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EQN(1)									EQN(1)

NAME
       eqn - format equations for troff

SYNOPSIS
       eqn [ -rvCNR ] [ -dxy ] [ -Tname ] [ -Mdir ] [ -fF ] [ -sn ] [ -pn ]
	   [ -mn ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its
       parameter.

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page describes the GNU version of eqn, which is part of the
       groff document formatting system.  eqn compiles descriptions  of	 equa‐
       tions  embedded	within troff input files into commands that are under‐
       stood by troff.	Normally, it should be invoked using the -e option  of
       groff.	The  syntax  is quite compatible with Unix eqn.	 The output of
       GNU eqn cannot be processed with Unix troff; it must be processed  with
       GNU  troff.   If	 no  files are given on the command line, the standard
       input will be read.  A filename of - will cause the standard  input  to
       be read.

       eqn  searches  for  the file eqnrc in the directories given with the -M
       option first, then in /usr/lib/groff/site-tmac,	/usr/share/groff/site-
       tmac,	 and	finally	   in	 the	standard    macro    directory
       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac.  If it exists, eqn will process it before
       the other input files.  The -R option prevents this.

       GNU eqn does not provide the functionality of neqn: it does not support
       low-resolution, typewriter-like devices	(although  it  may  work  ade‐
       quately for very simple input).

OPTIONS
       -dxy   Specify  delimiters  x and y for the left and right end, respec‐
	      tively, of in-line  equations.   Any  delim  statements  in  the
	      source file overrides this.

       -C     Recognize	 .EQ  and  .EN even when followed by a character other
	      than space or newline.

       -N     Don't allow newlines within delimiters.  This option allows  eqn
	      to recover better from missing closing delimiters.

       -v     Print the version number.

       -r     Only one size reduction.

       -mn    The  minimum  point-size	is n.  eqn will not reduce the size of
	      subscripts or superscripts to a smaller size than n.

       -Tname The output is for device name.  The only effect of  this	is  to
	      define a macro name with a value of 1.  Typically eqnrc will use
	      this to provide definitions appropriate for the  output  device.
	      The default output device is ps.

       -Mdir  Search dir for eqnrc before the default directories.

       -R     Don't load eqnrc.

       -fF    This is equivalent to a gfont F command.

       -sn    This  is equivalent to a gsize n command.	 This option is depre‐
	      cated.  eqn will normally set equations at whatever the  current
	      point size is when the equation is encountered.

       -pn    This  says  that	subscripts and superscripts should be n points
	      smaller than the surrounding text.  This option  is  deprecated.
	      Normally	eqn  makes  sets subscripts and superscripts at 70% of
	      the size of the surrounding text.

USAGE
       Only the differences between GNU eqn and Unix eqn are described here.

       Most of the new features of GNU eqn are based on TeX.  There  are  some
       references  to the differences between TeX and GNU eqn below; these may
       safely be ignored if you do not know TeX.

   Automatic spacing
       eqn gives each component of an equation a type, and adjusts the spacing
       between components using that type.  Possible types are:

       ordinary	    an ordinary character such as 1 or x;

       operator	    a large operator such as Σ;

       binary	    a binary operator such as +;

       relation	    a relation such as =;

       opening	    a opening bracket such as (;

       closing	    a closing bracket such as );

       punctuation  a punctuation character such as ,;

       inner	    a subformula contained within brackets;

       suppress	    spacing that suppresses automatic spacing adjustment.

       Components of an equation get a type in one of two ways.

       type t e
	      This  yields  an equation component that contains e but that has
	      type t, where t is one of the types mentioned above.  For	 exam‐
	      ple, times is defined as

		     type "binary" \(mu

	      The name of the type doesn't have to be quoted, but quoting pro‐
	      tects from macro expansion.

       chartype t text
	      Unquoted groups of characters are split up into individual char‐
	      acters,  and  the	 type  of  each	 character  is looked up; this
	      changes the type that is stored for each character; it says that
	      the characters in text from now on have type t.  For example,

		     chartype "punctuation" .,;:

	      would  make  the	characters .,;: have type punctuation whenever
	      they subsequently appeared in an equation.  The type t can  also
	      be  letter  or  digit;  in these cases chartype changes the font
	      type of the characters.  See the Fonts subsection.

