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BUILTIN(1)		  BSD General Commands Manual		    BUILTIN(1)

NAME
     builtin, !, %, ., :, @, [, {, }, alias, alloc, bg, bind, bindkey, break,
     breaksw, builtins, case, cd, chdir, command, complete, continue, default,
     dirs, do, done, echo, echotc, elif, else, end, endif, endsw, esac, eval,
     exec, exit, export, false, fc, fg, filetest, fi, for, foreach, getopts,
     glob, goto, hash, hashstat, history, hup, if, jobid, jobs, kill, limit,
     local, log, login, logout, ls-F, nice, nohup, notify, onintr, popd,
     printenv, pushd, pwd, read, readonly, rehash, repeat, return, sched, set,
     setenv, settc, setty, setvar, shift, source, stop, suspend, switch,
     telltc, test, then, time, times, trap, true, type, ulimit, umask,
     unalias, uncomplete, unhash, unlimit, unset, unsetenv, until, wait,
     where, which, while — shell built-in commands

SYNOPSIS
     See the built-in command description in the appropriate shell manual
     page.

DESCRIPTION
     Shell builtin commands are commands that can be executed within the run‐
     ning shell's process.  Note that, in the case of csh(1) builtin commands,
     the command is executed in a subshell if it occurs as any component of a
     pipeline except the last.

     If a command specified to the shell contains a slash ‘/’, the shell will
     not execute a builtin command, even if the last component of the speci‐
     fied command matches the name of a builtin command.  Thus, while specify‐
     ing “echo” causes a builtin command to be executed under shells that sup‐
     port the echo builtin command, specifying “/bin/echo” or “./echo” does
     not.

     While some builtin commands may exist in more than one shell, their oper‐
     ation may be different under each shell which supports them.  Below is a
     table which lists shell builtin commands, the standard shells that sup‐
     port them and whether they exist as standalone utilities.

     Only builtin commands for the csh(1) and sh(1) shells are listed here.
     Consult a shell's manual page for details on the operation its builtin
     commands.	Beware that the sh(1) manual page, at least, calls some of
     these commands “built-in commands” and some of them “reserved words”.
     Users of other shells may need to consult an info(1) page or other
     sources of documentation.

     Commands marked “No**” under External do exist externally, but are imple‐
     mented as scripts using a builtin command of the same name.

	   Command	 External    csh(1)    sh(1)
	   !		 No	     No	       Yes
	   %		 No	     Yes       No
	   .		 No	     No	       Yes
	   :		 No	     Yes       Yes
	   @		 No	     Yes       No
	   [		 Yes	     No	       Yes
	   {		 No	     No	       Yes
	   }		 No	     No	       Yes
	   alias	 No**	     Yes       Yes
	   alloc	 No	     Yes       No
	   bg		 No**	     Yes       Yes
	   bind		 No	     No	       Yes
	   bindkey	 No	     Yes       No
	   break	 No	     Yes       Yes
	   breaksw	 No	     Yes       No
	   builtin	 No	     No	       Yes
	   builtins	 No	     Yes       No
	   case		 No	     Yes       Yes
	   cd		 No**	     Yes       Yes
	   chdir	 No	     Yes       Yes
	   command	 No**	     No	       Yes
	   complete	 No	     Yes       No
	   continue	 No	     Yes       Yes
	   default	 No	     Yes       No
	   dirs		 No	     Yes       No
	   do		 No	     No	       Yes
	   done		 No	     No	       Yes
	   echo		 Yes	     Yes       Yes
	   echotc	 No	     Yes       No
	   elif		 No	     No	       Yes
	   else		 No	     Yes       Yes
	   end		 No	     Yes       No
	   endif	 No	     Yes       No
	   endsw	 No	     Yes       No
	   esac		 No	     No	       Yes
	   eval		 No	     Yes       Yes
	   exec		 No	     Yes       Yes
	   exit		 No	     Yes       Yes
	   export	 No	     No	       Yes
	   false	 Yes	     No	       Yes
	   fc		 No**	     No	       Yes
	   fg		 No**	     Yes       Yes
	   filetest	 No	     Yes       No
	   fi		 No	     No	       Yes
	   for		 No	     No	       Yes
	   foreach	 No	     Yes       No
	   getopts	 No**	     No	       Yes
	   glob		 No	     Yes       No
	   goto		 No	     Yes       No
	   hash		 No	     No	       Yes
	   hashstat	 No	     Yes       No
	   history	 No	     Yes       No
	   hup		 No	     Yes       No
	   if		 No	     Yes       Yes
	   jobid	 No	     No	       Yes
	   jobs		 No**	     Yes       Yes
	   kill		 Yes	     Yes       No
	   limit	 No	     Yes       No
	   local	 No	     No	       Yes
	   log		 No	     Yes       No
	   login	 Yes	     Yes       No
	   logout	 No	     Yes       No
	   ls-F		 No	     Yes       No
	   nice		 Yes	     Yes       No
	   nohup	 Yes	     Yes       No
	   notify	 No	     Yes       No
	   onintr	 No	     Yes       No
	   popd		 No	     Yes       No
	   printenv	 Yes	     Yes       No
	   pushd	 No	     Yes       No
	   pwd		 Yes	     No	       Yes
	   read		 No**	     No	       Yes
	   readonly	 No	     No	       Yes
	   rehash	 No	     Yes       No
	   repeat	 No	     Yes       No
	   return	 No	     No	       Yes
	   sched	 No	     Yes       No
	   set		 No	     Yes       Yes
	   setenv	 No	     Yes       No
	   settc	 No	     Yes       No
	   setty	 No	     Yes       No
	   setvar	 No	     No	       Yes
	   shift	 No	     Yes       Yes
	   source	 No	     Yes       No
	   stop		 No	     Yes       No
	   suspend	 No	     Yes       No
	   switch	 No	     Yes       No
	   telltc	 No	     Yes       No
	   test		 Yes	     No	       Yes
	   then		 No	     No	       Yes
	   time		 Yes	     Yes       No
	   times	 No	     No	       Yes
	   trap		 No	     No	       Yes
	   true		 Yes	     No	       Yes
	   type		 No	     No	       Yes
	   ulimit	 No	     No	       Yes
	   umask	 No**	     Yes       Yes
	   unalias	 No**	     Yes       Yes
	   uncomplete	 No	     Yes       No
	   unhash	 No	     Yes       No
	   unlimit	 No	     Yes       No
	   unset	 No	     Yes       Yes
	   unsetenv	 No	     Yes       No
	   until	 No	     No	       Yes
	   wait		 No**	     Yes       Yes
	   where	 No	     Yes       No
	   which	 Yes	     Yes       No
	   while	 No	     Yes       Yes

SEE ALSO
     csh(1), echo(1), false(1), info(1), kill(1), login(1), nice(1), nohup(1),
     printenv(1), pwd(1), sh(1), test(1), time(1), true(1), which(1)

HISTORY
     The builtin manual page first appeared in FreeBSD 3.4.

AUTHORS
     This manual page was written by Sheldon Hearn ⟨sheldonh@FreeBSD.org⟩.

BSD				  May 9, 2010				   BSD
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