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ed(1)									 ed(1)

Name
       ed, red - text editor

Syntax
       ed [-] [-pstring] [-x] [file]

       red [-] [-x] [file]

Description
       The  text  editor  is  the  standard text editor.  If you give the file
       argument, simulates an e command (see below) on the named file; that is
       to  say,	 the file is read into buffer so that it can be edited.	 The -
       option suppresses the printing of character counts by e, r, and w  com‐
       mands, of diagnostics from e and q commands, and of the !  prompt after
       a !shell command.  The -p option allows you to specify a prompt string.
       The  -x	option	is available only if the Encryption layered product is
       installed.  If you supply the -x option,	 an  x	command	 is  simulated
       first  to handle an encrypted file.  The text editor operates on a copy
       of the file it is editing; changes made to the copy have no  effect  on
       the  file  until	 you  give  a w (write) command.  The copy of the text
       being edited resides in a temporary file called the buffer.   There  is
       only one buffer.

       The  text  editor is a restricted version of It allows editing of files
       only in the current directory, and prohibits executing  shell  commands
       with  !shell command.   Attempts to bypass these restrictions result in
       an error message (restricted shell).  When you enter text, tab  charac‐
       ters are expanded to every eighth column as is the default.

       Commands	 to  have  a  simple  and regular structure: zero, one, or two
       addresses followed by a single-character command, possibly followed  by
       parameters  to that command.  These addresses specify one or more lines
       in the buffer.  Every  command  that  requires  addresses  has  default
       addresses, so that the addresses can frequently be omitted.

       In general, only one command appears on a line.	Certain commands allow
       the input of text.  This text is placed in the appropriate place in the
       buffer.	 While	is accepting text, it is said to be in input mode.  In
       input mode, no commands are recognized; all input is merely  collected.
       Input mode is exited by typing a period (.) alone at the beginning of a
       line.

       The text editor supports a limited form of regular expression notation;
       regular	expressions are used in addresses to specify lines and in some
       commands (for example, s) to specify portions of a line that are to  be
       substituted.   A	 regular  expression (RE) specifies a set of character
       strings.	 A member of this set of strings is said to be matched by  the
       RE.  The REs allowed by are constructed as follows:

       The following one-character REs match a single character:

       ·      An  ordinary  character  (not one of those discussed below) is a
	      one-character RE that matches itself.

       ·      A backslash (\) followed by any special character is a one-char‐
	      acter RE that matches the special character itself.  The special
	      characters are:

	      a.    ., ∗, [, and \ (period, asterisk, left square bracket, and
		    backslash, respectively), which are always special, except
		    when they appear within square brackets ([]).

	      b.    ^ (caret or circumflex), which is special at the beginning
		    of	an  entire RE (see below), or when it immediately fol‐
		    lows the left of a	pair  of  square  brackets  ([])  (see
		    below).

	      c.    $  (currency  symbol),  which  is special at the end of an
		    entire RE (see below).

	      d.    The character used to bound (that is, delimit)  an	entire
		    RE,	 which	is  special  for that RE (for example, see how
		    slash (/) is used in the g command, below.)

       ·      A period (.) is a one-character RE that  matches	any  character
	      except new-line.

       ·      A	 non-empty  string  of	characters enclosed in square brackets
	      ([]) is a one-character RE that matches  any  one	 character  in
	      that  string.  If, however, the first character of the string is
	      a circumflex (^), the one-character  RE  matches	any  character
	      except new-line and the remaining characters in the string.  The
	      ^ has this special meaning  only	if  it	occurs	first  in  the
	      string.	The  minus (-) may be used to indicate a range of con‐
	      secutive ASCII characters; for example, [0-9] is	equivalent  to
	      [0123456789].   The  -  loses  this special meaning if it occurs
	      first (after an initial ^, if any) or last in the	 string.   The
	      right  square  bracket (]) does not terminate such a string when
	      it is the first character within it  (after  an  initial	^,  if
	      any).  For example, []a-f] matches either a right square bracket
	      (]) or one of the letters a through f inclusive.	The four char‐
	      acters  listed  in  a  above  stand for themselves within such a
	      string of characters.

       The following rules may be used to  construct  REs  from	 one-character
       REs:

       ·      A one-character RE is a RE that matches whatever the one-charac‐
	      ter RE matches.

       ·      A one-character RE followed by an asterisk  (∗)  is  a  RE  that
	      matches  zero  or	 more occurrences of the one-character RE.  If
	      there is any choice, the longest leftmost string that permits  a
	      match is chosen.