   New primitives
       e1 smallover e2
	      This is similar to over; smallover reduces the size  of  e1  and
	      e2;  it  also  puts less vertical space between e1 or e2 and the
	      fraction bar.  The over primitive corresponds to the  TeX	 \over
	      primitive	 in  display styles; smallover corresponds to \over in
	      non-display styles.

       vcenter e
	      This vertically centers e about the math axis.  The math axis is
	      the vertical position about which characters such as + and - are
	      centered; also it is the vertical position used for the  bar  of
	      fractions.  For example, sum is defined as

		     { type "operator" vcenter size +5 \(*S }

       e1 accent e2
	      This  sets  e2 as an accent over e1.  e2 is assumed to be at the
	      correct height for a lowercase letter; e2	 will  be  moved  down
	      according	 if  e1	 is taller or shorter than a lowercase letter.
	      For example, hat is defined as

		     accent { "^" }

	      dotdot, dot, tilde, vec and dyad	are  also  defined  using  the
	      accent primitive.

       e1 uaccent e2
	      This  sets e2 as an accent under e1.  e2 is assumed to be at the
	      correct height for a character without a descender; e2  will  be
	      moved  down  if e1 has a descender.  utilde is pre-defined using
	      uaccent as a tilde accent below the baseline.

       split "text"
	      This has the same effect as simply

		     text

	      but text is not subject to macro expansion because it is quoted;
	      text will be split up and the spacing between individual charac‐
	      ters will be adjusted.

       nosplit text
	      This has the same effect as

		     "text"

	      but because text is not quoted  it  will	be  subject  to	 macro
	      expansion;  text	will  not  be split up and the spacing between
	      individual characters will not be adjusted.

       e opprime
	      This is a variant of prime that acts as an operator  on  e.   It
	      produces	a  different  result  from  prime  in  a  case such as
	      A opprime sub 1: with opprime the 1 will	be  tucked  under  the
	      prime  as a subscript to the A (as is conventional in mathemati‐
	      cal typesetting), whereas with prime the 1 will be  a  subscript
	      to  the  prime character.	 The precedence of opprime is the same
	      as that of bar and under, which is higher than  that  of	every‐
	      thing  except  accent and uaccent.  In unquoted text a ' that is
	      not the first character will be treated like opprime.

       special text e
	      This constructs a new object from e using a troff(1) macro named
	      text.   When the macro is called, the string 0s will contain the
	      output for e, and the number registers 0w, 0h,  0d,  0skern  and
	      0skew will contain the width, height, depth, subscript kern, and
	      skew of e.  (The subscript kern of an object  says  how  much  a
	      subscript	 on  that  object  should be tucked in; the skew of an
	      object says how far to the right of the center of the object  an
	      accent over the object should be placed.)	 The macro must modify
	      0s so that it will output the desired result with its origin  at
	      the  current point, and increase the current horizontal position
	      by the width of the object.  The number registers must  also  be
	      modified so that they correspond to the result.

	      For  example,  suppose  you wanted a construct that `cancels' an
	      expression by drawing a diagonal line through it.

		     .EQ
		     define cancel 'special Ca'
		     .EN
		     .de Ca
		     .ds 0s \Z'\\*(0s'\v'\\n(0du'\D'l \\n(0wu -\\n(0hu-\\n(0du'\v'\\n(0hu'
		     ..

	      Then you could cancel an expression e with cancel { e }

	      Here's a more complicated construct that draws a	box  round  an
	      expression:

		     .EQ
		     define box 'special Bx'
		     .EN
		     .de Bx
		     .ds 0s \Z'\h'1n'\\*(0s'\
		     \Z'\v'\\n(0du+1n'\D'l \\n(0wu+2n 0'\D'l 0 -\\n(0hu-\\n(0du-2n'\
		     \D'l -\\n(0wu-2n 0'\D'l 0 \\n(0hu+\\n(0du+2n''\h'\\n(0wu+2n'
		     .nr 0w +2n
		     .nr 0d +1n
		     .nr 0h +1n
		     ..

