers).

       fcp in cp(1), dd(1), dup(3)

       -i,  -o, -r, -v and error retries only work on devices capable of seek‐

       The set of options reflects decades of experience dealing with trouble‐
       some hardware.

       If  the	input  file is a tape and the last record on the tape before a
       file mark is less than blocksize bytes long, then ecp will read through
       past the file mark and into the next file.

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