       ·      A one-character RE followed by \{m\}, \{m,\}, or \{m,n\} is a RE
	      that matches a range of occurrences  of  the  one-character  RE.
	      The  values  of  m and n must be non-negative integers less than
	      256; \{m\} matches exactly  m  occurrences;  \{m,\}  matches  at
	      least  m	occurrences; \{m,n\} matches any number of occurrences
	      between m and n inclusive.  Whenever a  choice  exists,  the  RE
	      matches as many occurrences as possible.

       ·      The  concatenation of REs is a RE that matches the concatenation
	      of the strings matched by each component of the RE.

       ·      A RE enclosed between the character sequences \( and \) is a  RE
	      that matches whatever the unadorned RE matches.

       ·      The  expression  \n matches the same string of characters as was
	      matched by an expression enclosed between \( and \)  earlier  in
	      the same RE.  Here n is a digit; the sub-expression specified is
	      that beginning with the n-th occurrence of \( counting from  the
	      left.   For  example,  the  expression ^\(.∗\)\1$ matches a line
	      consisting of two repeated appearances of the same string.

       Finally, an entire RE may be constrained to match only an initial  seg‐
       ment or final segment of a line (or both):

       ·      A	 circumflex  (^)  at  the beginning of an entire RE constrains
	      that RE to match an initial segment of a line.

       ·      A currency symbol ($) at the end of an entire RE constrains that
	      RE to match a final segment of a line.

       The  construction  ^entire  RE$	constrains  the entire RE to match the
       entire line.

       The null RE (for example, //) is equivalent to the last RE encountered.
       See also the last paragraph before FILES below.

       To  understand  addressing  in it is necessary to know that at any time
       there is a current line.	 Generally speaking, the current line  is  the
       last  line  affected by a command; the exact effect on the current line
       is discussed under the description of each command.  Addresses are con‐
       structed as follows:

	1.    The character . addresses the current line.

	2.    The character $ addresses the last line of the buffer.

	3.    A decimal number n addresses the n-th line of the buffer.

	4.    ′x  addresses  the  line	marked with the mark name character x,
	      which must be a lower-case letter.  Lines are marked with the  k
	      command described below.

	5.    A	 RE  enclosed by slashes (/) addresses the first line found by
	      searching forward from  the  line	 following  the	 current  line
	      toward the end of the buffer and stopping at the first line con‐
	      taining a string matching the  RE.   If  necessary,  the	search
	      wraps  around to the beginning of the buffer and continues up to
	      and including the current line, so that  the  entire  buffer  is
	      searched.	 See also the last paragraph before FILES below.

	6.    A	 RE  enclosed  in  question marks (?) addresses the first line
	      found by searching backward from the line preceding the  current
	      line  toward  the	 beginning  of	the buffer and stopping at the
	      first line containing a string matching the RE.	If  necessary,
	      the  search  wraps around to the end of the buffer and continues
	      up to and including the current line.  See also the  last	 para‐
	      graph before FILES below.

	7.    An  address followed by a plus sign (+) or a minus sign (-) fol‐
	      lowed by a decimal number specifies that address	plus  (respec‐
	      tively  minus) the indicated number of lines.  The plus sign may
	      be omitted.

	8.    If an address begins with + or -, the addition or subtraction is
	      taken  with  respect  to	the  current line.  For example, -5 is
	      understood to mean .-5.

	9.    If an address ends with + or -, then 1 is added to or subtracted
	      from  the	 address, respectively.	 As a consequence of this rule
	      and of rule 8 immediately above, the address  -  refers  to  the
	      line  preceding  the  current  line.  (To maintain compatibility
	      with  earlier  versions  of  the	editor,	 the  character	 ^  in
	      addresses	 is  entirely  equivalent to -.)  Moreover, trailing +
	      and - characters have a cumulative effect, so -- refers  to  the
	      current line less 2.

       10.    For  convenience,	 a  comma (,) stands for the address pair 1,$,
	      while a semicolon (;) stands for the pair .,$.

       Commands may require  zero,  one,  or  two  addresses.	Commands  that
       require	no  addresses  regard  the presence of an address as an error.
       Commands that accept one or two addresses assume default addresses when
       an  insufficient	 number	 of  addresses is given; if more addresses are
       given than such a command requires, the last one(s) are used.