   Customization
       The  appearance of equations is controlled by a large number of parame‐
       ters. These can be set using the set command.

       set p n
	      This sets parameter p to value n ; n is an integer.   For	 exam‐
	      ple,

		     set x_height 45

	      says that eqn should assume an x height of 0.45 ems.

	      Possible parameters are as follows.  Values are in units of hun‐
	      dredths of an em unless otherwise	 stated.   These  descriptions
	      are intended to be expository rather than definitive.

	      minimum_size	      eqn  will	 not set anything at a smaller
				      point-size than this.  The value	is  in
				      points.

	      fat_offset	      The  fat primitive emboldens an equation
				      by overprinting two copies of the	 equa‐
				      tion horizontally offset by this amount.

	      over_hang		      A	 fraction  bar will be longer by twice
				      this amount  than	 the  maximum  of  the
				      widths of the numerator and denominator;
				      in other words,  it  will	 overhang  the
				      numerator	 and  denominator  by at least
				      this amount.

	      accent_width	      When bar or under is applied to a single
				      character,  the  line will be this long.
				      Normally, bar or under produces  a  line
				      whose  length is the width of the object
				      to which it applies; in the  case	 of  a
				      single  character, this tends to produce
				      a line that looks too long.

	      delimiter_factor	      Extensible delimiters produced with  the
				      left  and	 right	primitives will have a
				      combined height and depth	 of  at	 least
				      this many thousandths of twice the maxi‐
				      mum amount  by  which  the  sub-equation
				      that the delimiters enclose extends away
				      from the axis.

	      delimiter_shortfall     Extensible delimiters produced with  the
				      left  and	 right	primitives will have a
				      combined height and depth not less  than
				      the  difference  of  twice  the  maximum
				      amount by which  the  sub-equation  that
				      the delimiters enclose extends away from
				      the axis and this amount.

	      null_delimiter_space    This much horizontal space  is  inserted
				      on each side of a fraction.

	      script_space	      The width of subscripts and superscripts
				      is increased by this amount.

	      thin_space	      This amount of  space  is	 automatically
				      inserted after punctuation characters.

	      medium_space	      This  amount  of	space is automatically
				      inserted on either side of binary opera‐
				      tors.

	      thick_space	      This  amount  of	space is automatically
				      inserted on either side of relations.

	      x_height		      The height of lowercase letters  without
				      ascenders such as x.

	      axis_height	      The  height  above  the  baseline of the
				      center of characters such as  +  and  −.
				      It  is important that this value is cor‐
				      rect for the font you are using.

	      default_rule_thickness  This should set to the thickness of  the
				      \(ru character, or the thickness of hor‐
				      izontal  lines  produced	with  the   \D
				      escape sequence.

	      num1		      The  over	 command  will	shift  up  the
				      numerator by at least this amount.

	      num2		      The smallover command will shift up  the
				      numerator by at least this amount.

	      denom1		      The  over	 command  will	shift down the
				      denominator by at least this amount.

	      denom2		      The smallover command  will  shift  down
				      the denominator by at least this amount.

	      sup1		      Normally superscripts will be shifted up
				      by at least this amount.

	      sup2		      Superscripts  within   superscripts   or
				      upper  limits or numerators of smallover
				      fractions will be shifted up by at least
				      this  amount.  This is usually less than
				      sup1.

	      sup3		      Superscripts  within   denominators   or
				      square roots or subscripts or lower lim‐
				      its will be shifted up by at least  this
				      amount.  This is usually less than sup2.

	      sub1		      Subscripts will normally be shifted down
				      by at least this amount.

	      sub2		      When there is both  a  subscript	and  a
				      superscript,   the   subscript  will  be
				      shifted down by at least this amount.

	      sup_drop		      The baseline of a superscript will be no
				      more than this much amount below the top
				      of the object on which  the  superscript
				      is set.

	      sub_drop		      The  baseline  of a subscript will be at
				      least this much below the bottom of  the
				      object on which the subscript is set.

	      big_op_spacing1	      The  baseline  of an upper limit will be
				      at least this much above the top of  the
				      object on which the limit is set.

	      big_op_spacing2	      The baseline of a lower limit will be at
				      least this much below the bottom of  the
				      object on which the limit is set.

