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EFAX(1)								       EFAX(1)

       efax - send/receive faxes with Class 1, 2 or 2.0 fax modem

			(Please read the fax man page first.)

       efax [ options ] [ -t num [ file... ] ]

       Where options are:

       -a cmd	use  the  command ATcmd when answering the phone.  The default
		is "A".

       -c caps	set the local modem capabilities.  See the section on capabil‐
		ities  below  for the format and meaning of caps.  For Class 1
		the default is 1,n,0,2,0,0,0,0 where n is  the	highest	 speed
		supported by the modem.	 For Class 2 the default is determined
		by the modem.

       -d dev	use the fax modem connected to device  dev.   The  default  is

       -e cmd	if  a  CONNECT	response  indicates  a	voice  call, the shell
		/bin/sh is exec(2)'ed with cmd as its command.

       -f fnt	use font file fnt for generating the header.  The default is a
		built-in  8x16	font.	See the efix(1) -f option for the font
		file format.

       -g cmd	if a CONNECT (or DATA) response indicates  a  data  call,  the
		shell /bin/sh is exec(2)'ed with cmd as its command.  cmd is a
		printf(3) format that may contain up to 6 %d escapes which are
		replaced  by  the  baud rate following the most recent CONNECT
		message. cmd typically exec's getty(8).

       -h hdr	put string `hdr' at the top of each page.   The	 first	%d  in
		`hdr'  is  replaced by the page number and the second, if any,
		is replaced by the number of pages being sent.

       -i str

       -j str

       -k str	send the command ATstr to the modem to initialize it.  -i com‐
		mands  are sent before the modem is put into fax mode, -j com‐
		mands after the modem is in fax mode,  and  -k	commands  just
		before	efax  exits.  The only default is a hang-up (ATH) com‐
		mand that is sent before exiting only if no other  -k  options
		are given.  Multiple options may be used.

       -l id	set  the  local identification string to id.  id should be the
		local telephone number in international	 format	 (for  example
		"+1 800 555 1212").  This is passed to the remote fax machine.
		Some fax machines may not accept characters  other  than  num‐
		bers, space, and '+'.

       -n	force  line  buffering	of  stdout instead of block buffering.
		This might be necessary if outputting UTF-8 to a terminal with
		translated  text  via NLS, since otherwise the terminal may be
		confronted (when the buffer is flushed when full) with only  a
		partially  formed  UTF-8  character.   Don't  use  this option
		unless you have to.

       -o opt	use option opt to accommodate a non-standard fax modem	proto‐
		col.   See  the	 MODEM	REQUIREMENTS  section  below  for more
		details.  The options are:

	   0	Force use of Class 2.0 fax modem  commands.   The  modem  must
		support Class 2.0.

	   2	Force  use of Class 2 fax modem commands.  The modem must sup‐
		port Class 2.

	   1	Force use of Class 1 fax modem commands. The modem  must  sup‐
		port  Class 1.	By default efax queries the modem and uses the
		first of the three above classes which	is  supported  by  the

	   a	use  software adaptive answer method.  If the first attempt to
		answer the call does not result in a data connection within  8
		seconds the phone is hung up temporarily and answered again in
		fax mode (see "Accepting both fax and data calls" below).

	   e	ignore errors in modem initialization commands.

	   f	use "virtual flow control".  efax tries to estimate the number
		of  bytes  in the modem's transmit buffer and pauses as neces‐
		sary to avoid filling it.  The modem's buffer  is  assumed  to
		hold  at  least 96 bytes.  This feature does not work properly
		with Class 2 modems that add redundant padding to scan	lines.
		Use  this  option  only	 if you have problems configuring flow

	   h	use hardware (RTS/CTS) in addition to software (XON/XOFF) flow
		control.   Many	 modems will stop responding if this option is
		used.  See the section `Resolving Problems' before using  this

	   l	halve  the  time  between  testing lock files when waiting for
		other programs to complete.  By default this is 8 seconds. For
		example -olll sets the interval to 1 second.

	   n	ignore requests for pages to be retransmitted. Use this option
		if you don't care about the quality of the received fax or  if
		the  receiving	machine is too fussy.  Otherwise each page may
		be retransmitted up to 3 times.

	   r	do not reverse bit order during data  reception	 for  Class  2
		modems.	  Only	Multitech modems require this option. Not nor‐
		mally required since efax detects these modems.

	   x	send XON  (DC1)	 instead  of  DC2  to  start  data  reception.
		Applies to a very few Class 2 modems only.

	   z	delay  an  additional  100 milliseconds before each modem ini‐
		tialization or reset command.  The initial delay  is  100  ms.
		For  example,  -ozzz produces a 400 ms delay.  Use with modems
		that get confused when commands arrive too quickly.