       Typically, addresses are separated from each  other  by	a  comma  (,).
       They may also be separated by a semicolon (;).  In the latter case, the
       current line (.) is set to the first address, and only then is the sec‐
       ond  address  calculated.   This	 feature  can be used to determine the
       starting line for forward and backward searches (see rules  5.  and  6.
       above).	The second address of any two-address sequence must correspond
       to a line that follows, in the buffer, the line	corresponding  to  the
       first address.

       In  the	following list of commands, the default addresses are shown in
       parentheses.  The parentheses are not part of the  address;  they  show
       that the given addresses are the default.

       It  is generally illegal for more than one command to appear on a line.
       However, any command (except e, f, r, or w) may be suffixed by l, n  or
       p,  in  which  case  the	 current  line	is  either listed, numbered or
       printed, respectively, as discussed below under the l,  n  and  p  com‐
       mands.

       (.)a

       <text>

       .		   The append command reads the given text and appends
			   it after the addressed line; . is left at the  last
			   inserted  line,  or,	 if  there  were  none, at the
			   addressed line.  Address 0 is legal for  this  com‐
			   mand:  it causes the ``appended'' text to be placed
			   at the beginning of the buffer.  The maximum number
			   of  characters  that may be entered from a terminal
			   is 256 per line (including the new line character).

       (.)c
       <text>
       .
			   The change command  deletes	the  addressed	lines,
			   then	 accepts input text that replaces these lines;
			   . is left at the last line input, or, if there were
			   none, at the first line that was not deleted.

       (.,.)d
			   The delete command deletes the addressed lines from
			   the buffer.	The line after the last	 line  deleted
			   becomes the current line; if the lines deleted were
			   originally at the end of the buffer, the  new  last
			   line becomes the current line.

       e file
			   The	edit command causes the entire contents of the
			   buffer to be deleted, and then the named file to be
			   read	 in;  . is set to the last line of the buffer.
			   If no file name is given, the  currently-remembered
			   file	 name,	if  any,  is used (see the f command).
			   The number of characters read  is  typed;  file  is
			   remembered  for possible use as a default file name
			   in subsequent e, r, and w  commands.	  If  file  is
			   replaced  by !, the rest of the line is taken to be
			   a shell, sh(1), command whose output is to be read.
			   Such	 a shell command is not remembered as the cur‐
			   rent file name.  See also DIAGNOSTICS below.

       E file
			   The command is like e, except that the editor  does
			   not	check  to see if any changes have been made to
			   the buffer since the last w command.

       f file
			   If file is given, the file-name command changes the
			   currently-remembered	 file name to file; otherwise,
			   it prints the currently-remembered file name.

       (1,$)g/RE/command list
			   In the global command, the first step  is  to  mark
			   every  line	that  matches the given RE.  Then, for
			   every such line, the given command list is executed
			   with	 .  initially set to that line.	 A single com‐
			   mand or the first of a list of commands appears  on
			   the	same line as the global command.  All lines of
			   a multi-line list except  the  last	line  must  be
			   ended with a \; a, i, and c commands and associated
			   input are permitted; the . terminating  input  mode
			   may	be omitted if it would be the last line of the
			   command list.  An empty command list is  equivalent
			   to  the p command.  The g, G, v, and V commands are
			   not	permitted  in  the  command  list.   See  also
			   RESTRICTIONS	 and  the  last paragraph before FILES
			   below.

       (1,$)G/RE/
			   In the interactive Global command, the  first  step
			   is  to  mark	 every line that matches the given RE.
			   Then, for every such line, that line is printed,  .
			   is changed to that line, and any one command (other
			   than one of the a, c, i, g, G, v, and  V  commands)
			   may	be input and is executed.  After the execution
			   of that command, the next marked line  is  printed,
			   and	so on; a new-line acts as a null command; an &
			   causes the re-execution of the most recent  command
			   executed  within the current invocation of G.  Note
			   that the commands input as part of the execution of
			   the	G  command may address and affect any lines in
			   the buffer.	The G command can be terminated by  an
			   interrupt signal (ASCII DEL or BREAK).

			   h
			   The	help  command gives a short error message that
			   explains the reason for the most recent ?  diagnos‐
			   tic.

       H
			   The	help  command  causes to enter a mode in which
			   error messages are printed  for  all	 subsequent  ?
			   diagnostics.	  It  will also explain the previous ?
			   if there was one.  The H command alternately	 turns
			   this mode on and off; it is initially off.