	      big_op_spacing3	      The  bottom of an upper limit will be at
				      least this much above  the  top  of  the
				      object on which the limit is set.

	      big_op_spacing4	      The  top	of  a  lower  limit will be at
				      least this much below the bottom of  the
				      object on which the limit is set.

	      big_op_spacing5	      This  much  vertical space will be added
				      above and below limits.

	      baseline_sep	      The baselines of the rows in a  pile  or
				      matrix  will normally be this far apart.
				      In most cases this should	 be  equal  to
				      the sum of num1 and denom1.

	      shift_down	      The  midpoint  between  the top baseline
				      and the bottom baseline in a  matrix  or
				      pile  will  be shifted down by this much
				      from  the	 axis.	 In  most  cases  this
				      should be equal to axis_height.

	      column_sep	      This  much  space	 will be added between
				      columns in a matrix.

	      matrix_side_sep	      This much space will be  added  at  each
				      side of a matrix.

	      draw_lines	      If this is non-zero, lines will be drawn
				      using the	 \D  escape  sequence,	rather
				      than with the \l escape sequence and the
				      \(ru character.

	      body_height	      The amount by which the  height  of  the
				      equation	exceeds	 this will be added as
				      extra space before the  line  containing
				      the  equation  (using  \x.)  The default
				      value is 85.

	      body_depth	      The amount by which  the	depth  of  the
				      equation	exceeds	 this will be added as
				      extra space after	 the  line  containing
				      the  equation  (using  \x.)  The default
				      value is 35.

	      nroff		      If this is non-zero, then	 ndefine  will
				      behave  like  define and tdefine will be
				      ignored, otherwise tdefine  will	behave
				      like define and ndefine will be ignored.
				      The default value is 0  (This  is	 typi‐
				      cally changed to 1 by the eqnrc file for
				      the  ascii,  latin1,  utf8,  and	cp1047
				      devices.)

	      A	 more precise description of the role of many of these parame‐
	      ters can be found in Appendix H of The TeXbook.

   Macros
       Macros can take arguments.  In a macro body, $n where n	is  between  1
       and  9,	will  be  replaced by the n-th argument if the macro is called
       with arguments; if there	 are  fewer  than  n  arguments,  it  will  be
       replaced	 by  nothing.	A word containing a left parenthesis where the
       part of the word before the left parenthesis has been defined using the
       define command will be recognized as a macro call with arguments; char‐
       acters following the left parenthesis up to a matching right  parenthe‐
       sis  will be treated as comma-separated arguments; commas inside nested
       parentheses do not terminate an argument.

       sdefine name X anything X
	      This is like the define command, but name will not be recognized
	      if called with arguments.

       include "file"
	      Include  the contents of file.  Lines of file beginning with .EQ
	      or .EN will be ignored.

       ifdef name X anything X
	      If name has been defined by define (or  has  been	 automatically
	      defined  because	name  is  the output device) process anything;
	      otherwise ignore anything.  X can be any character not appearing
	      in anything.

   Fonts
       eqn normally uses at least two fonts to set an equation: an italic font
       for letters, and a roman font for everything else.  The existing	 gfont
       command	changes	 the font that is used as the italic font.  By default
       this is I.  The font that is used as the	 roman	font  can  be  changed
       using the new grfont command.

       grfont f
	      Set the roman font to f.

       The  italic  primitive  uses  the current italic font set by gfont; the
       roman primitive uses the current roman font set by  grfont.   There  is
       also  a	new  gbfont  command,  which changes the font used by the bold
       primitive.  If you only use the roman, italic and  bold	primitives  to
       changes	fonts within an equation, you can change all the fonts used by
       your equations just by using gfont, grfont and gbfont commands.

       You can control which characters are treated as letters (and  therefore
       set  in italics) by using the chartype command described above.	A type
       of letter will cause a character to be set in italic type.  A  type  of
       digit will cause a character to be set in roman type.

FILES
       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac/eqnrc
	      Initialization file.

BUGS
       Inline  equations  will be set at the point size that is current at the
       beginning of the input line.

SEE ALSO
       groff(1), troff(1), groff_font(5), The TeXbook

Groff Version 1.18.1		   Nov	2003				EQN(1)
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