       -q n	ask for retransmission of pages	 received  with	 more  than  n
		errors.	 Default is 10.

       -r pat	each received fax page is stored in a separate file.  The file
		name is created using pat as a strftime(3) format  string.   A
		page  number  of  the form .001, .002, ...  is appended to the
		file name.  If pat is blank ("") or no -r option  is  given  a
		default string of "%m%d%H%M%S" is used.

       -s	remove lock file(s) after initializing the modem.  This allows
		outgoing calls to proceed when efax is waiting for an incoming
		call.	If  efax detects modem activity it will attempt to re-
		lock the device.  If the modem has been locked	by  the	 other
		program	 efax  will  exit and return 1 (``busy'').  Normally a
		new efax process is then started  by  init(8).	The  new  efax
		process	 will then check periodically until the lock file dis‐
		appears and then re-initialize the modem.

       -t num [file...]
		dial telephone	number	num  and  send	the  fax  image	 files
		file....   If used, this must be the last argument on the com‐
		mand line.  The telephone number num is a string that may con‐
		tain  any  dial	 modifiers that the modem supports such as a T
		prefix for tone dialing or commas  for	delays.	  If  no  file
		names  are  given the remote fax machine will be polled. If no
		-t argument is given efax will answer the phone and attempt to
		receive a fax.

       -u	use  UTF-8  and not locale codeset (if different) for messages
		to stderr and stdout (see also the -n option) - this is useful
		if  efax is used with a front-end which expects UTF-8 encoding
		of internationalized strings.

       -v strng select types of messages to be printed.	 Each lower-case  let‐
		ter in strng enables one type of message:

		   e - errors
		   w - warnings
		   i - session progress information
		   n - capability negotiation information
		   c - modem (AT) commands and responses
		   h - HDLC frame data (Class 1 only)
		   m - modem output
		   a - program arguments
		   r - reception error details
		   t - transmission details
		   f - image file details
		   x - lock file processing

		Up  to	two -v options may be used.  The first is for messages
		printed to the standard error and the second is	 for  messages
		to  the standard output. The default is "ewin" to the standard
		error only.

       -w	wait for an OK or CONNECT prompt instead of issuing an	answer
		(ATA)  command	to  receive  a	fax.  Use this option when the
		modem is set to auto-answer (using S0=n) or if another program
		has already answered the call.

       -x lkf	use a UUCP-style lock file lkf to lock the modem device before
		opening it.  If the device is locked,  efax  checks  every  15
		seconds	 until it is free.  Up to 16 -x options may be used if
		there are several names for the same device.  A `#' prefix  on
		the  file  name creates an binary rather than text (HDB-style)
		lock file.  This is the reverse of what was used  by  previous
		efax versions.

       efax  can  read	the same types of files as efix(1) including text, T.4
       (Group 3), PBM, single- and  multi-page	TIFF  (G3  and	uncompressed).
       efax automatically determines the type of file from its contents.  TIFF
       files are recommended as they contain information about the image  size
       and resolution.

       Each page to be sent should be converted to a separate TIFF format file
       with Group 3 (G3) compression.  Received files are also stored in  this
       format.	 The  EXAMPLES section below shows how efix and other programs
       can be used to create, view and print these files.

       The operating system must provide short response times to avoid	proto‐
       col timeouts.  For Class 2 and 2.0 modems the delay should not exceed 1
       or 2 seconds.

       When using Class 1 modems the program must respond  to  certain	events
       within  55  milliseconds.   Longer delays may cause the fax protocol to
       fail in certain places (between DCS and TCF or between  RTC  and	 MPS).
       Class  1	 modems	 should	 therefore  not be used on systems that cannot
       guarantee that the program will respond to incoming data in  less  than
       55 milliseconds.	 In particular, some intelligent serial cards and ter‐
       minal servers may introduce enough delay to cause problems with Class 1

       The  operating  system must also provide sufficient low-level buffering
       to allow uninterrupted transfer of data between the modem  and  a  disk
       file at the selected baud rate, typically 9600 bps.  Since the fax pro‐
       tocol does not provide end-to-end flow  control	the  effectiveness  of
       flow control while receiving is limited by the size of the modem's buf‐
       fer. This can be less than 100 bytes.  Efax does not use	 flow  control
       during reception.

       The  "Group"  is	 the protocol used to send faxes between fax machines.
       Efax supports the Group 3 protocol used over the public telephone  net‐

       The  "Class"  is	 the protocol used by computers to control fax modems.
       Efax supports Class 1, 2 and 2.0 fax modems.