       (.)i
       <text>
       .
			   The	insert	command	 inserts the given text before
			   the addressed line; . is left at the last  inserted
			   line,  or,  if  there  were	none, at the addressed
			   line.  This command differs from the a command only
			   in  the  placement of the input text.  Address 0 is
			   not legal for this command.	The maximum number  of
			   characters  that  may be entered from a terminal is
			   256 per line (including the new line character).

       (.,.+1)j
			   The join command joins contiguous lines by removing
			   the	appropriate  new-line  characters.  If exactly
			   one address is given, this command does nothing.

       (.)kx
			   The mark command marks the addressed line with name
			   x,  which must be a lower-case letter.  The address
			   ′x then addresses this line; . is unchanged.

       (.,.)l
			   The list command prints the addressed lines	in  an
			   unambiguous way: a few non-printing characters (for
			   example, tab, backspace) are represented by	(hope‐
			   fully) mnemonic overstrikes, all other non-printing
			   characters are printed in octal, and long lines are
			   folded.   An l command may be appended to any other
			   command other than e, f, r, or w.

       (.,.)ma
			   The move command repositions the addressed  line(s)
			   after  the line addressed by a.  Address 0 is legal
			   for a and causes the addressed line(s) to be	 moved
			   to  the  beginning  of  the file; it is an error if
			   address a falls within the range of moved lines;  .
			   is left at the last line moved.

       (.,.)n
			   The number command prints the addressed lines, pre‐
			   ceding each line by its line number and a tab char‐
			   acter;  .  is left at the last line printed.	 The n
			   command may be appended to any other command	 other
			   than e, f, r, or w.

       (.,.)p
			   The	print command prints the addressed lines; . is
			   left at the last line printed.  The p  command  may
			   be  appended	 to any other command other than e, f,
			   r, or w; for example, dp deletes the	 current  line
			   and prints the new current line.

			   P
			   The	editor will prompt with a ∗ for all subsequent
			   commands.  The P  command  alternately  turns  this
			   mode on and off; it is initially off.

       q
			   The	quit  command  causes  to  exit.  No automatic
			   write of  a	file  is  done	(but  see  DIAGNOSTICS
			   below).

			   Q
			   The	editor	exits without checking if changes have
			   been made in the buffer since the last w command.

       ($)r file
			   The read command reads in the given file after  the
			   addressed line.  If no file name is given, the cur‐
			   rently-remembered file name, if any, is used (see e
			   and	f  commands).	The  currently-remembered file
			   name is not changed unless file is the  very	 first
			   file	 name  mentioned since was invoked.  Address 0
			   is legal for r and causes the file to  be  read  at
			   the	beginning  of the buffer.  If the read is suc‐
			   cessful, the number of characters read is typed;  .
			   is  set  to	the  last  line	 read  in.  If file is
			   replaced by !, the rest of the line is taken to  be
			   a shell (sh(1)) command whose output is to be read.
			   For example, "$r !ls" appends current directory  to
			   the	end  of	 the  file being edited.  Such a shell
			   command is not remembered as the current file name.

       (.,.)s/RE/replacement/	      or
       (.,.)s/RE/replacement/g
			   The substitute command searches each addressed line
			   for	an  occurrence	of  the specified RE.  In each
			   line in which a  match  is  found,  all  (non-over‐
			   lapped)   matched   strings	are  replaced  by  the
			   replacement if the global replacement  indicator  g
			   appears after the command.  If the global indicator
			   does not appear, only the first occurrence  of  the
			   matched string is replaced.	It is an error for the
			   substitution to fail on all addressed  lines.   Any
			   character  other than space or new-line may be used
			   instead of / to delimit the RE and the replacement;
			   .  is left at the last line on which a substitution
			   occurred.  See also the last paragraph before FILES
			   below.

			   An  ampersand  (&)  appearing in the replacement is
			   replaced by the string matching the RE on the  cur‐
			   rent	 line.	 The special meaning of & in this con‐
			   text may be suppressed by preceding it by \.	 As  a
			   more general feature, the characters \n, where n is
			   a digit, are replaced by the text  matched  by  the
			   n-th	 regular  subexpression	 of  the  specified RE
			   enclosed between \( and \).	When nested  parenthe‐
			   sized  subexpressions  are present, n is determined
			   by counting occurrences of  \(  starting  from  the
			   left.   When	 the character % is the only character
			   in the replacement, the  replacement	 used  in  the
			   most	 recent	 substitute  command  is  used	as the
			   replacement in the current substitute command.  The
			   %  loses  its  special  meaning  when  it  is  in a
			   replacement string of more than one character or is
			   preceded by a \.