       Most fax modems use XON/XOFF flow control when in fax mode.  This  type
       of flow control adds very little overhead for fax use. Many modems have
       unreliable hardware (RTS/CTS) flow control in  fax  mode.   By  default
       efax enables only XON/XOFF flow control and the -oh option must be used
       to add hardware flow control.

       While some modems have serial buffers of about 1k bytes, many  inexpen‐
       sive  modems  have buffers of about one hundred bytes and are thus more
       likely to suffer overruns when sending faxes.

       A few older modems may need a delay between commands of more  than  the
       default	value  used  by	 efax (100 milliseconds).  If the delay is too
       short, commands may not echo properly, may time out, or may give incon‐
       sistent	responses.   Use one or more -oz options to increase the delay
       between modem initialization commands and use the E0 modem  initializa‐
       tion command to disable echoing of modem commands.

       By  default  efax  sends DC2 to start the data flow from the modem when
       receiving faxes from Class 2 modems.  A few older  modems  require  XON
       instead.	  Use  of  DC2	would cause the modem to give an error message
       and/or the program to time out.	The -ox option should be used in  this

       A  few  older Class 2 modems (e.g. some Intel models) don't send DC2 or
       XON to start the data flow to the  modem	 when  sending	faxes.	 After
       waiting 2 seconds efax will print a warning and start sending anyways.

       A  very few Class 2 modems do not reverse the bit order (MSB to LSB) by
       default on receive.  This might cause errors when trying to display  or
       print the received files.  The -or option can be used in this case.

       Some  inexpensive  "9600	 bps" fax modems only transmit at 9600 bps and
       reception is limited to 4800 bps.

       The following Class 1 modems have been reported to work with efax: AT&T
       DataPort,  Cardinal Digital Fax Modem (14400), Digicom Scout+, Motorola
       Lifestyle 28.8, Motorola Power 28.8,  QuickComm	Spirit	II,  Smartlink
       9614AV-Modem,  Supra  Faxmodem  144LC,  USR  Courier V.32bis Terbo, USR
       Sportster (V.32 and V.34), Zoom AFC 2.400, Zoom VFX14.4V.

       The following Class 2 modems have been reported to work with efax: 14k4
       Amigo  Communion	 fax/modem, Adtech Micro Systems 14.4 Fax/modem, askey
       modem type 1414VQE, AT&T DataPort, ATT/Paradyne, AT&T Paradyne  PCMCIA,
       Boca  modem, BOCA M1440E, Crosslink 9614FH faxmodem, FuryCard DNE 5005,
       GVC 14.4k internal, Intel 14.4 fax modem, Megahertz  14.4,  ,  Microcom
       DeskPorte  FAST	ES  28.8,  Motorola  UDS FasTalk II, MultiTech 1432MU,
       Practical Peripherals PM14400FXMT, Supra V32bis,	 Telebit  Worldblazer,
       TKR  DM-24VF+,  Twincom	144/DFi,  ViVa 14.4/Fax modem, Vobis Fax-Modem
       (BZT-approved), Zoom VFX14.4V, ZyXEL U-1496E[+], ZyXEL Elite 2864I.

       The required modem  initialization  commands  are  generated  by	 efax.
       Additional  commands  may  be  supplied as command-line arguments.  The
       modem must be set up to issue verbose(text) result codes.  The  follow‐
       ing  command  does this and is sent by efax before trying to initialize
       the modem.

       Q0V1	respond to commands with verbose result codes

       The following commands may be useful for special purposes:

       X3	don't wait for dial tone before dialing.  This may be used  to
		send a fax when the call has already been dialed manually.  In
		this case use an empty string ("") as the  first  argument  to
		the  -t	 command.  Use X4 (usual default) to enable all result

       M2	leave the monitor speaker turned on for the  duration  of  the
		call (use M0 to leave it off).

       L0	turn monitor speaker volume to minimum (use L3 for maximum).

       E0	disable echoing of modem commands.  See the Resolving Problems
		section below.

       &D2	returns the modem to command mode when DTR  is	dropped.   The
		program drops DTR at the start and end of the call if it can't
		get a response to a modem command.  You can use &D3  to	 reset
		the modem when DTR is dropped.

       S7=120	wait up to two minutes (120 seconds) for carrier.  This may be
		useful if the answering fax machine takes a long time to start
		the  handshaking  operation  (e.g.  a  combined	 fax/answering
		machine with a long announcement).

       The capabilities of the local hardware and software can be set using  a
       string of 8 digits separated by commas:



       vr  (vertical resolution) =
		0 for 98 lines per inch
		1 for 196 lpi

       br  (bit rate) =
		0 for 2400 bps
		1 for 4800
		2 for 7200
		3 for 9600
		4 for 12000 (V.17)
		5 for 14400 (V.17)

       wd  (width) =
		0 for 8.5" (21.5 cm) page width
		1 for 10" (25.5 cm)
		2 for 12" (30.3 cm)

       ln  (length) =
		0 for 11" (A4: 29.7 cm) page length
		1 for 14" (B4: 36.4 cm)
		2 for unlimited page length

       df  (data format) =
		0 for 1-D coding
		1 for 2-D coding (not supported)

       ec  (error correction) =
		0 for no error correction

       bf  (binary file) =
		0 for no binary file transfer

       st  (minimum scan time) =
		0 for zero delay per line
		1 for 5 ms per line
		3 for 10 ms per line
		5 for 20 ms per line
		7 for 40 ms per line

       When receiving a fax the vr, wd, and ln fields of the capability string
       should be set to the maximum values that	 your  display	software  sup‐
       ports.  The default is 196 lpi, standard (8.5"/21.5cm) width and unlim‐
       ited length.

       When sending a fax efax will determine vr and ln from  the  image  file
       and set wd to the default.

       If  the	receiving  fax machine does not support high resolution (vr=1)
       mode, efax will reduce the resolution by combining pairs of scan lines.
       If  the	receiving  fax machine does not support the image's width then
       efax will truncate or pad as required. Most fax machines can receive ln
       up to 2.	 Few machines support values of wd other than 0.

       efax  adds  blank  scan lines at the top of each image when it is sent.
       This allows room for the page header but increases the  length  of  the
       image (by default about 0.1" or 2.5mm of blank space is added).

       The  header  placed  in this area typically includes the date and time,
       identifies the, and shows the page number  and  total  pages.   Headers
       cannot be disabled but the header string can be set to a blank line.

       The  default font for generating the headers is the built-in 8x16 pixel
       font scaled to 12x24 pixels (about 9 point size).

       Note that both efax and efix have -f options to specify the font.  efIx
       uses the font to generate text when doing text-to-fax conversions (dur‐
       ing "fax make") while efAx uses the font to generate the header (during
       "fax send").

       A  session log is written to the standard error stream.	This log gives
       status and error messages from  the  program  as	 selected  by  the  -v
       option.	A time stamp showing the full time or just minutes and seconds
       is printed  before  each	 message.   Times  printed  along  with	 modem
       responses also show milliseconds.

       The program returns an error code as follows:

       0	The fax was successfully sent or received.

       1	The  dialed  number  was  busy or the modem device was in use.
		Try again later.

       2	Something failed (e.g. file not found  or  disk	 full).	 Don't
		retry.	Check the session log for more details.

       3	Modem  protocol	 error.	  The  program	did  not  receive  the
		expected response from the modem.  The modem may not have been
		properly initialized, the correct -o options were not used, or
		a bug report may be in order.  Check the session log for  more

       4	The  modem is not responding.  Operator attention is required.
		Check that the modem is turned on and connected to the correct

       5	The program was terminated by a signal.

       Creating fax (G3) files

       The  efix  program can be used to convert text files to TIFF-G3 format.
       For example, the following command will convert the text file letter to
       the files letter.001, letter.002, etc,:

	      efix -nletter.%03d letter

       Ghostscript's  tiffg3  driver  can generate fax files in TIFF-G3 format
       from postscript files.  For example, the command:

	       gs -q -sDEVICE=tiffg3 -dNOPAUSE \
		   -sOutputFile=letter.%03d letter.ps </dev/null

       will convert the Postscript file letter.ps into high-resolution	(vr=1)
       G3 fax image files letter.001, letter.002, ...

       The  images  should  have margins of at least 1/2 inch (1 cm) since the
       fax standard only requires that fax machines print a central portion of
       the image 196.6mm (7.7 inches) wide by 281.5mm (11.1 inches) high.

       The  efix  program  can also insert bitmaps in images to create letter‐
       head, signatures, etc.

       Printing fax files

       You can use the efix program to print faxes  on	Postscript  or	HP-PCL
       (LaserJet)  printers.   For  example,  to  print	 the received fax file
       reply.001 on a Postscript printer use the command:

	      efix -ops reply.001 | lpr

       Sending fax files

       The following command will dial the number 222-2222 using tone  dialing
       and  send  a  two-page  fax  from the TIFF-G3 files letter.001 and let‐
       ter.002 using the fax modem connected to device /dev/cua1.

	      efax -d /dev/cua1 \
		   -t T222-2222 letter.001 letter.002

       Manual answer

       You can use efax to answer the phone immediately and start  fax	recep‐
       tion.   Use  this  mode	if you need to answer calls manually to see if
       they are fax or voice.