			   A  line  may	 be  split  by substituting a new-line
			   character into it.  The new-line in the replacement
			   must be escaped by preceding it by \.  Such substi‐
			   tution cannot be done as part of a g or  v  command
			   list.

       (.,.)ta
			   This	 command  acts just like the m command, except
			   that a copy of the addressed lines is placed	 after
			   address  a  (which may be 0); . is left at the last
			   line of the copy.

       u
			   The undo command nullifies the effect of  the  most
			   recent  command  that modified anything in the buf‐
			   fer, namely the most recent a, c, d, g, i, j, m, r,
			   s, t, v, G, or V command.

       (1,$)v/RE/command list
			   This	 command  is  the same as the global command g
			   except that the command list	 is  executed  with  .
			   initially set to every line that does not match the
			   RE.

       (1,$)V/RE/
			   This command is the same as the interactive	global
			   command  G  except  that  the lines that are marked
			   during the first step are those that do  not	 match
			   the RE.

       (1,$)w file
			   The	write  command writes the addressed lines into
			   the named file.  If the file does not exist, it  is
			   created  with  mode	666  (readable and writable by
			   everyone), unless your umask	 setting  (see	sh(1))
			   dictates  otherwise.	 The currently-remembered file
			   name is not changed unless file is the  very	 first
			   file	 name mentioned since was invoked.  If no file
			   name is given, the currently-remembered file	 name,
			   if  any,  is	 used  (see  e	and  f commands); . is
			   unchanged.  If the command is successful, the  num‐
			   ber	of  characters	written	 is typed.  If file is
			   replaced by !, the rest of the line is taken to  be
			   a shell (sh(1)) command whose standard input is the
			   addressed lines.   Such  a  shell  command  is  not
			   remembered as the current file name.

       ($)=
			   The	line  number of the addressed line is typed; .
			   is unchanged by this command.

       !shell command
			   The remainder of the line after the !  is  sent  to
			   the	UNIX System shell (sh(1)) to be interpreted as
			   a command.  Within the text of  that	 command,  the
			   unescaped  character	 % is replaced with the remem‐
			   bered file name; if a !  appears as the first char‐
			   acter of the shell command, it is replaced with the
			   text of the previous shell command.	Thus, !!  will
			   repeat the last shell command.  If any expansion is
			   performed,  the  expanded  line  is	echoed;	 .  is
			   unchanged.

       (.+1)<new-line>
			   An  address	alone  on  a line causes the addressed
			   line to be printed.	A new-line alone is equivalent
			   to  .+1p; it is useful for stepping forward through
			   the buffer.

       If an interrupt signal (ASCII DEL or BREAK) is sent,  prints  a	?  and
       returns to its command level.

       Some  size  limitations:	 512  characters  per line, 256 characters per
       global command list, 64 characters per file name, and  128K  characters
       in  the buffer.	The limit on the number of lines depends on the amount
       of user memory: each line takes 1 word.

       When reading a file, discards ASCII NUL characters and  all  characters
       after the last new-line.	 Files (for example, a.out) that contain char‐
       acters not in the ASCII set (bit 8 on) cannot be edited by

       If the closing delimiter of a RE or of a replacement string (for	 exam‐
       ple,  /)	 would be the last character before a new-line, that delimiter
       may be omitted, in which case the addressed line is printed.  The  fol‐
       lowing pairs of commands are equivalent:
	      s/s1/s2	s/s1/s2/p
	      g/s1	g/s1/p
	      ?s1	?s1?
Restrictions
       A !  command cannot be subject to a g or a v command.
       The  !	command and the !  escape from the e, r, and w commands cannot
       be used if the the editor is invoked from a restricted shell.  For fur‐
       ther information, see
       The sequence \n in a RE does not match a new-line character.
       The l command mishandles DEL.
Diagnostics
       ?	 for command errors.
       ?file	 for an inaccessible file.
		 (use the help and Help commands for detailed explanations).

       If  changes  have been made in the buffer since the last w command that
       wrote the entire buffer, warns the  user	 if  an	 attempt  is  made  to
       destroy	buffer via the e or q commands: it prints ?  and allows one to
       continue editing.  A second e or q command  at  this  point  will  take
       effect.	The - command-line option inhibits this feature.

Files
       /tmp/e#	 temporary; # is the process number.
       ed.hup	 work is saved here if the terminal is hung up.
See Also
       grep(1), sed(1), sh(1), stty(1)

									 ed(1)
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