       For example, the following command will make the fax  modem  on	device
       /dev/ttyS1 answer the phone and attempt to receive a fax.  The received
       fax will be stored in the files reply.001, reply.002, and so  on.   The
       modem  will  identify itself as "555 1212" and receive faxes at high or
       low resolution (vr=1), at up to 14.4 kbps (br=5).

	      efax -d /dev/ttyS1 -l "555 1212" \
		 -c 1,5 -r reply

       Automatic answer

       The -w option makes efax wait for characters to become  available  from
       the  modem (indicating an incoming call) before starting fax reception.
       Use the -w option and a -iS0=n option  to  answer  the  phone  after  n
       rings.	The example below will make the modem answer incoming calls in
       fax mode on the fourth ring and save the	 received  faxes  using	 files
       names corresponding to the reception date and time.

	      efax -d /dev/ttyb -w -iS0=4 2>&1 >> fax.log

       Sharing the modem with outgoing calls

       The  modem  device  can	be shared by programs that use the UUCP device
       locking protocol.  This includes pppd, chat, minicom,  kermit,  uucico,
       efax,  cu,  and many others others.  However, locking will only work if
       all programs use the same lock file.

       efax will lock the modem device before opening it if one or  more  UUCP
       lock  file  names are given with -x options.  Most programs place their
       lock files in the /usr/spool/uucp or /var/lock directories and use  the
       name  LCK..dev  where  dev  is  the name of the device file in the /dev
       directory that is to be locked.

       If the -s (share) option is used, the lock file is removed while	 wait‐
       ing for incoming calls so other programs can use the same device.

       If  efax detects another program using the modem while it is waiting to
       receive a fax, efax exits with a termination code of 1.	 A  subsequent
       efax  process  using  this  device will wait until the other program is
       finished before re-initializing the modem  and  starting	 to  wait  for
       incoming calls again.

       Programs	 that  try  to	lock  the modem device by using device locking
       facilities other than UUCP lock files not be able to use this  arbitra‐
       tion  mechanism	because	 the  device  will  still  be open to the efax
       process.	 In this case you will need to kill  the  efax	process	 (e.g.
       "fax stop") before starting the other program.

       When  efax is waiting for a fax it leaves the modem ready to receive in
       fax mode but removes the lock file.  When a slip or PPP	program	 takes
       over  the  modem	 port by setting up its own lock file efax cannot send
       any more commands to the modem -- not even to reset it.	Therefore  the
       other program has to set the modem back to data mode when it starts up.
       To do this add a modem reset command (send ATZ expect OK) to the begin‐
       ning of your slip or PPP chat script.

       Accepting both fax and data calls

       Many  modems  have an adaptive data/fax answer mode that can be enabled
       using the -j+FAE=1 (for Class 1) or -jFAA=1 (for Class 2[.0])  initial‐
       ization	string.	  The  type  of call (data or fax) can then be deduced
       from the modem's responses.

       Some modems have limited adaptive answer features  (e.g.	 only  working
       properly	 at certain baud rates or only in Class 2) or none at all.  In
       this case use the initialization string -i+FCLASS=0 to answer  in  data
       mode first and the -oa option to then hang up and try again in fax mode
       if the first answer attempt was not successful.	This method only works
       if  your	 telephone system waits a few seconds after you hang up before
       disconnecting incoming calls.

       If the -g option is used then the option's argument will be  run	 as  a
       shell  command  when an incoming data call is detected.	Typically this
       command will exec getty(8).  This program should	 expect	 to  find  the
       modem  already off-hook and a lock file present so it should not try to
       hang up the line or create a lock file.	Note that the modem should  be
       set  up	to  report  the	 DCE-DTE  (modem-computer, e.g. CONNECT 38400)
       speed, not the DCE-DCE (modem-modem, e.g. CONNECT  14400)  speed.   For
       many modems the initialization option -iW0 will set this.

       The following command will make efax answer incoming calls on /dev/cua1
       on the second ring.  This device will be	 locked	 using	two  different
       lock  files  but	 these	lock  files  will be removed while waiting for
       incoming calls (-s).  If a data call is	detected,  the	getty  program
       will  be	 run  to  initialize  the terminal driver and start a login(1)
       process.	  Received  fax	 files	will  be  stored  using	  names	  like
       Dec02-,  in	the  /usr/spool/fax/incoming directory and the
       log file will be appended to /usr/spool/fax/faxlog.cua1.

	      efax -d /dev/cua1	 -j '+FAA=1' \
		 -x /usr/spool/uucp/LCK..cua1 \
		 -x /usr/spool/uucp/LCK..ttyS1 \
		 -g "exec /sbin/getty -h /dev/cua1 %d" \
		 -iS0=2 -w -s \
		 -r "/usr/spool/fax/incoming/%b%d-%H.%I.%S" \
		 >> /usr/spool/fax/faxlog.cua1 2>&1

       Note that adaptive answer of either type will not work for all callers.
       For some data calls the duration of the initial data-mode answer may be
       too short for data handshaking to complete.  In other cases this	 dura‐
       tion  may  be so long that incoming fax calls will time out before efax
       switches to fax mode.  In addition, some	 calling  fax  modems  mistake
       data-mode  answering  tones  for	 fax  signaling tones and initiate fax
       negotiation too soon.  If you use  software  adaptive  answer  you  can
       reduce  the  value  of the initial data-mode answer (set by TO_DATAF in
       efax.c) to get more reliable fax handshaking or increase	 it  for  more
       reliable	 data  handshaking.   However, if you need to provide reliable
       fax and data service to all callers you should use separate phone  num‐
       bers for the two types of calls.

       When  a	call  is answered the modem goes on-line with the computer-to-
       modem baud rate fixed at the speed used for the most recent AT command.
       When efax is waiting for a fax or data call it sets the interface speed
       to 19200 bps since this is the speed required for fax operation.	  This
       prevents full use of 28.8kbps modem capabilities.

       efax  can  answer  all incoming calls if you place an entry for efax in
       /etc/inittab (for SysV-like systems) or /etc/ttytab (for BSD-like  sys‐
       tems).  The init(8) process will run a new copy of efax when the system
       boots up and whenever the previous efax process terminates.  The	 init‐
       tab  or	ttytab entry should invoke efax by running the fax script with
       an answer argument.

       For example, placing the following line in  /etc/inittab	 (and  running
       "kill -1 1") will make init run the fax script with the argument answer
       every time previous process terminates and init is in runlevel 4 or 5.

	      s1:45:respawn:/bin/sh /usr/bin/fax answer

       For BSD-like systems (e.g. SunOS), a line  such	as  the	 following  in
       /etc/ttytab will have the same effect:

	      ttya "/usr/local/bin/fax answer" unknown on

       You  should protect the fax script and configuration files against tam‐
       pering since init will execute them as a privileged (root) process.  If
       you  will  be allowing data calls via getty and login you should ensure
       that your system is reasonably secure (e.g. that	 all  user  id's  have
       secure passwords).

       If efax exec()'s getty properly but you get a garbled login prompt then
       there is probably a baud rate mismatch between the modem and  the  com‐
       puter.  First, check the efax log file to make sure the modem's CONNECT
       response reported the serial port speed (e.g. 19200),  not  the	modem-
       modem speed (e.g. 14400).  Next, check the getty options and/or config‐
       uration files (e.g. /etc/gettydefs)  for	 that  particular  baud	 rate.
       Then  run  getty	 manually  with the same arguments and verify the port
       settings using ``stty </dev/XXX''.  Note that you'll probably  want  to
       enable  hardware	 flow  control	for  data  connections (-h for agetty,
       CRTSCTS for getty_ps).

       A few programs won't work properly when efax is set up to answer	 calls
       because	they  don't  create  lock files.  You can put the shell script
       ``wrapper'' below around such programs  to  make	 them  work  properly.
       Change BIN and LOCKF to suit.

	      if [ -f $LOCKF ]
		      echo lock file $LOCKF exists
		      exit 1
		      printf "%10d0 $$ >$LOCKF
		      $BIN $*
		      rm $LOCKF

       The "fax answer" script described above can be configured to e-mail the
       fax files received by the previous fax answer process to	 a  "fax  man‐
       ager"  who  can	then  forward  the  fax to the correct recipient.  The
       received fax files are send as MIME attachments,	 one  file  per	 page,
       using the ``base64'' text encoding and the ``image/tiff'' file format.

       To  view	 the fax images directly from your e-mail reader you will have
       to configure it with an application that	 can  display  files  of  type
       image/tiff.   Typically	this  is specified in a ``mailcap'' file.  For
       example, placing the following line in /etc/mailcap will cause the  fax
       file attachments to be displayed using the ``fax view'' command.

       image/tiff; fax view %s

       You  can configure a "fax" printer into the lpr print spooler that will
       fax a document out using efax instead of printing it.   This  allows  a
       network	server running efax to send faxes on behalf of other machines,
       including non-Unix clients.  In the following steps use the directories
       specified  in  the  fax	script if they are different than /usr/bin and
       /var/spool/fax (FAXDIR).	 To set up a fax printer do the	 following  as

       (1) Create a link to the fax script called ``faxlpr'' so the fax script
       can determine when it is being invoked from the print spooler:

       ln -s /usr/bin/fax /usr/bin/faxlpr

       (2) Edit /etc/printcap and add an entry such as:


       to define a printer called "fax".  Print files will be spooled  to  the
       /var/spool/fax  (sd=)  directory	 and then piped to the /usr/bin/faxlpr
       filter (if=).  Error messages will appear on /dev/console.

       (3) Create and/or set the permissions to allow anyone to read and write
       in the fax spool directory.  For example:

	      mkdir /var/spool/fax
	      chmod 777 /var/spool/fax

       (4) Create a printer daemon lock file that is readable by anyone:

	      touch /var/spool/fax/lock
	      chmod 644 /var/spool/fax/lock

       You should now be able to send a fax using the lpr interface by using a
       command such as:

	      lpr -P fax -J "555 1212" file.ps

       where the -J option is used to specify the phone number or alias to  be

       Note  that if more than one file is given on the command line they will
       be concatenated before being passed to "fax send".  TIFF-G3, Postscript
       or  PBM	files  must therefore be sent one file at a time although TIFF
       and Postscript files may contain multiple pages.	  Only	multiple  text
       files  can  be  sent  in one command.  Page breaks in text files can be
       marked with form-feed characters.  Files will be converted and sent  at
       the default (high) resolution.

       You  can	 use lpq(1) to check the fax queue, lprm(1) to remove fax jobs
       and lpc(8) to control the spooler.  In each case use the	 -Pfax	option
       to  specify  the fax ``printer.'' A log file will be mailed to the user
       when the fax is sent.

       You should also be able to send a fax from any networked computer  that
       has  lpr-compatible remote printing software and that allows you to set
       the job name (-J option) to an  arbitrary  string.   Such  software  is
       available for most computers.

       See  the	 lpd(8) and printcap(5) man pages for information on the print
       spooler and for restricting access by host name (/etc/host.lpd)	or  by
       user group (the `rg' printcap entry).

       Double  check  the  configuration  setup	 in  the first part of the fax
       script, particularly the modem device name and the lock file names.

       If  efax	 hangs	when  trying  to  open	the  modem  device  (typically
       /dev/ttyX),  the	 device	 is  either  already in use by another process
       (e.g. pppd) or it requires the carrier detect line to be true before it
       can  be	opened.	  Many systems define an alternate device name for the
       same physical device (typically cuaX) that can be opened even  if  car‐
       rier is not present or other programs are already using it.

       If  responses to modem initialization commands are being lost or gener‐
       ated at random, another processes (e.g. getty or	 an  efax  auto-answer
       process)	 may be trying to use the modem at the same time.  Try running
       efax while this other program is running.   If  efax  does  not	report
       "/dev/ttyX locked or busy. waiting."  then the lock files names are not
       specified correctly.

       Attempt to send a fax. Check that the modem starts making  the  calling
       signal  (CNG,  a	 0.5 second beep every 3 seconds) as soon as it's fin‐
       ished dialing.  This shows the modem is in fax mode.  You may  need  to
       set the SPKR variable to -iM2L3 to monitor the phone line to do this.

       Listen for the answering fax machine and check that it sends the answer
       signal (CED, a 3	 second	 beep)	followed  by  "warbling"  sounds  (DIS
       frames)	every  3  seconds.   If	 you hear a continuous sound (tones or
       noise) instead, then you've connected to a data modem instead.

       Your modem should send back its own warble (DCS frame) in  response  to
       DIS immediately followed by 1.5 seconds of noise (a channel check).  If
       everything is OK, the receiving	end  will  send	 another  warble  (CFR
       frame) and your modem will start to send data.  If you have an external
       modem, check its LEDs.  If flow control is working properly the modem's
       send  data  (SD)	 LED  will turn off periodically while the fax data is

       Check the message showing the line count and the average bit rate  when
       the  page transmission is done.	Low line counts (under 1000 for a let‐
       ter size image) or the warning "fax output buffer overflow" while send‐
       ing  indicate  that  the image data format is incorrect. Check the file
       being sent using the "fax view" command.

       If you get the error message ``flow control did not  work''  then  flow
       control was not active.	This usually results in a garbled transmission
       and the receiving machine may reject the page, abort the call, print  a
       distorted or blank image and/or hang up.

       The  warning "characters received while sending" or an <XOFF> character
       appearing after	the  transmission  means  that	the  operating	system
       ignored	the  modem's XOFF flow control character.  Ensure that you are
       not running other programs such as getty or pppd at the	same  time  as
       efax since they will turn off xon/xoff flow control.

       If  you	cannot get flow control to work properly then enable ``virtual
       flow control'' with the -of option or hardware flow  control  with  the
       -oh option.

       Check  that  the	 remote	 machine  confirms  reception  with  a +FPTS:1
       response (Class 2) or an MCF frame (Class 1).

       For Class 2 modems, the error message "abnormal call termination	 (code
       nn)" indicates that the modem detected an error and hung up.

       Many  companies	advertise  services  that will fax back information on
       their products.	These can be useful for testing fax reception.

       The message "run length buffer overflow" when  receiving	 indicates  an
       error  with  the image data format.  You may need to use the -or option
       with certain Class 2 modems.

       If efax displays the message "can't happen (<details>)" please  send  a
       bug report to the author.

       Finally,	 don't	play  "option bingo," if you can't resolve the problem
       send a verbose log of the failed session (the output from fax  -v  ...)
       to the address below.

       A  Web Page with pointers to the latest version, known bugs and patches
       is available at:


       For Linux Systems

       Independent packages provide  more  user-friendly  interfaces  to  efax
       (xfax,  tefax)  and provide an e-mail-to-fax (Qfax) gateway using efax.
       All  are	 available  by	 anonymous   FTP   from	  metalab.unc.edu   in

       For Amiga Systems

       A port of an early version of efax for the Amiga is available as a com‐
       ponent of a shareware voice mail package, AVM, distributed by  Al  Vil‐
       larica (rvillari@cat.syr.edu).

       Other Ports

       efax  is	 relatively  easy  to  port.   All system-dependent code is in
       efaxos.c.  An early version of efax was ported to  VMS.	 Version  0.8a
       was  ported  to	Win32  by  Luigi Capriotti.  Contact the author if you
       would like to integrate the Win32 code into the current version.

       Efax was written by Ed Casas.  Please send comments or bug  reports  to

       Bug  reports should include the operating system, the type of the modem
       and a copy of a verbose session	log  that  demonstrates	 the  problem.
       It's  usually  impossible to help without a verbose log.	 Please do not
       send fax image files.

       efax is copyright 1993 -- 1999 Ed Casas.	 It may be  used,  copied  and
       modified under the terms of the GNU Public License.

       Although	 efax  has been tested it may have errors that will prevent it
       from working correctly on your system.  Some of these errors may	 cause
       serious	problems including loss of data and interruptions to telephone

       CCITT Recommendation T.30, "Procedures for Document Facsimile Transmis‐
       sion in the General Switched Telephone Network". 1988

       CCITT Recommendation T.4, "Standardization of Group 3 Facsimile Appara‐
       tus for Document Transmission". 1988.

       For documentation on Class 1 and Class 2 fax commands as implemented by
       Connexant  (formerly Rockwell) modems see http://www.conexant.com/tech‐

       For the TIFF  specification  see	 http://partners.adobe.com/supportser‐
       vice/devrelations/PDFS/TN/TIFF6.pdf  or RFC 2301 (ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-

       For information on Ghostscript see http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~ghost/.

       The pbm utilities can be obtained by ftp	 from  wuarchive.wustl.edu  in

       PCX and many other file formats are described in: Gunter Born, The File
       Formats Handbook, International Thomson Computer Press, 1995.

       The "Fax Modem Source Book" by Andrew Margolis, published by John Wiley
       & Sons in 1994 (ISBN 0471950726), is a book on writing fax applications
       which includes source code.

       Dennis Bodson et. al., "FAX: Digital Facsimile Technology and  Applica‐
       tions", Second Edition. Artech House, Boston. 1992.

       fax(1),	efix(1),  gs(1),  init(8), inittab(5), ttytab(5), printcap(5),
       lpd(8), printf(3), strftime(3).

       Can't read TIFF files with more than 1 strip

       Class 1 operation may fail if the program can't respond to certain data
       received from the modem within 55 milliseconds.

       May fail if multitasking delays cause the received data to overflow the
       computer's serial device buffer or if an	 under-run  of	transmit  data
       exceeds 5 seconds.

       Polling does not work.

       Does not support 2-D coding, ECM, or BFT.

3rd Berkeley Distribution	  August 2007			       EFAX(1)

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